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Full text of "Technical instruction. Special report of the Commissioner of Education [Henry Barnard] House of Representatives, Jan. 19, 1870"

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Technical   Instruction. 



Commissioner  OF  Educatioi^. 

HOUSE  OF  REPRESENTATIVES,  Janaaiy  19th,  1870. 








(p ii  y/^&,:.^^ 

Scientific  and  Industrial  Education  :  an  Account  of  Systems, 
Institutions,  and  Courses  of  Instruction  in  the  Principles  of  Sci- 
ence ai>[)lied  to  the  Arts  of  Peace  and  War  in  different  Countries. 




Introduction, 17—32 

Progressive  De%'eloj)ment  of  Scliools  and  Practicii!  Courses  of  Instruction  in  Science, 17 

1.  Government  Institutions  for  Military  and  other  Public  Services, 19 

2.  Royiil  and  Privileged  Academies  of  Science  and  Art, 21 

3.  Ueiilistic,  Scientific,  and  Technical   Museums,   Schools,   Classes,    Laboratories,   and 

Workshops  devoted  to  National  Industrie*;, 23 

PART  I.    Systems  and  Institutions  of  Special  and  Technical  Instruction,  ..33—800 


Intkoduction, 33 

Population  and  National  Industries, 33 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, 34 

System  and  Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 35 

Progressive  Development  of  the  System, 35 

1.  Industrial  Element  in  Common  Schools, 35 

2.  Sunday  Improvement-Schools, 35 

3.  Burgher  Schools, 3(5 

4.  Real  Schools, 30 

.5.  Polytechnic  Schools, 37 

G.  Sijecial  Academies  and  Institutions, 38 

Technical  and  Special  Schools, 39 

1.  Elementary  Improvement  and  Supplementary  Schools, 39 

(1.)  Apprentice  and  Workmen's  School  at  Vienna, 39 

•^        (2.)  Manufacturers'  and  Trade  School  at  Prague, 41 

(3.)  Mechanics'  and  Weaving  School  at  Brunn 42 

2.  Higlier  Mechanic  and  Trade  Schools, 43 

(1.)  Municipal  Practical  School  in  Vienna, 43 

(2.)  Provincial  Practical  School  at  Prague, 44 

(3.)  Imperial  Practical  School  in  Vienna, 45 

3.  Polytechnic  Institutions, 46 

(10  Polytechnic  Institute  at  Prague, 47 

General  Programme  of  Instruction,  fommcn  to  all  pupils, 47 

Division  A. — Bridges  and  Roads, 48 

Division  B. — Architecture  and  Civil  Constructions 48 

Division  C. — Construction  of  Machines,. 49 

Division  D. — Technological  Chemistry, 49 

(2).  Polytechnic  Institute  at  Vienna, ."iO 

Historical  Development, , 50 

Organization  and  Condition  in  1836, 51 

New  Organization  and  Condition  in  1868, 53 

Subjects,  and  Extent  of  Examination  for  Admission  in  1867, .53 

Subjects  taught  and  their  Distribution  into  Courses, 57 

Preparatory  Division, 57 

Division  I — Bridges  and  Roads, 58 

Division  II — Architecture  and  Construction, 58 

Division  HI — Mechanicians 59 

Division  IV — Chemistry  and  its  Application  to  the  Arts, .59 

4.  Comparative  View  of  Austrian  and  other  Polytechnic  Schools 61 

(1.)  Date — Location — Divisions  or  Schools — Professors — Pupils, 61 

(2.)  General  Organization  as  to  Subjects  and  Courses, 62 

(3.)  Preparatory  Instruction 03 

(4.)  Mechanics — Theory  and  Practice  ofJVTachine-building — Workshops, 65 

(5.)  Building  and  Architecture — Models  and  Modeling 08 

(6.)  Construction  of  Roads  and  Bridges 09 

(7.)  Chemistry  and  Chemical  Technology 70 

(8.)  Board  of  Direction— Faculty— Director, 70 

(9.)  Classification  of  Pupils — Admission — Tuititm — Discipline, "73 

5.  Special  Schools  and  Instruction  in  Agriculture  and  Rural  Affairs, 75 

(I.)  Superior  Schools  at  Krumman,  Graetz,  and  Altenburg, 75 

(2.)  Intermediate  Schools  at  Frossau, 75 

(3.)  Lower  School, 75 

(4.)  Special  Departments — Raising  Bees, 75 

6.  Schools  of  Forestry, 70 

(1.)  Superior  Forest  Academies, 70 

Imperial  Forest  Academy  at  Mariabrunn, 70 

(2.)  Intermediate  Schools  at  Wiesevvasser,  Aussen  and  Kreutz, 70 

(3.)  Lower  Forest  Schools  at  Pibram 70 



7.  Schools  of  Commerce, 77 

(1.)  Academy  of  Commerce  nt  Vienna, 77 

(2.)  Academy  of  Commerce  at  Prague, 78 

(3.)  Academy  of  Commerce  at  Pesth, 78 

8.  Schools  of  Mines  and  Miners  at  Schemnitz  and  Leoben, 79 

9.  Schools  of  Navigation, '. 78 

10.  Schools  of  Art,  Drawing,  and  Music, 79 

11.  Special  Professional  Schools  for  Women, 80 

n.   BADEN. 

Introduction, .  81 

Population — National  Industries, 81 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, » .82 

System  and  Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 83 

1.  Polytechnic  School  at  Carlsruhe, 83 

(1.)  General  Scientific  Studies, 84 

(2.)  Civil  Engineers 84 

(3.)  Builders 85 

(4.)  Foresters, 87 

(5.)  Analytic  Chemists, .' 88 

(6.)  Machinists, 88 

(7.)  Merchants, 89 

(8.)  Post  and  other  Public  Officers, 89 

Management,  Building,  Laboratories,  &c., 90 

2.  Trade  Schools, 91 

(1.)  Trade  School  for  Apprentices  in  Baden, 91 

(2.)  School  for  Watch  and  Clockmaking  at  Furt wangen, 92 

(3.)  Worksho])s  for  Practical  Improvement  at  Furtwangen, 93 

(4.)  School  of  Straw-plaiting, 95 

3.  Schools  of  Agriculture  and  Rural  Economy, 95 

(1.)  Agricultural  School  at  Hochburg, 95 

(2.)  Agriculture  in  Common  Schools, 95 

4.  Military  Schools, 95 

School  of  Cadets, 96 

5.  Normal  School  for  Teachers  of  Gymnastics, 95 

m.   BAVARIA. 

Introduction 97 

Population  and  National  Industries, 97 

General  System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, 97 

System  and  Institutions  of  Technical  Education 101 

Historical  Development  of  the  System, 101 

Existing  Organization, 103 

1.  Trade-schools — Mechanical,  Commercial,  Agricultural,.. ■ 105 

2.  Real-Gymnasium  in  Provincial  Towns, 106 

3.  Central  Polytechnic  School, 107 

General  Scientific  Course  of  two  years, 107 

Special  Divisions  or  Scliools, 108 

(1.)  Architecture  and  Building, 108 

(2.)  Mechanical  Engineering, ". 109 

(3.)  Technical  Chemistry, 109 

(4.)  Commerce, 110 

Institutions  and  Classes  of  Special  Instruction, Ill 

1.  Sunday  and  Holiday  Improvement  Schools, ;.   Ill 

1.  Sunday  Technical  School  at  Nuremberg, 112 

2.  Sunday  and  Holiday  Scliools  in  Munich, 112 

a.  Central  Holiday  School  for  boys, 112 

b.  Journeymen's  School 113 

c.  Handicrafts  School, 113 

3.  Female  Holiday  Schools 113 

a.  Central  Holiday  School, 114 

*.  Parish  Holiday  Schools, 114 

2.  Higher  Trade  Schools,' <f. 114 

3.  District  Trade  School  at  Nuremberg, 114 

1.  Regular  Course  of  three  years,.  ..■ 114 

2.  Sunday  School  for  Artisans 115 

3.  Elementary  Drawing  School, - 115 

4.  Higher  Trade  School  at  Passau 115 

a.  Commercial  Division  of  Trade  School, 115 

b.  Higher  Improvement  School, 116 

c.  Weaving  School, 116 

5.  Higher  Trade  School  at  Miindeberg, 116 

1.  Weaving  School 116 

2.  Sunday  Technical  School 116 

6.  Wood-carving  School  at  Berchtesgaden, 116 

7.  Royal  School  of  Machinery  at  Augsburg, 117 

Workshop  for  Model-making, 117 

8.  Polytechnic  School  at  Munich, 118 



9.  Schools  of  the  Fine  Arts,  and  of  Drawing « 119 

J.  Roynl  Academy  of  Fine  Arts  in  Munich, '. 119 

School  of  Instruction  in  Art, ". 120 

Government  Appropriations  to  Art, I'iU 

Union  of  Art  luid  Trades, 120 

2.  Roynl  School  of  the  Arts  applied  to  Industrial  Productions  at  Nuremberg, 121 

3.  Special  School  of  Industrial  Drawing  at  Nuremberg, 121 

4.  Official  Programme  for  Instruction  in  Drawing  in  Technical  Schools 122 

1.  Trade  Schools ". 122 

2.  Agricultural  Schools, 12:^ 

3.  Real  Schools 123 

5.  Instruction  in  Drawing  in  Common  Schools, 123 

10.  Special  Instruction  in  Music 124 

1.  Musical  Requirements  of  Primary  School, 124 

2.  Programme  of  Instruction  in  Teachers'  Seminaries, 125 

3.  Royal  School  of  Music  in  Wurzburg, 126 

4.  Royal  Conservatory  of  Music, 126 

11.  Schools  and  Instruction  in  Agriculture  and  Rural  Affairs, 127 

1.  Central  High  School  of  Agriculture  at  VVeihenstephan, 127 

2.  Agricultural  School  at  Lichtenhof, 132 

3.  School  of  Practical  Farming  at  Scldeissheim 133 

4.  School  of  Forestry ' ^ 135 

12.  Special  Instruction  for  Women, 136 


Introduction, 137 

Population  and  National  Industries, 137 

General  System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, 137 

Systkm  and  Institutions  of  Special  Instruction 137 

1.  Polytechnic  School  at  Brunswick,  137 

Special  Schools, 137 

(1.)  Construction  of  Machines, 138 

(2.)  Civil  Engineering,  Construction,  and  ATchitecture, 139 

(3.)  Mines  and  Mining, 141 

.r    (4.)  Technical  Chemistry. 142 

(5.)  Pharmaceutical  Chemistry, 142 

(6.)  Forest  Economy, 143 

(7.)  Agriculture, 144 

(8.)  Railways  and  Roads 145 

(9.)  Government  Surveys, 145 

2.  Builders'  School  at  Holzminden, 147 


L  HAMBURG, 149 

Introduction, 149 

Population, ; 149 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction 149 

System  and  Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 150 

1.  Trade  School, 150 

2.  Winter  School  for  Building  Trades, 150 

3.  Plan  for  a  System  of  Technical  li.struction, 151 

4.  Navigation  Schools, 156 

5.  Music  in  Public  Schools, 156 

n.  FRANKFORT 157 

Introduction, 157 

Population, 157 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction 157 

Institutions  of  Special  Instruction 158 

1.  Trade  School, 158 

2.  School  of  Commerce, 1 50 


Introduction, 160 

Population 160 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, ICO 

Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 160 

Trade  School  at  Lubeck 160 

IV.  BREMEN, 161 

Introduction, 161 

Population 161 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, 161 

Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 162 


Introduction, 163 

Population 163 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, 163 

System  and  Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 164 

1.  Improvement  Schools  for  Apprentices, ,....' 164 



Artisan  School  at  Hanover, j ]64 

Workmen's  Society  Classes, 164 

Commercinl  School, 184 

Building  Trucles  Schools  at  Nienberg, 164 

2.  Polytechnic  School  at  Hanover, 165 

Programme  for  Preparatory  School, 166 

Programme  for  Polytechnic  School 166 

1.  Chemists, 166 

2.  Agriculturists, 166 

3.  Surveyors 166 

4.  Mechanicians, , .  107 

5.  Architects, 167 

6.  Civil  Engineers, 167 

Distribution  of  Students, 168 


Introduction 169 

Population 169 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, 169 

Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 169 


Introduction 170, 

Population, 170 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Tnsfructiiin , 170 

Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 170 


Introduction, • 171 

Population, J71 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, 171 

Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 171 

X.    NASSAU. 

Introduction, ! 172 

Population, 172 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, 172 

Institutions  of  Special  Instruction 172 

1.  Industrial  Schools  of  the  Gewerbe-Verein, 173 

System  of  Apprenticeship 173 

2.  Agricultural  Institute  at  Geisberg 175 


Introduction, 176 

Population, 176 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, 170 

Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 176 

Xir.   PRUSSIA. 

Introduction, 177 

Population, 177 

System  and  Statistics  of  Puhiic  Instrnrtion 179 

System  and  Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, .'. .  181 

Sunday  and  Further  Improvement  Schools 181 

Real  and  Bursrher  Schools, 181 

Special  Technical  Schools, 182 

Trade  Schools, 1H3 

1.  General  Scientific  Instruction, 184 

2.  Special  Schools, 185 

Institutions  of  Technical  fn^tri/ction, 187 

1.  Sunday  trade  School  nt  Konigsberir. 187 

2.  Workingmen's  Union  Schools  nt  Berlin ..  187 

3.  Provincial  Trade  School  nt  Dantzic, 189 

4.  Royal  Real  School  at  Berlin, 191 

5.  City  Trade  School  at  Berlin, 192 

6.  Royal  Trade  Academy  at  Berlin, 192 

Organization  and  Condij;ion  in  18^7 192 

Reorganizntion  nnd  Condition  in  1867 197 

(1.)  General  Technological  Department, 198 

(2.)  Special  Tcchni^logical  Section, 198 

a.  M'-chanicians 198 

b.  Chemists  and  Smelters, 199 

c.  Ship-builders 199 

7.  School  of  Industrial  Drawing, 200 

8.  Royal  Arndemy  of  Architecture, 201 

9.  Building  School  nt  Berlin 202 

JO.  Superior  Weaving  School  at  Elberfeki, 203 



11.  Instruction  in  Agriculture  and  Rural  Economy, 2U.'> 

System— Cliissificaf  ion  of  Schools— Collections  of  Tools,  ice, i-'Oo 

1.  Intermediate  Agricultural  School  at  Aunaberg, 205 

2.  Superior  Institutes  of  Agriculture , '20(5 

(1.)  Agricultural  Academy  at  Moglin,  established  by  Thner 2<J»» 

(2.j  Royal  Agricultural  Academy  at  Poppelsdorf, 207 

Object,  and  Course  of  Instruction, 207 

I.  Studies  connected  with  Funning 2L8 

A.  Soils — Manures — Drainage — Implements — Crops 20S 

B.  Breeding  of  Animals, 2(  8 

C.  Theory  of  Farming — Systems — Accoimts, 210 

D.  History  and  Literature  of  Agriculture 2J0 

II,  Forest  Economy — Culture — Protection — Game 211 

HL  Natural  Philosophy  and  History, 2  1 

Chemistry — Physics — Mineralogy  and  Geology 2i3 

Botany— Physiologv  and  LMseases  of  Plants 2i2 

Zoiilogy,  . . ." ". 213 

VL  Mathematics 213 

Practical  Geometr}- — Surveying — Mechanics 213 

V.  Political  Ecimomy 213 

VI.  Jurisjjrudence  relating  to  Land, .^ 213 

VII.  Veterinary  Science, 214 

Anatomy  and  Physiology  of  Domestic  Animals, 214 

Disorders  and  their  Treatment, 214 

Shoeing  and  Tending, 214 

Vm.  Architecture 214 

Materials  and  Art  of  Construction  for  Farming  Purposes 214 

IX.  Technology, ' .* 214 

Materials  for  fuel,  light,  brewing, 214 

Visit  to  School  by  Secretary  of  ^Massachusetts  Board  of  Agriculture,. ...........  215 

3.  Royal  Academy  of  Agriculture  at  Eldena, 216 

4.  Agricultural  Academy  at  Proskau 217 

5.  Superior  Institute  of  Agriculture  at  Regenwalde, 217 

6.  School  of  Horticulture  nt  Potsdam, 217 

7.  Superior  S|)eLi  il  School  of  Forestry  at  Neustadt  and  Eberswiild, 217 

•^   8.  Veterinary  School  at  Berlin 218 

12.  Schools  of  Commerce  and  Navigation, 219 

1.  Superior  School  of  Commerce  nt  Berlin 219 

2.  Commercial  and  Industrial  School  for  AVomen  at  Berlin, 219 

3.  Schools  of  Navigation, 220 

13.  School  of  Mines  and  Mining 221 

1.  Mining  Academy  at  Berlin 221 

2.  School  of  Practical  Mining  at  Bochum, 221 

14.  Instruction  in  Drawing, 223 

1.  Ministerial  Programme  of  Instruction  in  Drawing, 223 

For  Gymnasiums 223 

For  Trade  Schools 224 

Schmidt's,  and  Dubuis's  method, 226 

2.  Plans  and  Suggestions  for  Drawing  in  Common  Schools, 227 

15.  Hints  and  Methods  for  Teaching  Music  in  Common  Schools, 249 

16.  New  Chemical  Laboratories  for  Instruction  and  Original  Research, 279 

1.  Bonn 279 

2.  Berlin, 283 

17.  Aquarium  at  Berlin, 286 


Introduction, 287 

Population,  and  National  Industries 287 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, 287 

Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 289 

1.  Real  Schools, , 289 

2.  Commercial  Schools, 291 

1.  Public  Commercial  Schools  at  Leipsic,  Chemnitz,  and  Dresden, 291 

2.  Commercial  Schools  for  Apprentices  and  Clerks, 292 

3.  Commercial  School  for  Young  Women, 293 

3.  Polytechnic  School  at  Dresden, 294 

Organization  of  Studies, 295 

A.  Mechanical  Engineering . .  296 

B.  Civil  Engineering T 29G 

C.  Chemistry— General  and  Technical, 297 

D.  Training  of  Teachers  of  Scientific  and  Technical  Schoo's, 297 

Stenogratihy — Stone-cuttins, 297 

E.  Modeling  and  Ornamental  Drawing  School 218 

4.  Higher  Industrial  School  nt  Chemnitz 299 

A.  Mechanical  Engineering  and  Construction 299 

B.  Chemical  Technoloffv ; ?00 

C.  Agriculture  and  Rural  Affairs, 300 

Royal  Workmasters'  School 302 

Architectural  School  for  Masons  and  Carpenters .303 

5.  Higher  Weaving  School  at  Chemnitz, ?.Vo 



6.  Academy  of  Forestry  at  Tharand, 307 

Historical  Development, 308 

Course  of  Studies  in  Agriculture, 310 

Course  of  Studies  in  Forestry, 311 

Government  grant  in  aid  of  Agriculture, 307 

7.  Agricultural  Academy  in  Plagwitz, 313 

Course  of  Studies, 313 

8.  Mining  Academy  at  Freiburg, 318 

Historical  Development, 314 

Plan  of  Studies, 316 

State  Examination  for  Miners,  Machinists,  and  Metallurgists, 317 

9.  School  of  Practical  Miners  at  Freiburg, 318 

School  of  Coal  Miners  at  Zwickau, 319 

10.  Stenographic  Institution  at  Dresden, 319 

11.  Normal  School  for  Teachers  of  Gymnastics, 321 

12.  Supplementary  Schools  for  Apprentices  and  Adults,. 323 

(1.)  Sunday  Schools— General  and  Special, 323 

(2.)  Evening  Schools 32.5 

(3.)  Commercial  Schools  in  twelve  large  towns, 325 

(4.)  Ornamental  Drawing  School  at  Chemnitz  and  Seiffen. 325 

(5.)  Industrial  School  at  Dresden 325 

(6.)  Workingmen's  Association  Schocls, 325 

(7.)  Mining  Schools  at  Freiburg,  Zwickau,  and  Altenburg, 325 

(8.)  Nautical  Schools  for  Pilots,  &c 325 

(9.)  Music  Schools  in  connection  with  factories  of  musical  instruments, 325 

(10.)  Weaving  Schools, 325 

(11.)  Fringe-making  School  at  Annaberg 326 

(12.)  The*  Mode,  or  the  Dress-cutting  .Academy, 326 

(13.)  Spinning  Schools  in  Lusatia, 326 

(14.)  Straw- working  Schools 326 

(15.)  Lace-making  and  Embroidery  Schools, 320 

13.  Instruction  in  the  Arts  of  Painting,  Sculpture,  and  Engraving 326 

(1.)  Royal  Academy  of  the  Fine  Arts  in  Dresden, 327 

Academy  of  Arts, 327 

Architectural  Academy, 329 

(2.)  Academy  of  Arts  in  Leipsic, 331 

14.  Instruction  in  Music, 332 

(1.)  Conservatory  of  Music  in  Leipsic, -. ^  332 

(2.)  Conservatory  of  Music  in  Dresden, 333 


Introduction, 3.33 

Population, 333 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, 3.33 

Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 333 


Introduction, 334 

Population 334 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction 334 

Institutions  of  Special  Instruction • 334 


Introduction 335 

Populntion '. .  3.35 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, 335 

Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 335 


Introduction, 336 

Population .336 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, 33(> 

Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 336 


Introduction, .337 

Population  and  National  Industries 337 

System  and  Statistics  of  General  Public  Instruction, .338 

System  and  Statistics  or  Sveci.\l  Instruction, 339 

1.  System  and  Institutions  of  Agricidtural  Education, 345 

2.  Public  Instruction  in  Drawing, 347 

Systematic  Technical  Education,     By  J.  Scott  Russeil, 357 

J.  The  Polytechnic  University, 358 

,  2.  College  for  the  Building  Trades 358 

3.  Agriculture  and  Forestry  Establishments, .3.59 

Technical  Instruction  in  detail : 300 

1.  Technical  University  in  Stiittgard 300 

2.  College  for  the  Building  Trades, 3G2 



3.  High  Trade  School :«)-i 

Organization  nnd  Studies, 3<)4 

I.  Technical  University, .■iG4 

A.  Miithematiciirand  Mercantile  Division, ;i(>5 

B.  Technical  Division :)()G 

(1.)  Mathematics  and  Mechanics, 3(i(> 

(2  )  Natural  History 'MH\ 

(3.)  Technology, 3fi7 

(4.)  Machinery; 3(i7 

(5.)  Engineering, ...  SfiP 

(6.)  Architecture 3(18 

Drawing  and  Modeling ._ 368 

Plan  of  Study  in  detail,  and  practice  in  each  school, . . .' 3G9 

A.  Agricultural  School, 3(iy 

B.  Engineers'  School 3l]<) 

C.  Machinery  School, 3C<J 

D.  Chemical  School, 309 

n.  College  for  the  Building  Trades :{C9 

Plan  of  Instruction  by  classes HTO 

Geometrical  Class, 37 1 

HI.  College  of  Agricnlture  and  Forestry, 37-3 

1.  Institution  in  Hoheuheim, 372 

A.  Agriculture  and  Forestry  Acudemy, :»72 

B.  Farming  School, 373 

C.  Gardening  School 373 

D.  Special  Agricultural  Courses, 373" 

(1.)  Meadow  lands,. . , 373 

(2.)  Sheep-management, 373 

(3.)  Fruit-trees 373 

(4.)  Agricultural  Instruction  for  Teaciiers  ui'  Public  Schools .373 

E.  Advice  on  Agricultural  Matters 373 

2.  Schools  of  Practical  Farming 373 

(1.)  Ellwangen  ;    (2.)  Ochsenhausen  ;  (3.)  Kirchberg 373 

3.  Farming  Schools  and  Classes,  and  Agricultural  Meetings, 373 

IV.  Veterinary  College, , 374 

V.  School  of  Art-workmen, 374 

Vir  Science  Schools, 375 

A.  Gymnasium  and  Lyceum, 37.5 

B.  Real  Schools, j  37.5 

VII.  Elementary  Public  Schools, 37li 

VIII.  Industrial  Schools 37(i 

Practical  Restlts  of  the  System  of  Technical  Education, 377 

International  Lessons  on  Technical  Education, 383 


Introduction, 401 

Population  and  National  Industries, 401 

General  System  of  Public  Instruction 402 

System  and  Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 403 

I.  Special  State  Schools  for  the  Public  Service 403 

1.  Polytechnic  School  of  France 403 

2.  Government  Schools  of  Application, 421 

3.  Corps  and  School  of  Civil  Engineers, 422 

4.  Schools  of  Mines  and  Miners, .'. 424 

II.  Government  Institutions  in  aid  of  Arts  and  Trades, 427 

1.  Conservatory  of  Arts  and  Trades 439 

2.  Government  Schools  of  Arts  and  Trades 44.5 

1.  School  at  Paris, 456 

2.  Schools  at  Chalons,  Angers,  and  A\x 4()l 

HI.  Special  Corporate,  Communal,  and  Departmental  Schools, 4(13 

1.  Central  School  of  Arts  and  Manufactures,  at  Paris, 463 

2.  St.  Nicholas  Institute,  at  Paris 475 

3.  Communal  and  Departmental  Schools, 483 

1.  La  Martiniere  Technical  School  at  Lyons, 483 

2.  Schools  for  Watchmaking, 491 

3.  School  of  Lace-making 493 

4.  School  of  Ribbon-designing  and  Weaving, 493 

5.  Technical  instruction  at  Creuzot, 494 

6.  School  of  Weaving  at  Mulhouse, 496 

rV.  Instruction  in  the  Fine  Arts,  Drawing,  and  Music, 497 

1.  Government  Schools  of  the  Fine  Arts, 497 

(1.)  School  at  Paris, 498 

(2.)  School  at  Lvons, ; 500 

(3.)  School  at  Dijon 504 

2.  Instruction  in  Architecture  and  Building . .  505 

(1.;  Architectural  Section  in  School  of  Fine  Arts, 505 

(2.)  Central  School  of  Architecture  at  Paris 506 

3.  Instruction  in  Drawing  applied  to  the  Industrial  Arts, 508 

(1.)  Governmental  School  of  Drawing  and  Ornamentation  at  Paris, 508 



^2.)  School  of  Drawing  for  Women  at  Paris, 508 

(3.)  Central  Union,  Museum,  and  College  of  Industrial  Art, 509 

{4.)  Municipal  Schools  of  Drawing, 510 

(5.)  Drawing  in  Public  Schools, 511 

(1.)  Primary  Schools  ;   {'2.)  Normal  Schools.. 511 

(3.)  Lyceums  ;  (4.)  Secondary  Special  Schools, 512 

Rei)ort  of  M.  Ravaisson  on  Drawing  in  Public  Schools, 513 

4.  Instruction  in  Music,  52i) 

Government  Conservatory  of  Music  and  Declamation, 529 

Music  in  Lyceums  and  Secondary  Special  Schools, 531 

Popular  Music  in  Public  Schools  of  Paris •. .  532 

V.  Special  Schools  of  Commerce, • 533 

1.  Sui)erior  School  of  Commerce  at  Paris, 533 

2.  Commercial  School  of  Paris  Chamber  of  Commerce, 539 

3.  Co.nmercial  Course  in  Jlunicipal  Schools, 540 

Specimen  of  Lessons  in  Legislation  Usuelle, 541 

VI.  Special  Schools  and  Encouragement  of  Agriculture 545 

Historical  Development  of  Ai^ricultural  Schools, 545 

1.  General  Survey  of  tJie  System  and  Institutions  in  1848  and  I86ti, 545 

2.  Agricultural  School  at  Grignon 559 

3.  AgricuUural  School  of  Grand  Jouan, 569 

4.  School  of  Forestry  at  Nancy, 57 1 

5.  Rural  Economy  in  Primary  Schools, 572 

G.  Agriculture  in  Secondary  Special  Schools 573 

VII.  Special  Schools  for  the  Mercantile  and  Military  Marine, 577 

1.  National  School  for  Orphans  of  Seamen. 578 

2.  Scholarships  for  Sailors, 579 

3.  Naval  Apprentice  Schools, 581 

4.  School  for  Boatswains  and  Uiider-Officers 581 

5.  School  for  Naval  Engineers  and  Stokers, .- 585 

6.  Naval  Drawing  School, o&O 

7.  Schools  of  Navigation  and  Hydrography, 587 

8.  Naval  School  at  Brest, " 590 

9.  School  of  Naval  Architecture, 592 

10.  School  of  Marine  Art.Uery, 594 

1 1.  Board  of  Hydrography, 594 

VIII.  Laboratories  of  Original  Research,  and  Practical  School, 595 



Population  and  National  Industries, 607 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, • 608 

SvsThJM  AND  Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 609 

J.  System  of  Technical  Training, 609 

"(I.)  Museum  of  Industry, 609 

(2.)  Workshops  for  Apprentices, 610 

(3.)  Industrial  Schools 611 

2.  Institutions  of  Special  Technical  Instruction, 613 

Lower  Technical  Schools, 614 

(1.)  Industrial  School  at  Ghent, 614 

Scientific  Instruction 614 

Practical  Instruction, • 614 

Distribution  of  Students  by  studies  and  trades, 615 

(2.)  School  of  Mechanical  Art,  Woolen  Manufacture,  and  Design,  at  Verviers, 613 

(3.)  School  of  Applied  Mechanics,  Steam-engine,  and  Industrial  Drawing,  at  Tournai,  614 

Higher  Technical  Instruction, , 619 

(1.)  Superior  School  of  Arts  and  Manufactures  at  Ghent, 624 

(2.)  Superior  School  of  Mines  at  Liege, 617 

(4.)  School  for  Stone-cutting  at  Soignies, ': 617 

(5.)  School  for  Mechanical  and  Building  Constructions  at  Courtrai, 617 

(6.)  School  for  Foremen  of  Manufacturing  Establishments  at  Liege, 618 

(7.)  School  for  Adult  Workmen  at  Huy, 618 

(1.)  University  School  of  Arts  and  Mines  at  Liege, 619 

Preparatory  School, 619 

School  of  Mining,    619 

School  of  Man  ufactures, ' 620 

School  of  Mechanics 620 

Machine  and  Workshops, 620 

(2.)  University  School  orEngineering,  Maniifactures  and  Architecture,  at  Ghent, 621 

Preparatory  School, 621 

School  for  Engineers, 621 

(3.)  School  of  Mines  at  Uainault 622 

3.  Schools  of  Commerce  and  Navigation, 623 

(1.)  Superior  School  of  Commerce  at  Antwerp, 623 

(2.)  Schools  of  Navigation  at  Antwerp  and  Ostend, 627 

4.  Agricultural  Institutions  and  Instruction, 629 

(1.)  Superior  Council  of  Agriculture, 629 

(2.)  Provincial  Commissions  of  Agriculture, 629 

(3.)  Agricultural  Associations  and  Societies, 630 



[4.)  Educational  Institutions, ii'M 

1.  Stale  Agricultural  School  at  Gembloux ''•?- 

2.  State  Frtictical  Horticultural  School  at  Vilvorde, IjiJ.'J 

3.  Slate  Veteruiary  School  at  Cureghem, (V-i-i 

4.  Forestry  School  at  Bouillon, i-.M 

5.  Institutions  inid  Instruction  in  the  Fine  Arts,  Drawing,  and  Music, <)'1~ 

(1.)  Academies  and  Schools  of  the  Fine  Arts, C37 

1.  Historical  Development 037 

2.  Present  Organization, C4.') 

Official  Clussification C)A') 

Supervision — Direction, '1") 

Admission — Revenues — Expenditures, <  4') 

Equipment  and  Museum  <jt"  Models <  -IT 

Sul)jects  and  Methods  of  Instructio CAS 

Teachers — Pupils — Prizes, (  5l) 

Government  Aid  to  Art  and  Science  in  1807, ()."):{ 

(2.)  Methods  of  Instruction  in  Drawing O.'iH 

1.  Elementary  Instruction , (iii!) 

2.  Higher  Instruction, OTO 

(3.)  Public  Instruction  in  Music, G8J 

1.  Conservatoire  of  Music  in  Brussels 08 J 

2.  Conservatoire  of  Music  in  Liege, OHJ 

3.  Conservatoire  of  Music  in  Ghent,     (89 

4.  Comi)etition  for  Prizes  for  Musical  Composition, ( 8i) 

5.  Schools  and  Societies  of  Music 08i) 

6.  Music  in  Public  Schools O'JO 


Introdttction, c > 691 

Population, 091 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, 091 

System  of  Special  Instruction, 093 

1.  Evening  Burgher  Schools , ()93 

Higher  Burgher  Schools, 093 

2.  Agricyiltural  Schools 094 

3.  Polytechnic  Schools,. 094 

Institutions  of  Technical  Instruction, 094 

1.  Higher  Burgher  Schools  ut  Maastrict, 094 

2.  Agricultural  School  at  Groningen 09,5 

3.  Polytechnic  School  at  Delft, (597 

4.  School  of  Navigation, 098 


Introduction, C99 

Po!>nlation  and  National  Industries, 099 

System  of  Public  Instruction, ; 099 

Institttions  and  Classes  of  Special  Instruction, 701 

1.  Royal  Agricultural  and  Veterinary  School, 701 

2.  Sunday  Improvement  Schools, 703 

3.  Technical  Institute  at  Copenhagen, 703 


RonrcTioN 70.^ 

Pojiulation, 70.j 

Svstem  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction TO.^S 

SvsTE.M  and  Schools  of  Special  Instruction 707 

1.  Royal  School  of  Arts  and  Design, 707 

2.  Provincial  Drawing  Schools, 708 

3.  Technical  School  at  Horten, 709 

4.  Schixd  of  Mines  at  Kongsberg , 710 

Plan  for  a  System  of  Technical  Instruction, 7J0 

1.  Sunday  and  Evening  Schools, 710 

2.  Technical  Elementary  Schools, 710 

3.  Polytechnic  Institute  at  Christiania 710 


Introduction, 711 

Population, •. 711 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, 711 

System  and  Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 712 

1.  Sunday  and  Evening  School  at  Eskilstuna, 713 

2.  Elementary  Technical  School  at  Norkoping, 713 

3.  Industrial  Schools  at  Stockholm  and  Gothenburg, 714 

4.  Mining  Schools  at  Filipstad  and  Fahlun 71.5 

5.  Polytechnic  School  at  Stockholm 715 

0.  Chalmers'  Higher  Technical  School  at  Gothenburg 716 

7.  School  of  Naval  Architecture  at  Carlscrona, 716 

8.  Evening  Schools  of  Art, 716 



Introduction, 717 

Population  and  National  Industries, , 717 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, , '. 717 

Special  Schools  for  the  Public  Service,  and  the  Arts, 719 

1.  Polytecimic  School  at  St.  Petersburg, 721 

(1.)  Mechanical  Section, 721 

(2.)  (Chemical  Section, 721 

2.  Polytechnic  School  at  Riga, 723 

(i.)  Preparatory  Course 724 

(2.)  Course  for  Manufacturers, • 724 

(3.)  Course  for  Merchants 725 

(4.)  Course  for  Agriculturists, 724 

(.T  )  Course  common  to  Machinists,  Architects,  and  Engineers, 725 

(0.)  Special  Course  for  Constructors  of  Machinery, 72G 

(7.)  Course  for  Architects, 72G 

(8.)  Special  Course  for  Engineers, 72() 

(9.)  Special  Course  for  Surveyors, 727 

3.  Schools  of  Mining  and  Miners, 727 

(1.)  Higher  Institution  for  Mining  Engineers, 727 

(2.)  Lower  Schools  of  Mining, 727 

4.  Commercial  Academy  at  Moscow, 728 

5.  Schools  of  Agriculture  and  Forestry, .• 728 

(1 .)  Higher  Agricultural  Academy  at  Gorygoretsk, 728 

(2.)  Forest  Academies, 728 

G.  Schools  of  Law,  Surveying,  and  Topography, 728 

( J .)  Imperial  Law  School  for  Government  Clerks, 728 

(2.)  Constantino  School  of  Surveying, 728 

7.  Schools  for  the  Civil  and  Diplomatic  Service, 729 

(1).  School  of  Oriental  Languages, 729 

(2.)  Schools  for  Civil  Administration 729 

8.  Report  of  Jury  of  Paris  International  Exposition  in  1867, 730 

9.  Museums  available  and  useful  in  Technical  Instruction, 733 


Introduction, 735 

Population, , 735 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, 735 

Schools  and  Classes  of  Special  Instruction, 737 

1.  Technical  Institute  at  Lausanne, ; 737 

2.  Industrial  School  for  Girls  at  Neuchatel, 742 

3.  Industrial  School  for  Boys  at  Lausanne, 742 

4.  Federal  Polytechnic  School  at  Zurich, ; ; 743 

(1).  Historical  Development, 743 

Re|)ort  of  Committee  of  Federal  Council,  1852, 743 

Law  creating  the  Federal  Polytechnic  School, 744 

Regulations  of  Federal  Council  in  1869, 748 

(2.)  Programme  of  Studies  for  1856-7, , 749 

1.  Architecture, 749 

2.  Civil  Engineering, 750 

3.  Industrial  Mechanics,. • 751 

4.  Industrial  Chemistry, 751 

5.  Forestry  and  Rural  Affairs, 752 

G.  Philosophical  and  Political  Science, 752 

(a.)  Natural  Sciences, i 752 

(b.)  Mathematical  Science, 7.52 

(c.)  Literary,  Moral,  und  Political  Science 753 

(d.)  Fine  Arts, .752 

■   Apparotus — Laboratories — Cabinets — Methods, 754 

(3.)  Programme  of  Studies  for  18G7-8, 756 

Appendix,  . . , 761 


Introduction 791 

Population 791 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  histrnction 792 

System  and  Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 793 


Introduction, .' 797 

Population, ; 797 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, 797 

Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 798 


Introduction, 799 

Population 799 

System  and  Statistics  of  Public  Instruction, 799 

Institutions  of  Special  Instruction, 800 


Natioxal  Education: — An  Account  of  Public  Schools  and  other  I nslitutious  of  Gen- 
eral Education  in  different  Countries.     Part  I.  The  German  Stales. 






1.  Political  Development  of  the  German  States,. .  Jl 

2.  Educational  System  nnd  Nomenclature, .......  13 


Area — Population, 17 

Public  Instruction, 17 

I.  Anhalt-Dessau-Cothen 17 

Common  Schools— Teachers'  Seminary, 17 

(Jvmnasiums — Girls'  High  School,. 19 

Trades  Schools, 19 

II.  Anhalt-Bernburg, 20 

Common  Schools — Teachers'  Seminary, 20 

Gymnasiums — Girls'  High  School, 20 


Area — Population — Religion — Nationalities, 23 

Public  Instruction  in  German  Provinces,.  .  26 

I.  Elementary  Schools 26 

1.  Historical  Development,  1621-1863, 26 

Schools  of  the  Jesuits — Christian  Brothers, 26 

Piarists — Empress  Maria  Theresa, 26 

Felbiger — Rabstein — Count  Firmian, 27 

Board  of  Education — Kiiulernmnn — Felbiger,.. .  29 

Joseph  II— Von  Swieten— J.  A.  Gail 30 

Leopold  II — Von  Martini — Board  for  Regulation,  32 

Francis  I — Count  Rottenham, 32 

Constitution  of  German  Common  Schools  in  180.5,  33 

Spendou — Ferdinand  I, 34 

Francis  Joseph  I — Baron  von  Feuchtersleben,  ...  36 

Concordat  with  the  Pope,  of  1855 39 

Baron  von  Helfert  and  Board  of  Education, 40 

2.  Present  System  and  Condition, 40 

(J)  Classes  or  grades  of  Schools, 40 

(2)  Denominational  Character, 42 

(3)  Nationality  of  School  Interest, 42 

(4)  Compulsory  Attendance, 42 

(5)  Support  of  Schools, 43 

(6)  Superintendence, 44 

(7)  Buildings.School-room,  Residence  of  Teacher,  46 

(8)  Teuchers-Gradation-Principuland  AssistiJiits,  47 
(0)  Qualification  and  Selection  of  Teachers, 47 

(iO)  Salaries  of'Teachers,  minimum, 48 

( 1 1)  Tenure  of  Office  and  Removal  of  Teachers,. .  50 

(i.)  Pensions— Widows  and  Orphans  of  Teachers,  51 

(13)  School  classes,  and  assignment  of  Teachers,  51 

(14)  Teachers'  Conferences, 51 

( 15)  Terms  and  Hours  of  Instruction, 52 

(16)  Distribution  of  Studies, .52 

(17)  Text-books  and  Apparatus, 52 

(18)  Language  of  Instruction, 53 

(19)  Penmanship — Arithmetic — Music — Drawing,  54 

(20)  Object-teaching — Natural  Objects, .54 

(21)  Needlework— Orchard  and  Garden  Culture, . .  54 

(22)  Discipline — Incentives  — Puni^Iiiiionts 55 

(23)  Tuition  Fees — Amount  and  how  collected,..  55 

(24)  Regularity  of  School  Attendnnce, 55 

(2.5)  Examinations — Promotions  of  Teachers, 55 

(26)  Private  Schools,  day  and  boarding, 50 


(27)  Adult  Instruction, ■. . .     56 

(28)  Burgher-school — h ighcsl  grade  of  Ele.  Schools,  57 

(29)  Seminaries  for  Elementary  Male  Teachers,. .     58 

(30)  Normal  Departments  for  Female  Teachers,..      59 

(31)  Government  Publishing  House, 60 

3.  Statistics  of  Elementary  Schools  in  186J, 61 

Defects  of  the  System  as  shown  by  Statistics,. . .     62 

4.  Legislation  of  1867-8, 66 

II.  Secondary  Schools, 67 

1.  History  of  the  Gymnasium,  1577-Jbul, 67 

Aquaviva  and  the  Ratio  Studiorum, 67 

Jacobus  Strabo  and  Petrus  Codiciilus, 67 

Gymnasiums  of  the  Jesuits — Piarists,    68 

Joseph  I — Maria  Tiieresa — Gerhnrd  von  Swieten,    69 

State  Board  of  Education — ?i!'rtini — Marx, 70 

Joseph  II — Hess — Teachers'  Association 71 

Leopold  II-Board  of  Educational  f?efi:irm  in  1795,    73 

Gymnasial  Code  of  1808, 74 

Plan  of  Rporganization  of  Gymn.-isiums,  1849,...     79 
Vernacular  and  Classical  languages, 81 

2.  Present  Organization, 82 

(1)  Complete  and  Incomplete — l^.inguage, 82 

(2)  Supervision — Central  find  Provincial, 82 

(3)  Grades  and  Duties  of  Teachers 83 

(4)  Appointment,  Salaries,  and  Pensions 84 

(5)  Branches  and  Plan  of  Inslruclion, 85 

Latin — Greek — German  language 86 

Geogra^ihy  and  Historj' — iNlathemutics, 88 

Natural  History— Plivsirs— Philosophy, 89 

Religion — Music — Drawing — Stenography,..     90 

(6)  Text-books — Apparatus — Libraries, 90 

(7)  Terms — Vacations— Admission — Tuition,   . .     90 

(8)  Discipline — Incentives — Punishments, 91 

(9)  Examinations — Pronmtions, 91 

(10)  Maturity  or  Leaving  Examination, 92 

(11)  Private  Schools,  and  Private  Students, 93 

(12)  Training  a,nd  Examination  of  Teachers 93 

(13)  Funds  and  Expense  of  Gymnasial  Instruction,    94 

3.  Statistics  and  Results  of  Secondary  Schools, ...     95 
HI.  Real-Schools, 98 

1.  Historical  Development,  1745-1861 98 

2.  Present  Organization  atid  Condition, 101 

(1)  Classification — Complete  and  lower, 101 

(2)  Language  of  the  Majority  of  Pupils  used,..   10.1 

(3)  Teachers— grades,  appointments, privileges,..  J02 

(4)  Studies— Obligatory  and  optional, 103 

(5)  Practical  Course  of  one  year, , 103 

(6)  Funds  and  Expenses,  . . .' 105 

(7)  Sunday  and  Evening  Schools, 105 

3.  Statistics  and  Results J 05 

IV.  Public    Instruction  in  Hungary  and 
other  non-German  States, 107 

1.  Hungary, 107 

2.  Transylvania 112 

3.  Croatia, 118  . 

V.  Legislation  of  1867-8, 120 


Area — Population — History, 121 

Public  Instruction, 122 

Historical  Development, 122 




I.  Common  or  Elementary  Schools, 122 

Obligatory  School-attendance  of  Children, 122 

Duty  of  Parishes  and  Communes, 123 

Supervision  and  Inspection, 125 

Statistics  and  llesnUs, 127 

Summary  of  Laws  and  Regulations, 127 

School  Authorities— School  Attendance, 128 

Studies  and  Internal  Organization, 128 

Plan  of  Instruction — Division  of  Time, 12i) 

Evening,  Sunday,  and  Factory  Schools, I'M 

Teachers — their  Training,  Conferences,  Salaries,  133 

Legislation  and  Statistics  of  IBOU, 135 

II.  Secondary  Schools, l-'Jo 

Classification— Classical,  and  Burgher, 135 

Management — High  School  Council, 136 

Lyceum — Gymnasium — Preparatory, 137 

Admission— Obligatory  Studies 138 

Distribution  of  Studies  by  Hours, 139 

ReUgion — Devotional  E.Kercises, 140 

Latin — Greek — French  -German, 141 

History — Geography — Mathematics, 143 

Philosophy — Singing — Drawing, 145 

Books  of  Reference 145 

Rank  of  Pupils — Classification 14(5 

Discipline — Incentives — Penalties, 146 

Terms — Vacations — Daily  routine, 147 

Titles— Professors — Special  teachers, 148 

Philological  Seminaries  for  Teachers  of  Gymnasia,  148 

III.  Real  Schools 149 

Higher  Bumher-schools 149 

Gewerbeschulen, 151 

IV.  Higher  Institutions   for  Girls, 152 

Conventual — Municipal — Private, 152 

V.  Orphan  AND  other  Special  Institutions,  153 
Astor  Home  for  Neglected  Children, 154 


Area — Population — Religion — Government, 157 

Public  Instruction 158 

I.  Primary  OK  ('i)MMON  Schools, 158 

1.  Reorganizntion  since  1802, 158 

2.  Present  Organization 160 

School  Attendance — Parents  and  Communes,...   161 
School-hours — Resilience  and  salary  of  Teachers,  161 

Inspection — Lo  al,  Provincial,  and  State, 163 

Four  Circle  Inspections— City  School  Inspection,  163 
Rehitions  of  the  Clergy  to  the  Public  Sclioi  Is 165 

3.  Number  of  Schools,  Pupils,  Teachers, 166 

Daily  routine — Results  as  to  Illiteracy, 167 

4.  Internal  Organization 168 

Tnjle Classification,  and  Subdivisions, 168 

Studies,  and  their  Distribution, 168 

(1)  Religion— Catechism, 169 

(2)  Biblical  H istory 169 

(3)  Memorizing — Texts— Hymns, 169 

(4)  Reading, ". 169 

(r-t)  Penmanship I<i9 

(6)  Dictation  Exercises, 169 

(7)  Business  Forms, 169 

(8)  Arithmetic, 169 

(9)  Geography  and  History, 170 

( 10)  Singing 170 

(11)  Drawing,  besides  Special  Drawing  Schools,..   170 

Industrial  Classes, 170 

Methods  of  Instruction 171 

Devotional  E.xercise — Conduct  in  th^ Streets,. . .   171 

Discipline — Incentives — Penalties, 171 

Sunday-schools— Separation  of  Sexes, 172 

5.  Teachers — their  Training, 172 

Legal  Designation — Provisions  for  Training, 172 

Preliminarv,  Seminary,  and  Pal-graduate  Course,   173 

Teachers' Seminnry— School  of  Practice 173 

Teachers'  Conferences,  Assuciati(in<:,  Periodical^,   174 

Appointment.  Suspension,  and  Dismissal, 174 

Salaries,  I'ensions,  Widows'  and  Orphans'  Funds,  175 

Emeriti  Teachers 176 

Female  Teachers. 176 


II.  Secondary  Schools 17G 

1.  High  Schools  for  Girls, 176 

Stetten  Institution — Maximilian  Foundation,. . .  Vi6 

English  Ladies'  School — Conventual  Schools,. . .  177 

Course  (»f  Instruction — Tenchers — Methods, 178 

2.  Gymnasia  and  Classical  Schco'.s, 179 

Earlv  Character — Later  Aims 179 

Plan'of  Organization  in  1804  and  18U8, 179 

Modification  in  1810,  1830,  1841, 180 

Private  teaching, 181 

Number— Conlessioiuil  Character — lnc(jme, 182 

Preparatory  Schcols — Iso'ated  Latin  Schocds,..,  184 

Admission — Age — Attainments 185 

Studies,  and  Distribution  by  hours  in  the  week,.  185 

Obligatory  and  Optional  Stud  es, 185 

Religious  Instruction — Devotional  Exercises, 186 

Latm— Books— Composition .^  JP7 

Greek — Hebrew — French — Gerinan .'  l('(i 

History — Geogra[)hy — Natural  History 189 

Mathematics— Physics— Natural  Philosophy, 189 

Gymnastics — Private  Studies — Librarj', IW 

Class-teaching— Incentives— Behavior  and  Habits,  191 

School-year — Public  Examinations, J9J 

Teachers,  Seminaries  Jbr,  in  the  L^iiversities,. . .  192 

Appointment — Salaries — Increase 193 

Pensions — Widows'  and  Or])hans'  Fund 193 

3.  Real  Schools, 193 

Earliest  in  1808— Parallel  Courses 193 

Institutions  of  Technical  Instruction  in  J829,...  194 

(1)  Agricultural  Gymnasiums 195 

(2)  Polytechnic  School, li»5 

(3)  Final  course  in  carpentry,  mining,  forestry,  &C.195 

(4)  Higher  education  in  Agriculture ,  195 

(5)  Fine  Arts  and  Civil  Architecture-, 195 

Distribution  of  Studies  in  Mechanical  School,. .  196 

Distribution  of  Studies  in  Agricultural  School,. .  196 

Teachers  for  Technological  Schools, 197 

Training  and  Appointment,. 198 

Supervision — Attendance — Ex|)eiises, 199 

Text-books — School-year— Examination— Prizes,  201 

IV.  Special  In.«titutioxs, 204 

Cradle  and  Infant  Scl  ool 204 

Rescue  Institutions, 205 


Area— Population, 207 

History  of  Schools  and  School  Legislation, 207 

System  of  Public  Instruction, 209 

I.  Primary  School?, 209 

School  Age — Duty  of  Parishes,  imd  pf  Parents,.. .  2;/'J 

Superintendence,  local  and  general 211 

Internal  Arrangement  of  the  Schools, 211 

City  and  Villaije  School.s— Studies  and  Classes,...  212 

Teachers — tli<  ir  Professional  Training 213 

Ml  nthlv  Record — Teachers'  Conference's, 2i:? 

General  Teachers'  Association, 21; 

i  Exiimination^-Appoi  itment-Promotion-Pensions.  211 

j  Teachers'  Mutual  Life  Insurance  Coiii|):itiy Hi- 

Widows'  and  Orphans'  Fund, _  •'> 

Private  Schools, -J  .1 

II.  Orphan  and  Rescue  Houses 
ITT.  Secondary  Schools 

liilian  College — Caroline  College, 

Gyninasinl  System— Superintendence — Pupils, 
Course  of  Instruction 


':] ; 

2J  (' 

Area— Populition— Religion— Government, 

I.  Primary  Schools, 

1.  School  Legislation 

German  Writing  and  Cvpliering  Snhoo's 

Ordinance  of  1650— 1684— 1736— 1752— 1845,. . 

First  Seminary  for  Teachers  in  1751, 

Normal  Schools  in  18.57, 

2.  Present  School  L:uv., 

Duty  of  Parents  and  Guardians  of  Children 

Duty  of  Parishes  to  establish  and  support  School, 




Local  anil  General  Supervision, 228 

3.  School  Statistics  of  1855 228 

Scliools— Pupils— Teachers— Salaries, 229 

4.  Timer  Organization, 229 

Gradation — Sexes— Subjects — Daily  Routine,...  229 
Monthly  Record  Book — Fines  exacted  of  Parents,  230 

5.  Teachers — Candidates  and  their  Training, ....  2iJ0 
Examination—Location— Suspension— Assistants,  231 

Teachers'  Associations — Reading  Clubs 232 

Pensions — Widow  and  Orplian  Funds, 232 

G.  Higher  Female  Schools, 232 

7.  Special  Schools 233 

Blind — Deaf-mutes — Imbeciles — Orphans,  &c.,..  233 

If.  SECONDARY  Schools, 234 

1.  Historical  Development  from  783  to  1858 234 

SciioJBP  Grecae  et  Latinac,  786— Schola;  Majores,  234 

Latin  Schools  of  1528,  1546,  1586 236 

Seminary  for  Gymnasial  Teaciiers  in  1737, 238 

Labors  of  Ernest i  and  Gesner, 238 

Study  of  Latin  and  Greek, 239 

Influence  of  University  and  Teachers'  Seminary,  240 
Memorable  words  of  Heyne 241 

2.  Existing  Organization 241 

(1)  Final  examination  of  Gymnasial  Students,..  242 

(2)  Sujjreme  Board  of  Instruction, 244 

3.  Preparation  of  Teachers — Normal  Seminary,..  245 
Mathematical  and  Physical  Seminary, 246 

4.  Local  School  Authorities, 246 

Governmental  and  Municipal  Board— Board  of 

Instruction, 246 

Director— Ordinary  or  Class-teacher — Associate,.  246 

5.  Endowment,  and  annual  State  stipend 247 

in.  Statistics, 247 

Gymnasiums — Pro-gymnasiums— Lyceums, 247 

Latin  Sclfool, 247 

Real  Schools -Higher  Burgher  Schools,. 248 

Real  classes  in  Gymnasiums, 248 

Teachers  and  Students— Income  and  Expenses,. .  248 

IV.  Inner  Organization, 249 

Course  of  Instruction — Condition  of  Admission,..  249 
Devotional  Exercises — Ueligious  Instruction,  ....  250 
Latin— Greek — Hebrew— French — English — Ger- 
man,    252 

History — Geography — Natural  History, 2.52 

Mathematics — Natural  Philosophy, ' 2.55 

I\Iusic — Drawing — Gymnastics,  . ". 256 

Lessons  in  Gymnasium,  and  Real  Clas.s, 257 

Progymnasiu'm  and  Real  School 257 

Study  out  of  School-hours — Libraries  of  Reference,  257 

2.  Discipline — Incentives  and  Penalties, 258 

Personal  Influence  of  Teacher — Ordinary  Routine,  258 

3.  Vacations — Final  and  Class  Examinations  and 

Exhibitions, 259 

V.  Teachers, 259 

Grades  and  Titles, 2.59 

Examinations — Trial  Exercises, 259 

State  Relations — Salaries— Pensions, 260 

Widows  and  Orphans'  Funds, 261 

Result  of  the  Reorganization  in  1830, 261 


Area— Population — Government, 263 

General  View  of  Education  and  Schools, 264 

I.  Elementary  Schools, 265 

1.  Organization — Secular — Ecclesiastical, 265 

2.  School  Authorities, 266 

Local  School  Committee, 266 

City  Districts, 266 

District  School  Councilor, 266 

Provincial  School  Referee, 267 

Minister  of  the  Interior, 267 

3.  School  Attendance 267 

Parentul  Obligation  to  send  Children  to  School,  267 

4.  Internal  Organization  and  Instruction 268 

No  General  Regulation  as  to  Hours,  Lessons,  &c.,  268 

School  Diaries  and  Records,  by  Teachers  and  In- 

8j)ectors, 269 

Inspection  and  Examination, 269 

Punishments — Trespasses  out  of  School, 270 

Industrial  Instruction  in  Evening  Classes, 270 

5.  Teachers, 270 

Seminaries  for  Teachers — Final  Organization,. .  271 

Practical  Training  in  Gardening,  &c., ,. . . .  271 

Location — Salary — Sources  of  income, 272 

Educational  Course,  and  Selection, 272 

II    Secondary  Schools  non-Classical....  272 

1.  Real  Schools 272 

Imperfect  Development — Influence  of  Guilds,. . .  273 

Real  Classes  in  Gymnasium 273 

Real  School  at  Cassel  with  Eight  Classes 273 

2.  Higher  Female  Schools, 274 

3.  Private  Schools, 274 

III.  Gymnasiums, 274 

Relations  to  the  State— Number— Tuition, 275 

Admission — Pupils — Studies—  Recitations, 275 

Discipline — Examination — Teachers 276 

IV.  Special  Institutions, 277 

Orphan  Homes, 277 

Rescue  Institutions, 277 

Deaf-mute  Asylum, 277 


Area — Population — Government, 279 

Public  Instruction, 280 

I.  Primary  or  Common  Schools, 281 

1.  Historical  Development 281 

Church  Order  of  1526, 281 

Ordinance  of  I^andgrave  George  II,  in  1634 281 

School  Law  of  1832, 281 

2.  Existing  System, 281 

Duty  of  Parents— Obligatory  Attendance, 282 

Duty  of  Parishes  and  Towns — Expenses, 283 

Supervision — Local — General, , 283 

Loral  or  Parish  Board, 283 

District  Commissioner, 283 

Higher  Directory  of  Education, 284 

3.  Schools— Scholars— Teachers, 284 

4.  Internal  Condition, 285 

Classification — Age — Sex — Attainments, 285 

Lessons  per  week — Religious  Instruction, 285 

Public  Examinations — Discipline, 285 

5.  Teachers,  and  their  Training — Seminaries, 286 

Model  School — Conferences, 287 

Permanent  Settlement — Dismissal — Salaries, 287 

Pensions — Widow  and  Orphan  Funds, 288 

5.  Results, 288 

TI.  Classical  and  Higher  Schools, 289 

1.  Historical  Develo|)ment-Conressional  character,  289 

2.  Students — Teachers — Expense, 290 

3.  Internal  Condition, 290 

Classes — Subjects,  and  their  Distribution, 290 

Religious  Instruction — Devotional  Exercises,. . .  291 

Latin— Greek— Hebrew— French— English 291 

German  Language — History — Geography 292 

Mathematics— Natural  Sciences — Music, 292 

G vmnastics — Swimming, 292 

Class  Teachers— Private  Pupils 292 

Discipline,  in  and  out  of  School-hours, 293 

Gymnasial  Attendance  and  the  Civil  Service, . . .  293 

4.  Teachers " 2<)4 

Conditions — Examination — Trial  Year, 294 

III.  The  Real  and  Trade  Schools, 295 

Modifications  of  the  Gymnasial  Course, 295 

Mcnhanic  School  in  1822— Real  Schools  in  18.34,.  295 

Higher  Trades  School,  at  Darmstadt, 296 

Subjects,  and  their  Distribution 296 

Religious  Instruction — Latin — German, 296 

Modification  of  Subjects  and  Methods  to  Life,...  .  297 
Results  of  the  System, 298 



IV.  High  Schools  for  Girls, 298 

Origin  and  Extension  of  this  class  of  Schools,. . . .  298 

Intellectual  versus  Domestic  Culture, 298 

V.  Special  Institutions , 299 

Orphan  Asylmns — Distribution  in  Families, 299 

Rescue  Institutions, '. .  299 

Schools  for  Deaf-mutes,  and  the  Blind, 299 

Infant  Asylums  and  Schools, 300 


Area — Population — History — Government, 301 

Public  Instruction, 301 

I.  Elementary  Schools, 302 

Schools— Pupils— Teachers— Studies, 302 


Area — Population — Religion — Government, 303 

Public  Instruction, 303 

I.  Primary  Schools, 303 

School  Age — Obligation  of  Parents  and  Parishes,  304 

Local  JNIanngement — State  Supervision, 304 

Classification — Studies — Religion, 304 

Common  Science — Drawing,  Knitting,  &c., 304 

Shepherds'  Schools, 305 

Infant  Gardens — Spinning  Schools, 305 

Teachers  and  their  Training — Seminary, 305 

Location — Salary — Pension — Widow  and  Orphan,  305 

II.  Secondary  Schools 305 

Rector-schools — Number  and  Grade, .. .  305 

G vmnasiums  at  Detmold  and  Lemgo, 306 

Higher  Female  School  at  Detmold, 306 


Popular  Ignorance  prior  to  the  Reformation, 307 

Schools  under  Ernest, 307 

, 307 


Obligation  of  School-attendanoe, 319 

Duty  of  Clergymen  and  Magistrates, 320 

Studies — School-rooms — Public  Examination,..,  320 

Teachers — Seminary  at  Mirow, .*  322 

Silk,  Garden  and  Meadow  Culture 322 

II.  Secondary  Schools 321 

Gymnasiums  and  Labor  Schools, 321 

Burgher  and  City  High  School 321 

High  Schools  for  Girls, 321 


Area — Population, 
Public  Instruction, 


I.  Primary  Schools, — 

II.  Secondary  Schools, 


.Area — Population — History, 308 

Public  Instruction, 308 


History — Area — Population, 
Public  Instruction, 



I.  Primary  Schools 310 

Defective  Condition  of  Schools  as  they  were,. .'. .   310 

Reorganization  in  1756-1785, 310 

Don-mnial,  Manorial,  and  Landschuft  Schools,. . .  311 

Inspection  and  Management, 311 

Duty  of  Parents  and  Parishes — School  attendance,  312 
Teachers — Seminary — Examination, .' 312 

II.  Higher  Elementary  Schools 313 

III.  Special  Elementary  Schools, 314 

Trades  Schools 314 

Teachers'  Seminary, 314 

Niivigation  Schools 314 

Institution  for  Deaf-mutes, 314 

IV.  Secondary  Schools, 315 

Origin  of  Gymnasiums  in  1541 315 

Studies,  and  their  Distribution  by  Hours^ 315 

Higher  City  Schools, .- 316 

Teachers — Salaries — Maturity  Examination, 317 

Real  Schools— Studies, .' 318 

Area — Population, 309 

Public.  Inslf uction, 318 

I.  Primary  School 318 

Revised  Lnw  of  16.50,  1711,  177:1, 1801, 1816, 1826,  319 
Teachers'  Seminary  in  1801 — Pensions, 319 

I.  Elementary  Schools, 324 

School  Age — Dutv  of  Parents — Daily  Routine,...  324 

Duty  of  Purishes/as  to  House, «24 

i  Course  of  Instruction, 324 

Teachers — Training— CJonfessional  Character,...  325 

Supervisioi; — Local  and  District, 325 

Support  of  Schools, 325 

II.  Secondary  Schools, 325 

Pedagogium, 326 

Gymnasium, 326 


Area — Population, 327 

Public  Instruction, 327 

I.  Elementary  Schools, 327 

1.  Priuiary  Schools, 327 

State  Control 327 

Age,  and  Extent  of  School-attendance, 327 

Obligation  of  Parents, 327 

Gradation  of  Schools, ^28 

Studies  in  a  School  of  one  class, 328 

Studies  in  School  of  two  classes,  upper  and  lower,  328 

Teachers  and  their  Salaries  and  Privileges,.. ....  329 

2.  Middle  School— Studies  and  Teachers, 329 

3.  Higher  Burgher  Schools — Studies  and  Teachers,  329 

4.  Private  Schools 329 

5.  Infant  Schools  and  Orphan  Houses, 330 

III.  Secondary  Schools, 330 

Gymnasiums  and  Pro-gymnasiums, 330 

Professional  and  Special  Schools, 331 

1.  Agricultural  School  at  Manenburg, 331 

2.  Trade  School  at  Oldenburg 331 

3.  Navigation  School  at  Eisfleth, , 331 

4.  Teachers'  Seminary  at  Oldenburg,.. 331 

5.  Normal  School  i'or  Catholic  Teachers  at  Vechta,  332 


History — Area — Population, 333 

Public  Instruction, : 334 

I.  Primary  or  Elementary  Schools 335 

Historical  Development, 335 

^1.  .Inte-regol  Period, 335 

Mark  of  Brandenburg— Law  of  1540,  1573, -335 

Electorate  of  Brandenburjr — Ordinance  of  157.3,..  336 

Duchy  of  Prussia,  1568,1.598 .336 

Pome'rania,  Writing  and  Girls'  Schools,  1563, 336 

Contuberninm  in  Wesel  in  1687 336 

Duchy  of  Magdeburg,  Edict  of  Augustus  in  1652,  337 

B.  Kivgdom  of  Prussia, 337 

Frederic  I,  1701-1713 337 

Aid  toTeiichers  and  Stricter  Visitation  of  Schools,  337 

Frederic  William  T,  1713-1740 338 

Franke — Ratich — Comenius — Teaching, 338 

Restrictions  on  Class  of  Candidates  in  1732, 1738,  338 
Normal   School  in   Stettin  in   173.5 — in   Kloster- 

bergen,  1736 339 

Royal  Ordinance  of  1713  and  171.5 339 

i  Teacherssent  to  Lithuania  in  11  If^ 339 

1  Grantof  Land,  free  of  rents  and  taxes,  for  Schools,  340 

j  Principin  Resulativn  of  1737— Mnns  Pietatis, 340 

I  DutyofParishes— Obligatory  School-attendance...  340 
j  Instructions  for  Pomerania— Berlin  Circular  of  1738, 341 



Frederic  11—1740-1786, 342 

Lutheran  Iligli  Consistory, 342 

Heguliitions  of  1740— Hecker  and  Real  Schools,..  .342 

Normal  School  for  the  Kiirmark  in  Berlin 342 

Ordinance  of  Schweidnitz, 343 

General  School  Regulations  of  Sept.  23,  17G3 343 

Opposition — Modifications — Additional  Aid, 344 

Catholic  Schools  in  Silesia,  difficulties  with, 34G 

School  Reform  in  Silesia — Von  Felbiger— Sagan,  3415 
Decree  of  Nov.  12, 1764,  as  to  Normal  Schools.  &c.,  347 
Candidates  for  the  INIinistry  and  Normal  School...  347 

Normal  School  iit  Bresiau  in  1765, 347 

Catholic  Sciiool  Organization,  Nov.  3,  1765, 348 

Schools  of  the  Jesuits— Dissolution  of  the  Order,..  349 
Von  Rochow — Better  Schools  and  School-books,.  350 

Fri;deric  William  II,  178G-1796, 350 

Superior  School-board — Reasons  for, 351 

Instructions  to  be  modified  according  to  occupa- 
tion,   351 

Instructions  in  Economics  and  Hygiene .351 

Schools  declared  State  Institutions  in  1794 352 

Condition  of  Village  and  Country  Schools  in  1796,  352 
Addition  to  Teachers'  Income  by  Silk  Culture,.. .  353 

C.  Frederic  William  HI,  1797-1840 3.^3 

Wollner's  Inslruct/Jons,  and  the  King's  Order,  1797,  353 

Defects  in  Villiige  Schools  and  Education, 354 

Von  Massow  and  Instructions  of  the  King,  1798,.  3.55 

Plan  for  a  General  Improvement  of  Schools 355 

Preliminary  Examination  of  their  Conditiun,  IfcOl,  3.56 
Mission  to  Olivier,  in  Dessau,  and  to  Pestulozzi,..  356 
A|)plication  of  the  Results  of  these  Inquiries, ....   356 

Religious  Instruction  in  the  Schools, 356 

Sunday-schooh  for  Journeymen  and  Apprentices,  357 

Middle-schools  first  mentioned  in  1799 358 

Normal  School  for  Female  Teachers,  by  Gedike,..  359 

Institute  for  Governesses  established  in  1804, 359 

Industrial  Schools  proposed  and  established, 359 

Discussion  on  Improved  Methods, 359 

Demonstration  of  Pestalozzian  methods byPlamann,360 
Fichte  proclaimed  their  superiority, 360 

D.  Period  of  Trav.^ition — Queen  Louisa, 360 

Period  of  National  Reverses  in  1806-1807, 360 

Educational  Policy  of  the  King  and  Q,ueen, 360 

Memorable  Words' of  the  King,  and  Minister  Stein,  361 

Transference  of  the  Supervision  of  Schools, 361 

Third  Section  for  School  and  Eccles.  Affairs,....  361 
William  von  Humboldt,  Nicolovius,  and  Silvern,  361 
General  Historical  Summary, 362 

Schools  and  Education — the  foundation  of  Prus- 
sian Government, 362 

Abolition  of  Serfdom — Education  of  the  Subject,  362 

Municipal  Training  of  the  Citizen, 363 

Progressive  Elements  from  Abroad — Zeller, 363 

Letter  of  Altenstein  to  Pestalozzi, 363 

Prussian  Pestalozzian  School — Characteristics,..  364 
Geography  and  history  of  Fatherland — Music,..  364 
Drawing— Physical  Training — Native  Language,  364 

Corps  of  professionally  trained  Teachers, 365 

Reorganization  of  Normal  Schools, 365 

Modern  School  Organization  developed  in  1820,..  366 

Teachers'  Association, 366 

Official  Reaction  against  Pestalozzianism, 367 

Educational  Development  in  the  New  Provinces,.  368 

I.  Province  of  Saxony, 368 

Area — Population — Educational  Antecedents, 368 

Franke— Zerrenner— Dinter— Harnisch, 370 

II.  Stralsund  and  Pomerania, 371 

Town  Schools — Free  Schools  in  1525, 372 

School  Organization  by  Bugenhagen  in  1535,...  372 

School  in  Barth  in  1325,  1584,  1743, 373 

Town  School  at  Bergen, 373 

Private  Schools 374 

Teachers  and  Teaching 374 

Changes  wrought  by  the  Prussian  System, 376 

Country  Schools — former  and  present  condition,.  378 

Obligatory  School-attendance— Results , .  381 

Deficient  Education  and  Poor  Pay  of  Teachers,.  382 

I  Page. 

III.  Province  of  the  Rhine, 384 

Previous  Condition  of  Schools, 384 

I  Difficulties  of  the  Problem 384 

Gradual  Assimilation  to  the  General  System,..  386 

I  Normal  Schools  established, 387 

1      IV.  Province  of  Westphalia, ?i87 

I  Detached  portions  of  several  diverse  Governments,  387 
Portions  belonging  to  Prussia — Wilberg — Hecker,.  388 

Episco|)Qte  of  Paderborn — Improvements, .388 

I  Education  of  C  iris— Female  Teaciiers 388 

j  Miinster — Regulation  of  Von  Furstenburg,  1776,  .  388 
Normal  School  in  1790— Labors  of  Overberg,. . ..  .388 

I  Paderborn— Prince-bishop  Ferdinand  H, 38S 

I  Catechism — School-houses — FemaleTeachers, . . .  ,388 

Decree  in  1788— Francis  Egon  in  1789 .389 

Dnchv  of  Westphalia— Abp.  Maximilian,  1656...  389 

I  Clemens  Augustus.  1721-61 — ItineratingTeachers,  389 

Feil)i£er's  School  Reform  and  Catholic  Schools,. .  .389 

Free  Instruction  for  Teachers  at  Bonn  in  1787,...  389 

Local  Committee  independent  of  Bonn, .389 

Priests  were  to  be  found  qualified  to  keep  School,  389 
First  Industrial  School  at  Honkhausen  in  1769,..   389 

Archbishopric  of  Cologne — Hesse  Darmstadt 390 

School-attendance  made  obligatory  on  Parents,. . .  390 

Education  and  Support  of  Teachers — Girls, 390 

Action  of  Prussian  Government — Vincke-Natorp,  390 

V.  Province  of  Posen, 390 

Aren— Pon.ilntion— Period  of  Prussia,  1773,  1793,  390 
DistrictofBromberg— Political  changes,  1807, 18J5,  390 
Destitution  of  Schools — Condkion  of  the  Peasantry,  391 

Private  Teachers  for  the  Nobles, ".   391 

Condition  of  Schools  and  the  Popnlntion  in  1773,  392 

Cnlvinists  (Lutheran) — Landed  Proprietors, 392 

Schools  independent  of  the  Church  in  1773 392 

Beneficent  plans  of  Frederic  II— Canals— Colonists,  392 

Cabinet  Order  of  1774— School-houses, .393 

New  Schools  in  1778 — Confiscated  property, 393 

Revenues  from  the  sale  of  Tobacco 393 

Action  of  Ecclesinstical  Bodies  and  Nobles, 394 

School  atTrzemeszno,  by  Abbot  von  Kosmowski,  394 

Franciscan  School  at  Pakose  in  1787 394 

Action  of  Saxon  Government  from  1697  to  1763,.  394 

Regulation  of  1808-Polish  language 395 

Action  of  the  treaty  of  Vienna  in  18J5, 395 

Grand  Duchy  of  Posen  out  of  Prussian  dominions,  395 
Condition  of  Schools  in  1815  in  Bromberg  district,  395 

Labors  of  Reichhelm,  Runge,  and  Frank 396 

Normal  School  nt  Bromberg  in  1817 — at  Kosmin,  397 

Public  Schools  in  Bromberg, 397 

Earliest  Public  Elementary  School  in  1807, 397 

Condition  of  Public  Schools  in  1864 397 

Population,  as  to  Language  nnd  Religion, 399 

Public  Schools  for  both  Confessions, 400 

CircularNoteofMinisterofPub. Instruction,  1822,  400 

Cabinet  Order  of  the  King  in  1829, 401 

Hostility  of  different  Nationalities  and  Confessions,  4(ll 

Separate  Schools, 402 

L^se  of  Polish  language  confined  to  Polish  children,  402 
Order  of  the  King,  and  Instructions  of  the  Minister,  403 
Instruction  in  botii  Languages  to  certain  extent,..  403 
Schools,  and  modifications,  for  Hebrew  children,.  404 

Mixed  Constitution  of  the  Local  Committee, 404 

Evangelic  Preachers,  and  Catholic  Priests 405 

Evangelical  Superintendents,  nnd  Catholic  Deans,  405 

Condition  of  Catholic  Elementary  Schools 405 

Results  in  difference  of  Denominational  Interest...  406 

Number  of  enrolled  Recruits  not  educated, 406 

Difficulties  with  Proprietors  of  large  landed  estates,  406 

Conflict  of  Saxon  and  Prussian  regulations, 407 

Special  aid  to  Impoverished  Communities, 407 

Income  for  the  Teachers'  Salary, 408 

Building  and  repair  of  School-houses, 408 

Special  aid  to  Normal  Schools — Rectors'  Classes,.  409 

Increase  of  the  Scanty  Salaries  of  Teachers 409 

Fund  for  the  ^V^idows  and  Orphans  of  Teachers,  410 

Superannuated  and  Emcritcd  Teachers 410 

Educational  Statistics  of  the  Bromberg  district,. .  411 

II.  General  History  from  1817, 411 

Ministry  of  Baron  von  Altenstein, 411 



Consolidation  of  the  System — Improved  Institu- 
tions nnd  Methods, 412 

Cenerul  Revision  of  Law  drafted,  but  not  ordained,  412 
Hegel — Plumann — Education  and  the  Church,. . .  413 
Becivedorf— Annals  of  Prussian  Public  Schools,^. .  413 
Dreist—Kortiini— Development  of  the  System,....  414 

Ministry  of  Eichhorn, 414 

Eilers  at  the  head  of  Elementary  Bureau 414 

Policv  of  Restriction  on  Primary  Education, 414 

Decree  of  the  Ministry  of  Nov.  5,  1842 415 

Gardening — Vegetables,  Fruits,  and  Flowers, 415 

Dissolution  of  Normal  School  at  Breslau, 415 

Compulsory  Resignation  of  Diestervveg, 415 

Recent  Jldministration, 416 

Frederick  Stiehl — his  Special  Aims, 416 

Prussian  Regulations  of  1st,  2d  and  .3d  of  Oct.,  1854,  416 

Debate  in  the  House  of  Representatives,. .    416 

Petition  of  the  Dortmund  Circle 416 

Report  of  Committee  on  Education, 417 

Petitions  and  Debate  in  1859 417 

Regulations  by  Committee  and  the  Government,..  417 

CircularNote  of  Minister  von  Holhveg, 417 

Instruction — Religion— Overtasking  the  Memory..  418 

Bible  History .418 

Knowledge  indispensable  to  Practical  Life 418 

Instruction  in  Arithmetic  and  Geometry. 419 

Natural  Philosophy,  Botany,  and  Zoology, 419 

German  Language — Chemistry — Drawing, 4J9 

Geography  and  History,  especially  of  Prussia, 419 

Debate  in  the  House  in  I860, 429 

Resolutions  of  the  Committee, 42») 

Provincial  Authorities  requested  to  report, 421 

Memorial  of  the  Minister  on  the  Reports, 421 

Pamphlet  by  F.  Stiehl,  on  the  Regulations, 422 

Gymnastics,  and  Pliysical  Training, 422 

Drawing — 422 

Education  of  Girls— Needlework,  &c., 422 

Realization  of  Prussian  National  School  in  1866,.  423 

Catholic  Public  Schools, 423 

Statistics  of  Prussian  Public  Schools,..  424 

Number  of  Primary  Public  Schools  in  1819, 424 

Town  Schools  and  Village  Schools, 424 

Teachers  of  Primary  Schools  in  1819, 424 

Salaries  in  Town  Schools, 424 

Salaries  in  Village  Schools 424 

Public  Schools  defined, 425 

Charge  of  Instruction  in  Religion, 425 

Classes,  and  Separate  Teachers, 425 

Public  Elementary  Schools  in  1860-61, 425 

Evangelic— Catholic— Hebrew — Total, 425 

Towns— Villages— Total, 425 

Schools  and  Classes — Total, 425 

Teachers,  male  and  female — Total, 425 

Private  Schools — Schools  and  Classes— Pupils, 426 

Children — Enumerated,  and  in  School, 427 

Salaries  of  Teachers — Amount — Average, 428 

Special  Statistics  of  Berlin  Teachers 429 

Repairs  and  Construction  of  Buildings, 431 

Funds  for  Widows  and  Orphans  of  Teachers,. , . .  431 

Pension  Funds, 432 

Statistics  of  Elementary  Schools  in  1866, 433 

II.  System  of  Secondary  Schools, 435 

1.  Historual  Development  of  School  Ad- 
ministration,   435 

Ji.  Supreme  Administration, 435 

Decree  of  Elector  Joachim  II,  in  1552 435 

Visiting  Regulations  of  1.573,  1662,  1687, 435 

Spirit  of  Frederic  II, ' 436 

Decree  of  Frederic  William  I,  in  1713,  1718 436 

Department  of  Church  and  School  Affairs,  1722,.  436 
Education  transferred  to  State  and  Law  Dep.,  1771,  437 

SupreiTie  School  Board  created  in  1787, 437 

Von  Zedlitz, 437 

Religious  Edict  ofWollner 438 

Message  from  Frederic  William  HI  to  Wollner,..  439 
Third  Section  for  Worship  and  Public  Instruction,  440 
William  von  Humboldt,  chief,  Dec.  17,  1808,  ...  440 

Nicolovius  and  Ecclesiastical  AflTairs, 440 

Silvern  and  School  Affairs, , 440 


Von  Schuckmann's  Administration,  18 — , 441 

Ministry  of  Education  and  Ecclesiastical  Affairs,  441 

Baron  von  Altenstein, 441 

Hegel  and  his  Philosophy, 441 

Mandate  of  Minister  of  the  Interior  and  Police,...  442 

Testimony  of  Cousin  and  Thiersch, 444 

Dr.  J.  A.  F.  Eichborn,  1831  to  1850 444 

Contest  between  the  Classical  and  the  Scientific,.  445 

Hegelian  Philusopbv, 445 

Von  Raumer,  1850 "to  Nov.  8,  1858, 446 

Von  Bethman-Hollweg,  iKoB  to  March  10,  ]862,.  447 

Von  Miihler,  1862 447 

Su])erintendent  of  Catholic  School  Affairs, 447 

B.  Provincial  Admini-'tration, 447 

Departments  of  Territorial  Admiriistraticm,  17J3,.  448 

Consistories  of  the  Provinces, 4-18 

Higher  Consistory  of  Berlin,  1750 448 

Provincial  Deputation  of  Worship,  1808,  &c 448 

Scientific  Deputations  for  Public  Instruction.  181I),  448 

Duties  of  Chief  President  of  the  Eij;ht  Provinces,.  448 

Literary  Commissions  for  Examination  in  1817,..  448 

School-collegiums  in  1826,  1845,  1848, 448 

General  Superintendents  of  the  Consistories,.. ..  449 

Provincial  Development  of  Higher  Education,  ...  449 

I.  Province  of  Prussia 449 

Schooisofthe  Reli-rious  Orders  in  1351-J381,.. . .  449 

Latin  Schools,  1510-1568, 449 

Schools  ol"  the. lesu  its  converted  intoGvmtiasiums,  449 

Obstacles  in  the  Polish  districts, .' 449 

II.  Province  of  Posen, 449 

Increase  of  Higher  Schools  since  1815, 449 

German  and  Polish  language, 450 

III.  Province  of  Silesia, 451 

High  School  at  Goldberg,  under Trotzenriorf, 45] 

Schools  of  the  Jesuits  converted  into  Gymnasiums,  451 

Religious  Education, .' 448 

University  of  Breslau. 451 

Studies  in  Catholic  Schools 4.52 

Confessional  Character  of  Existing  Institutions,..  452 

IV.  Province  of  Pomerania, 452 

University  of  Greifswald  in  1456, 452 

Latin  Schools  after  Bugenhagen's  Regulations,...  452 

Polytechnic  feature  in  new  Secondary  Schools,..  453 

V.  Province  of  Saxony ; 4.53 

Early  School  Foundations — Schulpforta — Halle,.  4.54 

VI.  Province  of  Westphalia,. 4.54 

Oldest  School  Foundations  in  the  Kingdom, 454 

Latest  Evangelical,  at  Giitersloh,  1851', 4.54 

Labors  of  F.  Kohlrausch,  1818-1830,.  , 455 

VII.  Province  of  Rhine  andHohenzoll'rn,  455 

Early  Schools  of  the  Jesuits, ^ 455 

Alternate  Sway  of  French  and  German  Ideas, 450 

Number  of  Gymnasiums  in  1814, 455 

Classical  and  Modern  studies, 456 

Training  and  Schools  for  Teachers 456 

Gymnasium  at  Cologne, 457 

Real  Schools  and  Higher  Burgher  Schools, 459 

Founding  of  the  University  at  Bonn, 459 

Proclamation  of  Frederic  William  III, 459 

VIII.  Province  of  Brandenburgh, 459 

Frankfort  on  the  Oder,  1505— Gray  Convent,  1574,  460 

Joachimsthal  Gymnasium, 460 

Higher  Institutions  at  Berlin, 460 

C.  Local  Jldministration  and  Right  of  Patronage,  460 

Institutions  of  Royal  Foundation, 460 

Institutions  under  City  School-deputation, 460 

Influence  of  the  Berlin  School  regulations, 460 

Right  of  Patronage  belongs  to  the  Magistrate, 460 

Special  City  School  Commission, 461 

Cabinet  Order  of  1862,  as  to  Directors  and  Teachers,  461 

Z).  State  Regulation  of  Higher  Institutions,...  462 

Declarations  of  the  Common  Law,  1794, 462 

Public  Character — Right  of  all  to  admission, 462 

Liberty  of  Conscience — School-attendance, 462 

Teachers  Officers  of  State— Right  of  Fathers,. . . .  462 



Since  the  cession  of  the  Lombardo-Venetian  provinces  to  Italy, 
the  Austrian  monarchy  has  an  area  of  227,234  square  miles,  and  a 
population  in  1864  of  34,432,890,  distributed  throughout — 

I.  The  Empire  of  Austria^  comprising  the  provinces  of  Lower 
Austria,  Upper  Austria,  Salzburg,  Styria,  Carinthia,  Carniola,  Illyria, 
Tyrol  and  Vorarlberg,  Bohemia,  Moravia,  Silesia,  Galicia,  Buko- 
wina,  Dalmatia ;  and 

II.  The  Kingdom  of  Hungary,  comprising  the  provinces  of  Hun- 
gary, Croatia,  Slavonia,  Transylvania,  and  the  Military  Frontier. 
Each  of  the  two  great  divisions  has  its  own  ministry,  parliament, 
and  entirely  separate  administration,  and  every  province  has  its  own 
provincial  diet. 

Austria  [Empire]  has,  on  an  area  of  124,116  square  miles,  a  pop- 
ulation of  20,602,736,  and  the  Kingdom  of  Hungary,  on  an  area  of 
103,118,  a  population  of  13,830,154.  The  national  industries  are 
as  varied  as  the  climate  and  soil,  and  have  called  into  existence  a 
large  number  of  special  schools. 

The  total  expenditure  in  1864  was  508,781,793  florins,  of  which 
sum  2,951,523  florins  were  expended  for  public  instruction  of  all 
kinds,  viz.,  139,828  fl.  in  Hungary,  and  2,580,670  fl.  in  Austria. 
The  institutions  of  public  instruction,  both  in  Austria  proper  and  in 
Hungary,  are  under  a  separate  and  special  minister,  except  such  as 
are  specially  connected  with  the  administration  of  other  depart- 
ments, such  as  those  of  war,  finance,  &c. 

The  system  of  public  instruction  is  comprehensive,*  and  in  every 
department  at  the  present  time  there  is  progress.  The  recent  school 
code  (1869)  will  compare  favorably  with  the  most  advanced  legis- 
lation of  any  country  in  respect  to  elementary  instruction. 

The  following  statistics  are  gathered  from  the  latest  oflScial  doc- 

*For  a  historical  development  of  public  instruction  in  Austria,  see  American  Journnl  of  Edu- 
cation, vol.  xvi  [).  1—32,  609;  xvii.  p.  129.  Special  Report  on  JsTational  Education  :  Part  L 
Germany — Austria. 




1.   KLKMENTARY   SCHOOLS   IN   1864. 








Total.   • 

Austria, .       














Connected  with  these  schools,  and  taught  by  the  same  teachers,  are  1,472  Female  Industrial  schools  ;  382 
Apprentice  schools;  15,752  Sunday  Repetition  schools  ;  2,777  schools  for  instruction  in  fruit  culture  352  for 
bee  culture     169  for  silkworm  culture. 





























32  076 




















In  Austria  there  are  7  universities,  viz.,  5  with  four  faculies  [theology,  law,  medicine,  philosophj-]  each: 
Vienna,  Gratz,  Prague,  Cracow,  and  Pesth  ;  and  2  universities  with  three  faculties  [theology,  law,  philos' 
ophyj  each,  viz.,  Innspruck  and  Lemberg — with  a  total  of  9,198  students  and  650  professors. 










Theological  Seminaries— Roman  Catholic, 

















































































"                    '•            Greek  Catholic, 

"                   "            Armenian, 


"                   "            Greek  Oriental, 

"                   "            Protestant, 



Agricultural  Academies,         


"            Schools, 


Schools  of  V ine-culture, 


Schools  of  Silkworm  culture, 


Forestry  Sciiools, 

Mining  Schools, 


Nautical  Schools 


Polytechnic  Institutes, 

Polytechnic  Institutes  with  commercial  course,.. 
Ci)mmercial  Academies, 



Veterinary  Schools, 


Military  Academies 

Special  Military  Schools, 

Cadet  Schools .        


School  Companies 

Schools  for  Soldiers'  Children 


Schools  of  Gymnastics 

Academies  of  the  Fine  Arts, 

Drawing  Schools, 

Music  Schools 

Institutes  for  Deaf  and  Dumb 

Institutes  for  Blind, 

Teachers'  Seminaries 


Academies  of  Oriental  Languages, 

La  w  Schools 




The  system  of  special  technical  instruction  in  Austria  includes  in 
its  early  stages,  or  at  least  recognizes,  the  future  occupation  of  the 
pupils,  in  the  primary  schools  of  every  grade,  and  in  one  of  the 
grades  of  schools  usually  classed  as  secondary. 


The  first  notice  of  the  industrial  element  in  Austrian  schools,  we 
find  in  the  normal,  or  model  school  of  Kindermaini,  at  Kaplitz  in 
Bohemia.  In  1773,  he  taught  and  demonstrated  to  his  pupil-teacliers, 
and  the  country  school-masters,  how  to  occupy  a  portion  of  their  own 
time  and  that  of  their  older  pupils,  in  and  out  of  school  hours,  in  such 
in-door  industries  as  knitting,  sewing,  wool  carding,  and  spinning,  and 
out-door  work  as  kitchen  gardening,  culture  of  trees,  and  raising  silk- 
worms. ''  The  advantages  of  these  occupations  are  great  and  impor- 
tant. They  protect  against  vice  and  crime,  and  promote  the  welfare 
of  human  society."  Under  his  lead,  in  the  first  year  of  this  century, 
2,644  public  schools  were  in  operation  in  Bohemia,  54  of  which  were 
burgher-schools,  in  which  the  aim  was  "  to  give  the  future  citizen  an 
instruction  adapted  to  his  special  occupation." 

Instruction  in  needle-work  and  like  feminine  employments,  is  now 
usual  in  the  female  schools,  and  the  girls*  classes  in  mixed  schools,  and 
receives  special  attention  in  the  industrial  schools  of  the  religious  cor- 
porations and  ladies'  societies.  Instruction  in  the  care  of  mulberry 
trees,  grape  vines,  bees,  and  orchards  is  given  in  the  normal  schools, 
and  by  their  pupils  to  the  older  boys  in  a  large  number  of  districts. 


In  close  connection  with  the  common  school,  and  through  the  same 
agencies,  the  "further  instruction"  of  boys  after  leaving  school  and  en- 
tering into  apprenticeship,  is  carried  on  with  the  assistance  and  special 
inspection  of  Chambers  of  Commerce,  and  local  associations  of  trades- 
men. The  instruction  is  given  on  Sunday  and  holidays  (except  the 
high  feasts),  and  in  the  morning  and  evening  of  other  days.  It  is 
not  confined  to  a  review  of  the  rudimentary  studies,  but  is  extended 
to  higher  arithmetical  calculations,  book-keeping,  bank  dealings,  busi- 
ness correspondence  and  forms,  natural  history,  and  particularly  to 
drawing.  A  re-cord  of  attendance  is  kept,  and  delinquent  parents 
and  employers  are  fined,  and  proprietors  of  large  establishments  are 
subject  to  arrest  and  imprisonment  for  persistent  neglect  in  respect  to 
their  apprentices  and  other  juvenile  operatives. 



The  burgher  school,  which  belongs  to  the  primary  system,  origi- 
nally intended  to  prepare  pupils  for  the  occupation  of  tradesmen  and 
mechanics  by  a  better  general  education,  has  become  a  subordinate 
real  school,  the  students  generally  entering  the  higher  real  school  after 
finishing  the  course. 

There  are  thirty  hours  of  instruction  per  week,  embracing  re- 
ligion, composition,  German,  arithmetic,  geography,  natural  philos- 
ophy, chemistry,  geometry,  architecture,  geometrical  and  architect- 
ural drawing,  and  a  little  historical  detail.  French,  Italian,  English, 
music,  and  gymnastics,  are  optional.  The  tuition  fees  are  small, 
and  are  remitted  if  the  pupil  is  poor  and  has  conducted  himself  well. 

In  1865,  there  were  117,  of  which  but  seven  gave  a  three  years' 
course,  the  rest  only  two  years  ;  instruction  being  given  by  the  director 
and  catechist  of  the  primary  high  school,  with  3Q5  additional  teachers. 
The  instruction  in  arithmetic,  German  composition,  geography,  natural 
philosophy,  chemistry  and  drawing,  is  given  in  the  h  gher  classes  in 
special  reference  to  a  commercial  and  mechanical  career. 



The  object  of  the  real  school  is  to  give  to  its  pupils  a  general  edu- 
cation, the  dead  languages  being  excepted,  and  "to  fit  them  to  enter 
the  technical  schools,  or  to  pursue  industrial  careers." 

They  have  been  gradually  developing  since  1751,  but  do  not  ap- 
pear as  distinct  organizations  before  1851.  In  1863,  there  were 
forty  of  them  in  the  Austrian  empire,  of  which  there  are  sixteen 
"  lower  real  schools,"  with  a  course  of  only  three  years,  and  twenty- 
four  "  complete  real  schools,"  which  carry  their  students  through  six 
years,  thus  adding  three  years  to  the  course  at  the  lower  real  school. 
There  is,  in  three  of  the  lower  schools,  an  additional  class,  in  which 
instruction  is  given  in  technology,  commodities  raw  and  manufactured, 
commercial  transactions,  and  particularly  in  drawing. 

The  lower  real  schools  turn  out  pupils  well  prepared,  theoretically, 
to  become  master  workmen  and  overseers ;  those  called  complete, 
prepare  students  who  finish  the  course,  to  enter  the  technical  schools. 

The  course  of  study  varies  somewhat  in  different  places.  The 
obligatory  studies  are,  German  (or  the  language  of  the  province), 
one  modern  language — French,  Italian,  or  English,  geography,  his- 
tory, arithmetic,  geometry,  physics,  chemistry,  commercial  law,  nat- 
ural history,  drawing,  modeling  (in  the  highest  class),  ornamental 
penmanship,  architecture,  and  mechanics.  Latin  has  been  added  in 
some  of  the  lowest  classes.     The  modem  languages,  singing,  gym- 


nasties,  and  stenography  are  optional.  Of  the  above  studies,  element- 
ary mathematics,  machinery,  and  the  modern  tongues  are  taught  only 
in  tlie  higher  classes,  in  which  calligraphy  is  no  longer  obligatory. 

The  complete  schools  have  twelve  professors,  the  lower  schools 
seven.  Those  applying  for  these  positions  must  pass  an  examination 
as  to  their  scientific  attainments,  and  undergo  a  year's  probation  in  a 
public  real  school,  before  receiving  the  appointment.  At  the  head 
of  the  corps  of  teachers  is  a  director,  who,  with  the  council  of  teachers, 
governs  the  school,  subject  to  the  supervision  of  the  general  coun- 
cilor of  schools. 

The  fees  paid  by  pupils  vary  from  eight  to  twenty  florins  annually, 
besides  a  fee  of  about  two  florins  at  admission.  All  the  fees  may  be 
remitted  to  poor  pupils  conducting  themselves  well. 

The  yearly  expenses  of  a  lower  school  amount  to  from  8,000  to 
11,000  florins  ;  of  a  higher  school,  to  from  15,000  to  20,000.  They 
are  either  imperial  royal,  in  which  case  the  general  government  sup- 
ports them,  or  communal,  supported  by  the  towns.  Besides  these, 
two  are  endowed,  and  one  is  private,  assimilated. 


Technical  instruction  in  Austria  is  of  very  long  standing,  and 
at  the  beginning  of  this  century  three  important  technical  schools 
were  in  operation,  and  others  were  instituted  long  before  the  neigh- 
boring German  States  had  moved  in  this  direction. 

In  1717,  a  professorship  for  military  and  civil  engineering  was 
established  at  Prague,  which  gradually  extended  itself  into  a  school 
of  engineering,  and  became  in  1806  the  first  independent  polytechnic 
school  in  Austria.  It  has  undergone  many  changes,  and  in  1865  ^vas 
organized  on  the  plan  of  special  schools,  unitmg  on  a  general  prepar- 
atory course. 

In  1745,  the  Empress  Maria  Theresa  organized  in  Vienna  the  first 
university  lectures  on  experimental  physics,  and  in  1757,  on  mechan- 
ics, and  in  1763,  permitted  instruction  in  book-keeping  to  be  given  at 
the  Piarist  schools,  and  at  the  same  time  established  several  schools 
for  apprentices.  In  1770,  a  Real  and  Mercantile  Academy  was  es- 
tablished in  Vienna,  which  became  in  1816  the  polytechnic  institute. 

In  the  year  1763,  the  first  lectures  were  held  on  mining  nt  Schem- 
nitz,  and  in  1770,  the  school  in  Prague  being  given  up,  the  Mining 
Academy  was  founded  there.  Its  fame  was  soon  so  great  that 
Fourcroy,  in  his  brilliant  speech  made  in  the  French  National  As- 
sembly, 1794,  as  an  incentive  to  the  erection  of  the  polytechnic  school 
in  Paris,  referred  to  this  school  as  a  well  known  model  for  imitation. 





-     25 




-     11 




-     24 





In  1811,  the  Johanneum  in  Gratz  was  founded  by  the  Archduke 
John,  as  a  museum  and  institution  for  natural  sciences,  and  was 
afterwards  changed,  little  by  little,  into  a  polytechnic  institute. 

In  1843,  the  Real  and  Mercantile  School  in  Lemberg  was  changed, 
by  the  addition  of  several  courses,  into  a  technical  institute,  and  in 
1846,  a  technical  school  was  founded  at  Cracow,  and  in  1849,  an- 
other at  Briinn. 

In  1856,  the  Industrial  School  at  Pesth  was  removed  to  Ofen,  and 
received  there  the  organization  of  a  Polytechnic  Institute,  so  that  in 
1859  there  were  seven  technical  institutions  of  the  first  class,  with 
157  professors,  and  3,531  students,  distributed  as  follows : 

Vienna  Polytechnic  Institute, 

Prague        '     "  "        - 

Briinn  "  "  -  - 

Lemberg  "  "        - 

Cracow  "  "  -  - 

Ofen  "  «... 

Gratz  "  "  -  - 

The  plan  of  instruction  embraced  both  technical  and  commercial 
studies,  except  at  Prague  and  Ofefl,  where  technical  instruction  only 
was  given.  In  Vienna  there  was  a  preparatory  school,  and  a  school 
of  industrial  drawing,  which  accounts  for  the  larger  number  of  pupils  ; 
Cracow  has  a  school  of  fine  arts,  and  of  music,  and  Ofen  a  prepara- 
tory school. 

In  1850,  a  reorganization  of  the  technical  institutions  was  proposed, 
by  which  they  should  be  raised  into  institutes  of  the  highest  class, 
with  a  system  of  special  schools,  as  had  been  already  instituted  at 
Carlsruhe.  After  many  years  of  agitation,  in  which  the  professors, 
and  large  manufacturers,  and  capitalists,  as  well  as  statesmen,  took 
part,  a  new  plan  of  studies  was  introduced  at  Prague  in  1864-65  ;  at 
Gratz  in  1865-66,  and  in  Vienna  in  1866-67.  At  Vienna  and  Prague 
there  are  four  schools :  1.  Civil  Engineering;  2.  Architecture;  3.  Ma- 
chinery; 4.  Technical  Chemisti-y.  At  Gratz,  agriculture  and  forest 
economy,  and  surveying  take  the  place  of  architecture.  At  Gratz  and 
Vienna  there  are  two  general  classes,  which  precede  the  special  courses. 
At  Briinn  by  decree  of  1866,  two  regular  courses  for  construction 
of  machinery  and  technical  chemistry,  and  three  special  courses,  one 
for  commerce,  and  one  for  master  mechanics  and  builders,  and  a 
third  for  miners,  have  been  established. 

Besides  the  Technical  schools,  there  has  grown  up  in  Austria  spe- 
cial schools  of  Agriculture,  Commerce,  Navigation,  &c.,  of  which  a 
rapid  survey  will  now  be  given,  drawn  from  original  documents,  and 
the  reports  of  the  French  and  English  commissioners. 



We  will  now  give  from  official  documents,  or  from  the  Reports  of  the  English 
and  French  Commissions,  drawn  np  from  the  same  or  similar  documents,  with 
the  advantjio-c  of  recent  jiorsonal  visits  to  the  institutions  described,  a  brief  notice 
of  a  few  specimens  of  each  grade  of  scientific  and  technical  instruction. 


The  schools,  which  are  known  in  Prussia  and  great  part  of  Germany  by  the 
..anicof  Improvement  Schools  (Forthildungschden)  are  in  Austria  called  Trade 
Schools  (Gcwei'beschulen),  or  industrial  schools.  The  confusion  which  these  dif- 
ferent significations  of  names  may  cause,  ceases  when  we  examine  the  object,  the 
conditions,  and  the  nature  of  the  instruction  given  in  these  establishments. 
Their  creation  in  Austria,  and  in  Vienna  especially,  dates  only  from  the  year 
1857,  when  the  Industrial  Society  was  formed,  with  the  approbation  of  the  Gov- 
ernment and  the  assistance  of  the  municipality. 

The  members  of  this  Society  imposed  on  themselves,  in  principle,  the  obliga- 
tion of  sending  their  apprentices,  during  the  last  year  at  least  of  their  time,  to 
follow  the  classes,  which,  under  the  title  of  Gewerhesohulen,  should  be  opened  in 
the  Real  or  practical  schools  of  the  State  or  those  of  the  town,  and  also  to  pay  a 
subscription  in  pro})ortion  to  the  importance  of  their  establishments,  even  when 
they  had  no  apprentices.  This  voluntary  contribution  is  fixed  at  four  kreutzers 
per  florin  (or  one-fifteenth)  of  the  taxes  paid.  On  the  other  hand,  it  was  decided 
that^  the  apprentices  should  attend  these  classes  during  their  last  year,  or  in  de- 
fault should  not  be  regarded  as  having  finished  their  apprenticeship. 

The  teaching  in  each  of  these  schools  is  under  the  supervision  of  the  director, 
and  is  given  by  the  professors  of  the  practical  school  to  which  it  is  attached.  The 
latter  receive  an  addition  to  their  salary  in  proportion  to  the  number  of  hours' 
lessons  ;  if  one  of  the  professors  be  unable  to  undertake  this  additional  work,  the 
director  appoints  another  person  in  his  stead. 

In  1861,  owing  to  the  efforts  made  by  the  Chambers  of  Commerce  and  the 
manufacturers,  there  already  existed  in  the  suburbs  of  Vienna  five  of  these 
schools  annexed  to  the  practical  schools  of  Gumpendorf,  Wieden,  Landstrasse, 
Jiigerzeile,  and  Schottenfeld,  as  well  a  sa  school  of  yvQ&\mg  (Weberschule)  at  Gum- 
pendorf, and  a  practical  school  of  building.  They  have  the  use  of  the  premises, 
collections,  and  teaching  appliances  of  the  practical  schools  without  any  expense ; 
but  the  models  of  a  mor«  technical  kind  required  are  purchased  with  their  own 


There  are  six  trade  or  industrial  schools  in  Vienna  attached  to  the  Eeal 
Gymnasium  or  Practical  Schools,  having  a  general  resemblance,  but  with  special 
instruction  adapted  to  the  vocation  of  the  pupils  who  are  apprentices  and  journey- 
men from  the  vicinity  of  the  school. 

The  instruction  is  divided  into  an  elementary  section  having  two  classes,  and 
several  sections  relating  to  different  industrial  specialties.  In  the  elementary 
section  theoretical  instruction  is  given  and  the  pupils  are  practised  in  the  art  of 
drawing,  with  especial  adaptation  to  the  future  career  of  each.  In  the  special 
sections,  the  knowledge  acquired  is  apphed  to  the  branches  of  industry  chosen 


by  the  pupil.  The  organization  of  the  specialties  must  be  adapted,  in  every  dis- 
trict, to  the  requirements  of  the  local  industries.  The  specialties  of  the  Gum- 
pendorf  school  are  therefore  principally  those  necessary  for  weavers,  workers  in 
silk,  ribbons,  trimmings,  dyeing,  &c.  The  school  of  Wieden  has  specialties  con- 
nected with  machinery,  and  such  trades  as  brass-turners,  joiners,  bookbinders, 
workers  in  copper  and  bronze,  founders,  &c.  In  the  Jsegerzeile  school  the 
courses  bear  chiefly  on  the  building  trades. 

The  number  of  hours  is  nine  and.  a  half  during  the  week,  partly  after  half-past 
six  in  the  evening,  and  partly  on  Sundays  in  the  forenoon.  No  class  must  ex- 
ceed 50  pupils ;  if  there  are  more,  it  must  be  divided  into  two.  In  the  first  class 
of  the  elementary  section  the  time  allotted  to  the  different  lessons  is  as  follows  : 
Religion,  30  minutes ;  German  language,  2  hours ;  arithmetic,  2  hours ;  calli- 
graphy, 1  hour;  drawing,  4  hours;  total,  9^  hours  per  week. 

The  following  is  the  allotment  of  time  in  the  second  class  of  the  elementary 
section  :  Religion,  half  hour ;  German,  exercises  in  style  and  commercial  corres- 
pondence, 1  hour ;  arithmetic  and  mensuration,  1  hour ;  elements  of  physics,  2 
hours ;  geography,  1  hour ;  drawing,  geometrical  and  free-hand,  projections, 
drawing  of  figures  and  ornament,  and  modeling,  4  hours ;  total,  9|  hours  per 

By  this  arrangement  a  single  pupil  attends,  including  the  three  kinds  of  draw- 
ing, 17|  hours  instruction  per  week  at  most. 

In  the  special  sections  the  lessons  are  thus  distributed  :  Industrial  drawing, 
4  hours  ;  architectural  drawing,  estimates,  4  hours  ;  drawing  of  machines,  me- 
chanics, study  of  machines,  4  hours ;  modeling,  and  drawing  from  the  round,  4 
hours ;  general  chemistry,  1  hour ;  study  of  raw  materials,  1  hour ;  commercial 
book-keeping,  &c.,  1  hour;  applied  mechanics,  1  hour;  applied  chemistry,  1  hour; 
total,  21  hours  per  week. 

In  the  two  elementary  sections,  the  instruction  is  compulsory  for  all  the  courses. 
In  the  special  sections,  on  the  contrary,  the  choice  of  courses  is  left  to  the  pupils. 

The  school  year  commences  on  the  1st  of  October  and  ends  on  the  31st  of  July. 
At  the  end  of  the  year,  the  pupils  receive  certificates  giving  an  account  of  their 
behavior,  application,  and  progress  in  the  different  branches.  The  most  pro- 
ficient pupils  receive  as  prizes  silver  or  bronze  medals,  or  honorable  mentions. 

The  director  of  the  practical  school,  to  which  the  school  for  apprentices  is 
annexed,  is  the  principal  manager.  He,  however,  shares  this  authority  with  a 
delegate  of  the  Industrial  Society.  They  both  endeavor  to  introduce  into  the 
teaching  all  the  improvements  required  by  the  necessities  of  the  local  industries 
as  indicated  by  the  presidents  of  the  industrial  associations  which  patronize  the 
schools.  The  instruction,  as  already  stated,  is  given* by  the  professors  of  the 
corresponding  courses  of  the  practical  school  (Realsckule,)  provided  that  the  pro- 
fessors have  sufficient  time  at  their  disposal  and  are  satisfied  with  the  payment 
offered.  When  any  professor  declines  to  undertake  a  course  in  the  apprentice 
school,  the  director  has  to  look  for  a  teacher  elsewhere.  For  the  technical  in- 
struction, the  director  may,  with  the  authorization  of  the  municipal  authority, 
admit  as  pi-ofessors  either  manufacturers  or  foremen,  who,  in  everA-^thing  con- 
nected with  the  teaching,  will  be  under  his  orders.  For  the  purchase  of  apparatus 
and  all  things  necessary  for  consumption  and  use,  there  is  a  yearly  budget  placed 
at  the  disposal  of  the  director  in  concert  with  the  professor  of  the  specialty  con- 

-  The  general  management  of  the  trade  schools  of  Vienna  is  entrusted  to  a 
council  composed  of  the  presidents  and  vice-presidents  of  the  chambers  of  com- 


moroe  and  manufactures,  of  the  representatives  of  the  province  and  city  of  Vienna, 
of  the  president  of  the  committee  of  each  school,  and,  lastly,  of  members  of  the 
cliambers  of  commerce  elected  for  the  purpose.  This  council  meets  on  certain 
days  in  general  assembly,  to  ascertain,  in  the  presence  of  the  directors,  the  state 
of  the  schools  and  to  deliberate  on  the  means  of  extending  their  usefulness. 

Every  member  of  the  Industrial  Society  for  promoting  the  establishment  of 
schools,  whether  he  have  apprentices  or  not,  is  hound  to  pay  a  contribution  cal- 
culated on  such  a  basis  that  the  total,  with  the  addition  of  sundry  subventions, 
will  cover  the  v/hole  probable  expenses  of  the  school  during  the  current  year. 
By  so  doing,  he  has  the  right  to  send  his  apprentices  (if  they  have  received  the 
proper  elementary  instruction)  to  the  school,  without  any  further  payment,  ex- 
cept for  writing  and  drawing  materials.  Apprentices,  after  becoming  journey- 
men, cannot  continue  to  attend  the  school  without  the  payment  of  regular  fees. 

2.  manufacturers'  and  tradesmen's  school  of  PRAGUE. 

In  1847,  the  Society  for  the  Encouragement  of  Industry  in  Bohemia  founded 
a  Sunday  and  evening  school  for  drawing  and  modeling  in  plaster  for  appren- 
tices in  Prague,  which,  in  1860,  was  extended  in  its  range  and  thoroughness  of 
instruction  to  the  working  classes  generally.  The  plan  was  drawn  up  by  an 
eminent  engineer,  who  had  studied  the  organization  of  industrial  education  in 
France  and  other  countries,  and  adopted  by  the  Diet  of  Bohemia  and  the 
council  of  the  town. 

T3ie  town  provided  a  building  for  the  establishment,  as  well  as  the  furniture, 
and  a  yearly  grant  of  1,500  florins,  the  D^et  voted  2,000  florins,  and  the  Indus- 
trial Society  engaged  to  give  another  2,000  florins.  The  school,  therefore,  has 
a  fixed  income  o£  5,500  florins.  The  immediate  superintendence  of  the  school  is 
entrusted  to  a  ccruncil  of  three  members  elected  by  the  Diet,  three  members  of 
the  municipal  council,  and  three  members  of  the  Industrial  Society. 

The  school  was  opened  in  1863.  .The  pupils  are  taught  through  the  medium 
of  both  the  German  and  the  Bohemian  languages,  which,  in  some  cases,  renders 
two  professors  necessary  for  the  subjects.  The  16  professors  are  nearly  all 
attached  to  the  professorial  staff's  of  the  two  higher  practical  schools  of  the  town, 
in  the  different  class-rooms  of  which  the  lessons  are  given. 

The  plan  of  studies  for  the  year  1867-68  is  as  follows : 

'  From  8  to  9  a.m.,         -      Technology. 
From  8  to  10  p.m.,       -     Practical  weaving. 

f  Exercises  in  linear  drawing. 

T?,,^^"  1  n  *«  1  o  o  ™  j  Exercises  in  free-hand  drawng. 

xirom  10  to  12  a.m.,    -      •<  i-v       •         /?        i  •  ^ 

'  j  Drawmg  of  machines. 

[  Free-hand  drawing  of  ornament. 

f  Exercises  in  linear  drawing. 

From  2  to  4  D  m  -      -I  ^^^^^-'-^^^  ^^  free-hand  drawing. 

j  Drawings  for  construction  of  buildings. 
[  Free-hand  drawing  of  ornament. 

One  hour, 

Lectures  on  machines. 

rri       1      __  i  Natural  history. 

^  Two  hours,  -  -      ]  Algebra  and  geometry. 

rp    ^  ,  ^  ,„  (  Drawing  for  construction  of  buildings. 

Two  hours,  .  .      I  Modeling. 


>->    • 

One  hour, 

(  Arithmetic. 

(  Art  of  construction. 

11  ■ 

Two  hours, 

j  Written  compositions  and  style. 
(  Chemistry. 

H  1 

I  Drawing'of  machines. 

Two  hours, 

-       .;  Modeling. 

i'  Drawing  of  patterns. 


One  hour. 

-    Algebra  and  geometry. 

1  =' 

(  Lectures  on  machines. 

=  1   - 

Two  hours, 

}  Art  of  construction. 


(  Lessons  in  ornamentation. 


Two  hours,      - 

-    Drawing  of  patterns. 


One  hour. 

(  Physics  and  mechanics. 
I  Technology. 

'T  -5  . 

r  Lectures  on  machines. 


Two  hours. 

}  Art  of  construction. 


1 '  Modeling.                            '' 

1  Greography. 


One  hour. 

)  Natural  history. 


1 '  Lectures  on  machines. 

ll  - 


Two  hours, 

)  Book-keeping. 

OQ  o 

Two  hours, 

(  Physics  and  mechanics. 

-    Modeling. 

In  -winter  evening  classes  are  held  from  half-past  six  to  half-past  eight,  and  in 
summer  from  seven  to  nine  o'clock.  The  lectures  and  drawing  relating  to  the 
building  arts  end  at  Easter,  those  for  other  industries  last  from  the  beginning  of 
October  to  the  end  of  July.  Candidates  for  admission  to  the  preparatory  school 
must  be  able  to  read,  write,  and  calculate;  and  to  attend  the  courses  of  the 
special  diA-isions  they  must  produce  a  certificate  of  capacity  from  the  preparatory 
school,  or  fi-om  a  lower  real  school.  The  fee  is  half  a  florin  a  year  for  each 
course  attended ;  it  is  paid  half-yeai'ly,  and  in  advance. 

The  technical  and  practical  teaching  is  distributed  into  five  principal  divisions, 
according  to  the  branches  of  industry  in  which  the  pupils  are  engaged. 

The  Jirst  is  the  school  for  the  building  trades,  for  masons,  stone-cutters,  car- 
penters, joiners,  &c. ;  the  instruction  includes  geometry,  the  elements  of  algebra, 
the  art  of  building  in  general,  drawing  for  building  and  modeling,  notions  of 
physics  and  mechanics,  the  effects  of  heat ;  these  studies  require  two  winter  half- 
years.  The  second  is  the  school  for  the  construction  of  machines  ;  for  smiths, 
mechanicians,  conductors  of  machines,  coppersmiths,  modelers,  joiners,  «S:c. ;  they 
are  taught  geometry,  the  rudiments  of  algebra,  the  elements  of  physics  and  me- 
chanics, the  description  and  study  of  machines,  and  also  drawing ;  these  studies 
require  two  years.  The  third,  or  chemical  school,  is  for  dyers,  brewers,  tanners, 
soapboilers,  &c. ;  the  lectiires  treat  of  general  chemistry  and  chemical  technology. 
The  foiuih  is  the  school  for  wea-\dng  and  spinning ;  here  the  pupils  are  taught 
practical  weaving,  the  calculations  relative  thereto,  the  preparations  of  the  cards, 
taking  out  of  patterns,  &c.  Th.&  fifth,  or  school  of  industrial  art,  is  intended  for 
manufacturers  of  porcelain  and  earthenware,  glass  blowers,  goldsmiths,  confec- 
tioners, &c. ;  the  instruction  consists  of  drawing  and  modeling. 

At  the  close  of  the  courses  there  are  examinations,  after  which  certificates  of 
capacity  are  given  to  the  deserving,  and  the  two  pupils  at  the  head  of  each  divis- 
ion receive  prizes.  The  number  of  workmen  who  attended  the  Prague  school  in 
1863-64  was  762.  The  expense  was  5,900  florins,  of  which  2,380  was  for  pro- 
fessors, besides  1,620  for  drawing  and  modchng. 



3.  mechanics'  school  at  bruewn. 

In  1851,  the  Chamber  of  Industry  and  Comnxerce  in  Briinn  (a  city,  in  1860, 
of  45,000  inhabitants,)  stimulated  by  the  government  activity  in  tlie  thorough 
organization  of  real  schools,  established  a  Mechanics'  school  with  two  sections, 
the  elementary  for  apprentices,  who  arc  deficient  in  even  primary  education  ;  and  a 
higher  for  siich  additional  studies  as  geometry,  physics,  free-hand,  and  geometri- 
cal drawing,  besides  lectures  and  practice  in  book-keeping,  banking,  and  com- 
mercial correspondence.     Chemistry  is  an  optional  study  for  ten  hours  a  week. 

The  pupils  are  divided  into  three  principal  classes:  (1)  for  builders,  with  a 
special  winter  course  for  masons,  joiners,  and  stone-cutters;  (2)  for  mechanics, 
including  a  special  class  in  weaving ;  (3)  for  technical  applications  of  chemistry. 

The  instruction  is  given  on  Sunday,  and  the  evenings,  and  in  the  winter,  one 
hour  by  daylight,  on  Thursdays,  is  secured  for  drawing.  Besides,  several  special 
assistants  ;  and  in  the  weaving  class,  two  foremen  from  the  largest  establishment 
in  the  city,  twenty  teachers  from  the  real  school,  higher  technical  institute,  and 
gymnasium,  are  employed.     The  school  is  free,  and  the  attendance  large. 

In  1867,  there  were  87  Keal  schools  of  the  lower  or  three  years'  course,  and  24 
of  the  higher  or  five  years'  course.     These  are  all  located  in  the  chief  towns,  but 
draw  their  pupils  from  all  parts  of  the  districts  where  they  are  placed. 


This  school,  the  origin  of  which  the  Bohemians  trace  with  justifiable  pride 
throogh  the  successive  transformations,  which  the  progress  of  industry  rendered 
necessary,  to  the  year  1576,  in  the  reign  of  Rudolph  II.,  an  epoch  long  anterior 
to  the  foundation  of  most  of  the  schools  now  existing  in  Germany,  follows  the 
same  programme*  of  studies  as  the  Vienna  schools,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  fol- 
lowing table.  The  pupils,  (513  in  1867,)  are  divided  into  six  classes,  requiring 
six  years.     The  subjects  of  instruction  and  number  of  hours  are  indicated  below. 







6  th 



Religious  instruction. 








German  language, 








Geography  and  history. 
















Natural  history,  -         -         - 








Useful  knowledge, 






Bohemian  language,    - 








Calligraphy,        -        -        - 








Freehand  drawing, 
















Construction  of  buildings,  - 








Mathematics,       .        .        _ 








Linear  draAving,  - 








Physics,       -         -         -         - 








Description  of  machines,     - 







Drawing  of  machines. 








Modeling,    -        -        -        - 








Geometry  and    construction 

drawing,          -        -        -  ^ 








Italian,      .        -        ,         ^ 




French,      -        -        -          \{ 








Stenography,     -        -         S 





The  FrcncH  commissioners  remark :  Of  all  the  practical  schools  in  Grermany 
that  of  Prague  is  certainly  the  one  where  linear  drawing  is  best  taught,  and  we 
are  inclined  to  attribute  this  fact  to  the  attention  given  from  the  very  outset  to 
the  practice  of  freeliand  drawing,  which  early  habituates  the  pupil  to  trace  his 
lines  with  a  light  hand. 

The  instruction  is  given  in  German  and  Bohemian,  but  the  professors  are  free 
to  choose  Avhich  language  they  please.  There  are,  in  some  cases,  professors  of 
each  lainguage  for  the  same  course.  The  class-rooms,  amphitheatres,  and  labo- 
ratories are  spacious  and  well  arranged.  The  collections  are  well  stocked  with 
models,  and  the  workshop  for  modeling  will  accommodate  25  pupils  at  once. 


The  Imperial  gymnasium  in  the  Landstrasse  is  accommodated  in  a  building 
rented  for  the  purpose,  formerly  the  residence  of  Prince  Lichtenstein.  It  has 
numerous  collections,  especially  of  mineralogy  and  natural  history.  Well  ar- 
ranged laboratories  have  been  fitted  up  to  enable  the  pupils  who  are  so  disposed 
to  make  themselves  acquainted  with  the  elements  of  chemical  manipulation. 
There  is  a  workshop  for  modeling,  and  the  pupils  are  exercised  in  that  art  from 
a  drawing,  and  conversely  in  drawing  from  models.  The  drawing-class  rooms 
are  very  spacious  and  well  lighted :  the  pupils  have  plenty  of  room.  For  draw- 
ing from  the  round  or  from  models  in  relief,  even  elementary,  there  are  cabinets 
or  cells  lined  with  green  cloth,  and  in  which  the  models  are  lighted  by  a  single 
gas  burner,  so  that  the  shadows  may  be  more  distinct. 

The  time  devoted,  weekly,  to  lessons  and  graphic  exercises,  under  the  eye  of  the 
professors,  is  distributed  as  sho^vn  in  the  following  table  : 






6  th 










Religion,   -            -            - 
























GeiTTian,    -            -            - 








Geography  and  history,   - 








Natural  history,    - 








Physics,     - 
















Writing  or  calligraphy,     - 








Freehand  drawing. 








Descriptive  geometry  draw- 









Linear  drawing  of  buildings, 








]Machine  drawing, 








Lectures  on  machines. 








Modeling,  - 








The  time,  per  week,  allotted  to  optional  studies,  is  as  follows  :  English  language, 
5  hours  ;  Italian  language,  3  ;  French  language,  3  ;  stenography,  2 ;  singing,  2 ; 
gymnastics,  2. 

We  see  by  this  table  the  immense  importance  attacbed  to  the  teaching  of  free- 
hand drawing,  almost  exclusively  executed  from  models  in  relief.  For  the  six 
classes  it  occupies  39  hours  per  week,  whilst  to  linear  d^a^ving  with  rule  and 
compass  only  16  hours  are  given. 



At  the  close  of  every  year  there  is  an  examination,  and  marks  arc  given ;  ac- 
cording to  the  results  the  pupils  pass  to  the  upper  classes.  According  to  the 
information  and  notes  of  each  professor  the  pupils  are  classed,  and  any  note 
stating  deficiency  in  a  single  branch  of  instruction  prevents  the  pupil  from  enter- 
ing the  upper  class,  and,  on  leaving,  deprives  him  of  tlie  certificate  of  satisfaction 
required  for  admission  to  the  technical  institutes.  It  is  evident,  by  these  rules, 
that  tlie  system  of  outdoor  pupils  is  compatible  with  strict  discipline.  When  a 
pupil  leaves  the  sixth  class  of  a  higher  practical  school  with  a  certificate  of  emin- 
ence he  is  admitted  de  jure  into  the  first  class  of  the  Polytechnic  Institute,  other- 
wise he  must  go  through  a  year's  preparatory  studies.  The  examinations  are 
very  strict.  The  school  fee  at  Vienna  is  18  to  20  florins  a  year.  The  pupils 
who  perform  chemical  manipulations  in  the  laboratory  pay  an  additional  en- 
trance fee  of  two  florins  and  one  florin  per  month.  The  reagents  arc  furnished 
by  the  State. 


The  Eeal  gymnasium,  located  in  the  suburb  of  Wieden,  founded  by  the  city 
and  administered  by  the  municipal  authorities,  is  of  the  same  order  as  the  Gov- 
ernment School.  The  building  is  a  very  handsome  one,  and  is  most  conven- 
iently arranged.  The  class-rooms  for  drawing  and  study,  and  the  laboratories, 
are  large  and  well  lighted,  and  there  are  very  good  collections  of  apparatus  and 
models.  Drawing  is  taught  from  objects  and  models  in  relief.  Free-hand  draw- 
ing receives  far  greater  attention  than  linear  drawing  ;  the  former  has  38  hours 
weekly  in  the  diflerent  classes,  the  latter  only  eight,  and  yet  the  results  are  satis- 

The  subjects  of  instruction  are  distributed,  per  class  and  hours,  as  follows  : 







6  th 


Religion,    - 























German,    - 








Geography  and  history,    - 








Natural  history,    - 








Physics,     - 
















Writing  and  calligraphy,  - 








Descriptive  geometry. 








Free-hand  drawing. 








Linear  drawing  of  buildings 

and  machines,    - 








Lectures  on  machines, 








Construction  of  buildings. 








Total,   - 






We  see  by  this  table  that  the  distribution  of  time  and  lessons  is  almost  identi- 
cal with  that  adopted  at  the  Imperial  and  Royal  School  in  the  Landstrasse.  It 
is  the  same  with  regard  to  the  selection  of  the  subjects  for  drawing,  which,  after 
relating  to  questions  of  general  education,  are  divided  into  distinct  industrial 



The  object  of  the  technical  institutions  at  Vienna,  Prague,  and  Gratz,  is,  to 
give  a  thorough,  scientific,  and,  so  far  as  can  be  done,  also  practical  education. 
Instniction  is  imparted  in  separate  courses,  (Fachschulen,)  of  which  there  are  four 
at  Vienna  and  Prague;  1.  Construction  of  roads,  canals,  bridges,  &c.  2.  Ar- 
chitecture. 3.  Construction  of  machinery.  4.  Technical  chemistry.  Other 
technical  studies  are  not  excluded,  if  they  have  reference  to  the  above  courses. 

In  Gratz,  instead  of  architecture,  there  is  a  course  of  agriculture  and  forest 
economy.  Likewise  a  course  of  surveying  and  meadow  culture.  At  Gratz  and 
Vienna  the  accessory  studies,  which  form  the  general  scientific  basis  of  the  sepa- 
rate courses  (mathematies,  physics,  and  draAving,)  are  taught  in  two  general 
classes,  which  precede  the  separate  courses  of  study.  The  other  subjects  of  in- 
struction are  partly  such  as  must  be  taught  in  the  separate  courses,  in  corres- 
pondence with  the  aim  and  object  of  the  institution,  partly  such  as  offer  an  oppor- 
tunity to  students  for  other  and  deeper  studies. 

The  students  are  classed  as  ordinary  and  extraordinary. 

The  ordinary  students,  for  the  first  year's  course  at  Vienna  and  Prague,  must 
hold  either  a  certificate  from  a  real  school  or  gymnasium,  (besides  giving  evi- 
dence of  some  proficiency  in  free-hand  and  geometrical  drawing,)  or  pass  an 
examination  on  the  studies  of  the  same.  To  become  an  extraordinary  student  at 
any  of  the  three  polytechnic  schools,  the  candidate  must  give  proof  of  possessing 
sufiicient  preliminary  knowledge  to  enable  him  to  attend  the  lectures  with  profit. 

In  Vienna  and  Gratz,  the  ordinary  students  must  follow  strictly  the  plan  of 
studies  laid  down  for  each  year ;  unless,  with  the  consent  of  the  aiithorities  a 
different  plan  for  themselves  has  been  formed.  In  Prague,  the  plan  of  studies  is 
not  obligatory.  The  free  choice  of  lectures  is  permitted,  with  the  only  condition 
that  satisfactory  evidence  is  given  of  a  sufficient  preliminary  knowledge. 

The  charge  for  tuition  for  ordinary  students,  in  Vienna  and  Prague,  is  50 
florins;  in  Gratz,  for  ordinary  and  extraordinary  students,  30  florins.  Thechai*ge 
for  the  extraordinary  students,  at  Vienna,  is  at  the  rate  of  1  florin  50  kreuzers 
for  each  lecture  (two  drawing  hours  are  counted  as  one).  Extra  lectures  are 
to  be  paid  for  separately.  Students,  unable  to  pay,  who  show  great  abilities,  may 
be  allowed  to  study  partly  or  totally  free  of  charge. 

The  internal  administration  of  these  institutions  is  in  the  hands  of  a  board  of 
professors,  at  whose  head  is  a  rector,  (called  director  at  Gratz,)  who  is  chosen 
annually  by  the  professors.  The  choice  must  be  confirmed  by  the  government. 
In  Vienna,  he  can  only  be  chosen  again  after  two  years'  interval.  The  rectors  at 
Vienna  and  Prague  have  an  additional  salary  of  1,000  florins;  the  director  at 
Gratz,  who  is  chosen  annually  from  among  the  professors  of  some  other  technical 
school,  has  500  florins.  The  board  of  professors  is  formed  by  all  the  ordinary 
and  extraordinary  professors  and  representatives  of  the  tutors  (docenten). 

Each  of  the  separate  divisions  has  a  president,  who  is  chosen  from  among  the 
ordinary  professors  engaged  in  each  separate  course  of  study,  in  Vienna  for  tAvo 
years,  in  Gratz  and  Prague  for  one  year.  These  presidents  superintend  the 
course  of  studies  as  Avell  as  the  discipline  of  the  students  in  each  division.  Each 
division  has  again  its  own  boai-d  of  professors,  which  settles  the  claims  of  stu- 
dents to  dispense  with  one  or  the  other  course  of  studies,  to  decide  in  doubtful 
cases  as  to  the  admission  of  students,  and  their  promotion  to  the  next  class. 



The  Polytechnic  Institute  is  intended  to  give  the  pupils  who  follow  its  studies 
a  fundamental  scientific  education  adapted  to  the  profession  they  mean  to  adopt, 
and  to  make  them  so  well  acquainted  with  technical  and  scientific  progress  that 
they  may  be  able  without  further  prepai-ation  to  enter  on  the  duties  of  i)ractical 
life.     To  attain  this  end,  the  instruction  is  distributed  in  four  special  divisions : 

A.  Division,  bridges,  roads  and  civil  engmQcring  (Wassei' unci  Strassenbau). 

B.  Division  of  architecture  and  civil  buildings  (Hochhau). 

C.  Division  of  the  construction  of  machines  (Maschinenbaa). 

D.  Division  of  applied  chemistry  (Technische  Cheinie). 
The  following  instmction  is  common  to  all  the  pupils : 

I. — Mathematics.  Three  courses  of  a  year  each.  \st  Course. — Algebra,  an- 
alysis, elements  of  differential  calculus,  analytical  geometry,  plane  and  solid  (7 
hours).  2d  Course. — Higher  equations,  integral  and  differential  calculus,  with 
applications  to  geometry  (6  hours).  3d  Course. — Differential  equations,  varia- 
tions, calculations  of  least  squares  (5  hours). 

II. — Descuiptivk  Geometry.  1.  Orthogonal  projections,  oblique  and  polar 
in  general,  with  a  view  to  technical  applications,  (5  hours)  ;  drawing  of  buildings 
(10  hours).  2.  Sterootomy,  application  of  descriptive  geometry  to  cutring  of 
stones  and  voussoirs  (2  hours) ;  execution  of  models  in  stone-cutting  (4  hours). 

III. — Land  Surveying,  l.s^  Course. — Surveying,  leveling,  theory  and  de- 
scription of  instruments  and  apparatus  (5  hours)  ;  topographical  drawing  from 
models  (6  hours) ;  practical  surveying  and  leveling  in  the  field  (14  days  in  the 
year  at  least).  2a  Course. — Contouring;  geodesic  leveling  (3  hours) ;  practice 
in  the  field  (for  8  days  iu  the  year  at  least). 

iv^ — Mechanics  and  Construction  of  Machines.  1.  Elementary  me- 
chanics, terrestrial  statics  and  dynamics,  hydrostatics,  hydrodynamics,  aerostatics 
and  aerodynamics  (3  hours).  2.  Analytical  mechanics,  in  the  summer  term  (5 
hours).  3.  Mechanics  of  constructions  (3  hours) ;  drawing  of  machines  (6  hours). 
4.  Study  of  machines,  application  of  mechanics  to  the  theory  and  the  drawing  of 
machines  (no  time  specified).  5.  Construction  of  machines,  knowledge  of  ma- 
terials, and  instruction  in  certain  kinds  of  machines  (5  hours).  6.  Entyclopadia 
of  machines,  for  pupils  not  destined  for  any  specialty  (5  hours);  dra^ving  of  ma- 
chines (6  hours).    7.  Construction  of  machines  in  the  workshop  (at  kast  4  hours). 

V. — Technological  Mechanics.""  Working  of  metals,  wood  textile  sub- 
stances, spinning,  manufacture  of  Avoolen  tissues  and  of  paper  (5  hours). 

VII. — Architecture  and  Civil  Engineering.  1st  Course. — Mason's  and 
carpenter's  work,  constructions  in  iron,  materials  of  formation  and  stability  of 
buildings  (4  hours) ;  designs  of  construction  (no  time  given).  2.  2d  Course. — 
Technical  study  of  edifices,  Y)reparatory  works,  &c.,  (5  hours) ;  drawing  of  build- 
ings (6  hours).  3.  3d  Course. — Project  of  a  large  building  from  a  given  pro- 
gramme (12  hours).  4.  Studiesof  style  with  drawings  (courses  of  6  hours  each); 
modeling  in  c1j«5^  (6  hours). 

VII. — Hydraulic  Construction  and  Koad-making.  \st  Course. — Foun- 
dations, embankments,  lakes  and  canals,  construction  of  roads,  resistance  of 
bridges  and  railways  (5  hours)  ;  drawings  of  constructions  (no  time  given).  2d 
Cours?. — On  bridges  and  railways  (5  hours)  ;  drawing  of  ditto  (8  hours) ;  pro- 
jects of  hvdraulic  constructions  and  roads  from  a  given  programme  (8  hours). 

VIII. — General  notions  on  Hydraulic  Works  and  Road-making.  For 
pupils  not  destined  for  any  specialty  of  construction  (5  hours) ;  drawing  of"  build- 
ings (6  hours). 

IX. — Genkral  Physics.  1.  Statics,  dynamics,  magnetism,  electricity,  heat, 
optics,  acoustics  (5  hoars).  2.  Technical  physics  :  application  of  physics  to  tech- 
nical questions  and  industry,  pyrotechny,  telegraphy,  galvano-plastics  (2  hours). 

X. — General  Chemistry.  1.  Raw  materials  and  their  uses ;  working  of 
metals,  alloys;  study  of  salts;  organic  chemistry  (7  hours).  2.  Analytical 
chemistry  ;  use  of  the  blow-pipe  ;  qualitative  and  quantitative  analysis,  in  winter 
(5  hours) ;  practical  analyzing  in  the  laboratoiy  (two  courses  of  lo  hours  each). 
3.    Technological  chemistry:    \st  Course. — Chemical  fermentation   (in  winter); 


agricultural  chemistry,  bleaching  and  drying  (in  summer,  5  hours).  2c?  Course. — 
Manufacture  of  sugar  (in  winter,  no  time  specified)  ;  manufacture  of  glass,  chem- 
istry of  salts  (in  summer,  5  hours).  4.  Chemical  encyclopaedia,  for  pupils  not 
intending  to  follow  any  chemical  specialty. 

XI. — Mineralogy.     On  the  technical  and  industrial  applications  (in  summer). 

XII. — Geology  and  Paleontology.  Their  technical  and  industrial  bear- 
ings (3  hours). 

XIII. — Botany.     Technical  and  industrial  applications  (in  summer,  3  hours). 

XIV. — Zoology.     Technical  and  industrial  applications  (5  hours). 

XV. — Free-hand  Drawing.  According  to  their  special  technical  studies 
(4  hours). 


The  course  of  special  instruction  occupies  five  years  for  the  first  three  divisions 
of  the  first  category  of  pupils  (bridges  and  roads,  architecture,  construction  of 
machines,)  and  four  years  for  the  fourth  division  (applied  chemistry). 

The  subjects  of  instruction  are  spread  over  the  successive  years  as  follows : 

Division  A. — Bridges  and  Roads. 

First  Year. — Mathematics,  1st  course  (7  hours);  descriptive  geometry'  (5  hours) ; 
working  drawings  (10  hours) ;  general  physics  (.5  hours) ;  mineralogy  (4  hours) ; 
free-hand  drawing  (4  hours).     In  all,  35  hours  per  week. 

Second  Year. — Mathematics,  2d  course  ((•  hours) ;  land  surveying,  1st  course 
(5  hours) ;  drawing  of  plans  (6  hours) ;  elementary  mechanics  (.5  hours) ;  general 
chemistry  (3  hours) ;  technical  physics  (2  hours).  In  all,  27  hours  per  week ; 
and  during  the  summer  14  days  practical  surveying  in  the  field. 

Third  Year. — Mathematics,  3d  course  (5  houi's);  analytical  mechanics,  and 
description  of  machines  (5  hours) ;  drawing  of  machines  (6  hours) ;  architecture 
(4  hours) ;  drawing  of  buildings  (6  hours) ;  geology  (3  hours).  In  all,  29  hours 
per  week.     Besides  geological  excursions. 

Fourth  Year. — Road-making  and  hydraulic  works,  1st  course  (5  hours) ;  draw- 
ing for  ditto  (8  hours) ;  architecture,  2d  course  (5  hours);  draAving  for  ditto 
(6  hours) ;  mechanics  of  building  (3  hours) ;  cutting  of  stones  (2  hours) ;  prac- 
tical modeling  and  stone-cutting  (2  hours).     In  all  30  hours  per  week. 

Fifth  Year. — Road-making  and  hydraulic  works  (2  hours) ;  drawings  for  ditto 
(8  hours) ;  drawing  of  projects  (8  hours) ;  technical  mechanics  (.o  hours) ;  land 
surveying,  2d  course  (3  hours).  In  all,  25  hours  per  week,  and  also  at  least  a 
week  in  the  year  in  visiting  remarkable  engineering  works. 


Division  B. — Architecture  and  Civil  Constructions. 

First  ytar. — Same  as  Division  A. 

Second  year. — Same  as  Division  A,  plus  6  hours  per  week  for  the  study  of  style, 
1st  course.  ■ 

Third  year. — Same  as  Division  A,  plus  2d  course  of  style  (  6  hours). 

Fourth  year. — Same  as  Division  A,  plus  3d  course  of  style  (6  hours). 

Fifth  year. — Architecture  and  civil  constructions,  3d  course,  drawing  up  of 
projects  (12  hours) ;  national  economy  (5  hours  in  winter,  4  hours  in  summer) ; 
account-keeping  (3  hours) ;  technical  mechanics  (5  hours) ;  study  of  style,  4th 
course  (6  hours) ;  modeling  (6  hours).  In  all,  33  hours  per  week',  besides  visits 
to  interesting  constructions. 

Division  C. —  Construction  of  Machines. 

First  and  second  years.— Same  as  Division  A. 

TA/rc? yea/-.— Mathematics,  3d  course,  in  winter;  analytical  mechanics,  in 
summer  (5  hours) ;  drawing  of  machines  (6  hours) ;  encyclopaedia  of  construc- 
tion (5  hours);  drawing  of  buildings  (6  hours)  ;  geology  (8  hours).  In  all,  30 
hours  per  week. 

Fourth  year. — Construction  of  machines  (5  hours) ;  drawing  of  ditto  ( 10  hours) ; 
projects  of  ditto  (5  hours) ;    technological  mechanics   (5  hours)  ;  technological 


chemistry  and  metallurgy  (2  hours) :    national  economy,  in  winter  (5  hours)  ; 
aa'ount-keeping',  in  summer  (3  hours)  ;  practice  in  -workshop  (4  hours  at  least). 
In  all  3j  hours,  besides  visits  to  j;reat  workshops. 
Fifth  yea/-. — Practice  in  workshops. 

Division  D. — Technological  Chemistry. 

First  year. — Mathematics,  1st  course  (7  hours) ;  general  physics  (5  hours) ; 
mineralogy  (3  hours'  lessons,  1  hour  of  application) ;  zoology  in  winter,  botany, 
in  summer  (5  hours).     In  all  21  hours. 

Second  year — General  chemistry  (7  hours);  technical  physics  (2  hours);  gen- 
eral mechanics  (6  hours);  drawing  of  machines  (6  hours) ;  geology  (3  hours). 
In  all  23  hours,  besides  geological  excursions. 

Third  year. — Analytical  chemistry,  in  winter  (5  hours) ;  analysis  in  laboratory 
(15  hours) ;  technical  chemistry,  in  winter  (5  hours) ;  agricultural  chemistry,  in 
summer  (5  hours)  ;  encyclopaedia  of  construction  (5  hours)  ;  drawing  of  buildings 
(6  hours).     In  all  36  hours  per  week  in  winter,  31  in  summer. 

Fourth  year. — x\nalysing  in  laboratory  (at  least  15  hours) ;  sugar-making,  iron- 
works, glass-making,  pottery,  and  chemistry  of  salts  (5  hours) ;  national  economy 
and  account-keeping  (4  hours).     In  all  29  hours  per  week. 

It  Avill  be  seen  that  in  this  programme  the  instruction  given  to  mechanicians 
is  continued  without  interruption  for  four  years,  and  that  practice  in  workshops 
is  required  only  in  the  fifth  year,  which  appears  preferable  to  the  plan  adoptad 
at  Dresden,  of  obliging  the  pupils  to  pass  a  year  in  the  workshop  after  the  first 
year's  studies. 

The  institute  has  20  ordinary  professors,  11  extraordinary  professors  of  the 
first  class,  20  tutors,  and  6  masters.  The  number  of  pupils  in  1862-63  was  as 
follows  :  Natives  of  Prague,  120 ;  of  Bohemia,  575  ;  of  Moravia,  14 ;  of  other 
parts  of  the  empire,  38  ;  total,  747.  The  age  of  the  pupils  ranged  from  16  to 
25,  the  great  majority  (526)  being  between  19  and  23. 

The  Prague  Institute  possesses  numerous  collections  well  supplied  -with  the* 
necessary  appliances  for  teaching.  They  consist  of^ — 1.  A  library  with  from 
10,000  to  12,000  volumes.  2.  Complete  sets  of  models  for  descriptive  geometry, 
models  of  surfaces  generated  by  straight  lines,  &c.  3.  Instruments  for  topogra- 
phy, surveying,  and  leveling  for  the  use  of  the  pupils ;  topographical  models  in 
relief  (Bai-din's  system).  4.  Models  of  machines  in  great  number  and  variety; 
parts  of  machines ;  apparatus  to  demonstrate  the  laws  of  falling  bodies ;  dyna- 
mometers ;  divers  prime  movers.  5.  Instruments  for  physical  experiments,  com- 
prising most  of  the  new  inventions  in  that  department.  6.  Technology-v-differ- 
ent  tools ; 'raw  products,  &c.  7.  Architectiu'C — models  in  plaster;  handsome 
models  of  suspension  and  other  bridges  in  wood,  iron,  &c. ;  models  of  roofs  and 
other  carpenter's  work.  8.  Agriculture — well-executed  models  of  farming  ma- 
chinery and  implements.  9.  Natural  history  and  mineralogy — collection  of  min- 
erals and  rocks  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  pupils ;  birds,  reptiles,  &c. 

The  Institute  has,  for  the  study  of  applied  chemistry,  a  complete  laboratory, 
in  which  40  pupils  can  simultaneously  perform  the  principal  manipulations. 

The  French  commissioner  remarks,  "  Ave  found  here  linear  drawing  in  the  great- 
est perfection.  The  lines  are  fine  and  light ;  all  the  various  kinds  of  working  draw- 
ings are  executed  there,  and  the  projects  of  public  works,  buildings,  and  machines 
are  carefully  got  up." 




The  Polj'technic  Institute  in  "Vienna,  as  organized  in  1815,  was  the  culmina- 
tion of  efforts  begun  in  1765  to  shape  the  instruction  of  the  schools  to  meet  the 
special  wants  of  pupils  in  their  future  mechanical  or  commercial  occupations. 
In  1835-36,  we  found  it  the  best  equipped  school  of  its  class  (for  mechanical 
and  commercial  industries)  in  Europe,  and  it  was  thus  described  by  Prof.  Bache. 

The  whole  institution  is  intended  to  fulfill  a  threefold  purpose,  as  a  school  for 
the  mechanic  arts,  manufactures,  and  commerce,  as  a  conservatory  of  arts  and 
manufactures,  and  as  an  institute  for  the  promotion  of  national  industry.  The 
last  named  object  is  effected  by  public  exhibitions,  from  time  to  time,  of  the  pro- 
ducts of  manufactures,  under  the  direction  of  the  institute.  For  the  better  exe- 
cution of  this  object,  a  spacious  building  is  now  erecting  on  the  premises,  adapted 
to  the  occasional  display  and  permanent  deposit  of  specimens  of  the  mechanic 
arts.  The  collections  which  form  the  conservators  of  arts  are  also  used  for  in- 
struction in  the  school,  and  will  be  described  in  connection  with  it. 

Tlie  whole  institution  is  under  the  control  of  a  director,  who  is  responsible  to 
the  higher  authorities  of  public  instruction,  and  of  trade  and  manufactures.  The 
director  is  the  general  superintendent  of  the  business  of  the  institute  and  of  the 
instruction,  but  does  not  teach.  He  regulates  the  admission  of  pupils  and  the  dis- 
Xiipline.  The  money  concerns  are  imder  the  charge  of  a  treasurer,  who  is  re- 
sponsible to  the  director.  The  inferior  officers  are  responsible  to  the  same 
authority.  The  discipline  of  the  scholastic  department  is  simple  but  rigid,  no 
pupil  being  allowed  to  remain  connected  with  it  whose  deportment  is  not  proper. 
The  courses  are  gratuitous,  except  a  small  entrance  fee,  and  this  is  considered  as 
warranting  prompt  removal  when  the  pupil  does  not  perform  the  duties  prescribed 
by  the  institution. 

The  department  of  instruction  is  composed  of  three  schools,  a  technical,  a  com- 
mercial, and  a  "  real  school."  The  last  named  is  a  preparatory  school  for  the 
two  others,  and  may  be  entered  as  early  as  thirteen  years  of  age.  Its  courses 
are  of  religious  instruction,  of  German  language,  elementary  mathematics,  geog- 
raphy, history,  natural  history,  elocution,  calligraphy,  and  drawing,  and  are  obli- 
gatory upon  the  pupils.  Italian  and  French  may  be  studied  if  the  pupil  desires 
it.  As  these  courses  lead  in  three  years  to  the  other  departments  of  the  institu- 
tion, the  candidates  for  admission  are  required  to  possess  the  elementary  attain- 
ments necessary  to  their  successful  prosecution.  There  are  five  professors  and 
four  teachers  connected  with  this  school,  which  is  superintended  by  the  vice-direc- 
tor of  the  institute.  The  instructors  rank  by  regulation  with  those  in  the  gym- 
nasia or  classical  schools  of  the  empire.  Tlie  course  of  instruction  is  not  as  com- 
prehensive as  that  in  the  Prussian  real  schools,  but  is  an  adequate  preparation  for 
the  next  higher  divisions,  which  supply  in  part  these  deficiencies. 

The  technical  and  comm.ercial  schools  furnish  special  instruction  according  to 
the  intended  pursuits  of  the  pupil,  though  he  may,  in  fact,  select  the  courses 
which  he  wishes  to  attend,  not  being  limited  as  to  the  number  or  character  of  the 
branches.  Tlie  director  advises  with  the  pupil,  on  admission,  as  to  the  studies 
most  appropriate  to  be  followed,  if  his  intended  calling  is  fixed,  and  he  is  not 
allowed  to  join  the  classes,  the  courses  of  which  require  preparation,  without  pre- 
senting a  certificate  from  the  school  at  which  he  has  been  instructed,  or  being 
examined,  to  ascertain  his  proficiency.  In  regard  to  other  courses,  there  is  no 
such  restriction.     The  age  for  admission  is  sixteen  years. 

The  instruction  is  given  in  the  technical  school  by  eight  professors  and  two 
assistants ;  the  professors  lecturing,  and  in  some  of  the  coui'ses,  interrogating  the 
pupils.  Certain  lectures  are  also  gone  over  by  the  assistants  with  the  classes. 
The  courses  which  combine  practice  with  teaching  will  be  pointed  out  in  enumer- 
ating the  subjects  of  study.  The  division  of  these  subjects,  and  the  time  devoted 
to  them  during  the  week,  are  as  follows  : 

I.  General  Chemistry,  applied  to  the  arts,  five  hours. 

II.  Special  Technical  Chemistry,  ten  hours.  This  giivrs  a  particular  account 
of  all  the  processes  of  the  arts  of  which  the  principles  were  developed  in  the  general  lectures. 


There  is  a  J-pecial  laboratory  devoted  to  the  course,  where,  under  the  superintendence  of  the 
professor  or  of  his  assistants,  the  pupils  jro  tiiroujrli  the  processes  oij  a  small  scale  Those 
who  have  a  particular  object  in  view,  as  dyeing,  bleacliinjr,  printinj:  upon  stutTs,  or  the  man- 
ufacture of  chemical  preparations  or  melallnrjry,  are  directed  in  their  investigations  espe- 
cially to  the  parts  of  clumislry  which  they  will  have  to  apply.  Practice  and  theory  are  thus 

III.  Physics,  with  special  reference  to  its  applications,  five  hours. 

IV.  Ele.mEaMtary  Mathematics,  including  arithmetic,  algebra,  geometry,  and  mensura- 
ti(ni,  ten  houi-s.  This  course  is  intended  for  those  who  have  not  passed  through  the  real 

V.  Higher  Mathematics,  five  hours.  There  is  a  repetition  by  an  assistant,  also  of  five 

VI.  Mechanics,  including  the  description  and  calculation  of  machines,  five  hours.  This 
subjrct  i.s  foiuided  upon  a  course  of  mach  nes,  considered  as  an  application  of  descriptive 
geometry  and  drawing,  superintended  by  an  assistant. 

VII  P'ractical  Geometry,  including  land  and  topographical  surveying,  levelling.  <fec., 
five  hours.     The  lectures  are  accompanied  by  practice  in  the  use  of  instruments  in  the  field. 

VIII  Civil  and  IIvDRAULic  Architeotuke,  fen  hours.  This  includes  a  complete  course 
of  engineering,  in  its  various  branches.     It  is  accompanied  by  exercises  in  drawing. 

IX.  Technologv,  or  a  general  discussion  of  arts  and  trades,  five  hours.  The  subjects 
which  come  under  the  head  of  special  chemistry  are  omitted  in  the  lectures  of  thisdivision. 

X.  The  assistant  profes.^or  of  chemistry  delivers  an  extra  lecture,  daily,  on  the  methods  of 
measuring  Specific  Gravities,  during  part  of  the  course. 

XI.  Elementary  Drawing  for  those  who  have  not  passed  through  the  real  school,  five 
hours.  There  are  extra  courses  in  the  Latin,  Bohemian,  and  English  languages,  for  those 
who  wish  to  follow  them. 

The  time  devoted  to  draw^ing  depends  upon  the  student,  but  it  is  obvious  that 
his  knowledge  must  be  very  incomplete,  and  that  he  will  carry  away  from  the 
school  but  an  imperfect  record  of  descriptive  geometry  and  its  applications,  unless 
he  devotes  a  great  deal  of  time  to  this  branch.  In  this  respect  the  arrangement 
of  the  school  is  entirely  difl'erent  from  that  at  Berlin,  where  the  drawings  accom- 
panying the  courses  are  made  as  much  a  matter  of  regular  duty  as  the  attendance 
upon  the  leetm-es  themselves.  This  is  certainly  the  proper  plan,  and  while  it  ap- 
peared to  me  that  the  time  spent  in  the  graphic  exercises  at  Berlin  was  even 
beyond  the  measure  of  their  importance,  I  am  decidedly  of  opinion  that  a  strict 
attention  to  this  department  is  essential. 

The  collections,  by  the  aid  of  which  these  courses  are  carried  out,  are — 1.  An 
extensive  collection  of  chemical  preparations  for  both  special  and  general  chemis- 
try. The  pupils  in  special  chemistry,  as  already  stated,  make  preparations  in  the 
departments  of  the  art  which  they  intend  to  follow,  and  some  of  these  are  left 
behind  them  as  specimens  of  their  skill.  In  the  department  of  the  dyer  there  is 
quite  a  large  series  of  specimens  collected  in  this  way.  The  laboratories  for  both 
special  and  general  chemistry  are  admirably  adapted  to  their  purpose.*  2.  A 
cabinet  of  instruments  for  the  course  of  practical  geometry.  3.  A  considerable 
collection  of  physical  apparatus.  4.  A  collection  of  models  of  machines,  and  in 
engineering.  5.  A  technological  cabinet  of  a  most  complete  character,  and  ad- 
mirably arranged ;  it  contains  many  of  the  best  specimens  of  Austrian  arts  and 
manufactures.  All  these  collections  are  under  the  care  of  the  professor  in  whose 
department  they  find  a  place  ;  there  being,  besides,  curators  for  the  immediate 
charge  of  them,  and  for  keeping  them  in  repair.  Tlie  cabinet  of  physical  appa- 
ratus, and  of  models  and  machinery,  were  in  the  main  supplied  from  the  work- 
shops of  the  institution.  These  shops  have  long  been  celebrated  for  the  astronom- 
ical and  geodesic  instrviments  furnished  from  them.  They  are  still  kept  up, 
though  on  a  reduced  scale,  their  chief  object  having  been  accomplished.  They 
were  never  intended,  like  those  of  Berlin,  to  aiFord  practical  instruction  to  the 
pupils.  The  institution,  indeed,  does  not  recognize  the  principle  that  this  can  be 
done  to  advantage  in  the  mechanical  department.  It  is  certain,  as  already  stated, 
that  great  care  is  required  to  render  such  establishments  of  any  avail  beyond  the 
point  of  giving  to  the  pupil  a  general  readiness  with  his  hands,  and  that  even 
when  well  conducted  tlieyare  expensive.  Success  in  practical  chemistry  requires 
essentially  a  very  considerable  knowledge  of  theory ;  the  processes  on  a  small 
scale  represent,  in  general,  fairly  those  upon  the  large,  and  experiments  thus  made 
frequently  save  the  outlay  which  is  required  to  make  them  in  the  large  way.     The 

*  The  laboratory  of  the  professor  of  general  chemistry,  Professor  Meissner,  is  one  of  the 
best  arranged  which  I  saw  abroad.  The  furnace  operations,  and  others  likely  to  incom- 
mode the  class,  are  performed  behind  a  screen,  with  large  glass  windows,  which  allow  a  per- 
fect view  :  the  space  behind  is  provided  with  the  means  of  carrying  off  the  fumes. 


practice  in  the  laboratory  of  a  school  is,  besides,  very  nearly  of  the  kind  required 
for  the  manufactory.  These,  among  other  circumstances  render  the  problem  in 
regard  to  successful  preparation  for  the  arts  depending  upon  chemistry,  different 
ft'om  that  relating  to  the  art  of  the  machinist.  It  is  in  this  department  that  the 
polytechnic  school  of  Vienna  is  particularly  strong.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that 
Austrian  manufactures  in  general  have  received  a  great  impulse  through  the  me- 
dium of  this  institution,  and  particularly  of  its  scholastic  department,  but  while 
praise  is  yielded  to  the  different  courses,  the  arrangements  for  teaching  chemistry 
must  be  considered  as  hcviug  a  preference  over  the  others. 

The  lessons  in  the  commercial  school  embrace  the  following  subjects  : — 

I.  Commercial  correspondence,  three  hours  per  week. 

II.  The  science  of  trade  (Handelswissenschaft.)  three  hours. 

III.  Austrian  laws  relating  to  trade  and  exchange,  three  hours. 

IV.  Commercial  arithmetic,  six  hours, 

V.  Book-keeping,  by  single  and  double  entry,  four  hours. 

VI.  Account  of  the  materials  of  trade.  (Waarenkunde,)  the  sources,  uses,  properties,  kinds, 
adulterations  to  which  they  are  subject,  &c.,  four  hours. 

VII.  Commercial  geography,  three  hours. 

VIII.  History  of  commerce,  three  hours.    There  are  five  professors  in  this  school. 

Once  a  week  the  professors  of  the  institute  meet,  under  the  presidency  of  the 
director,  to  confer  on  the  business  of  the  institution.  Saturday  is  appropriated  in 
part  to  this  purpose,  and  there  are  no  exercises  for  the  students  on  that  day. 
One  of  the  professors  is  secretary  of  the  board.  The  professors  rank  by  regula- 
tion with  those  of  the  imiversities. 

The  lectures  last  fi'om  October  to  August  of  every  year.  At  the  close  of  them, 
a  pupil  who  wishes  a  certificate  in  any  branch,  presents  himself,  and  is  examined 
by  a  professor,  in  presence  of  a  director  and  of  two  members  of  the  imperial  com- 
. mission  of  studies.  A  student  who  has  attended  the  lectm-es,  and  does  not  wish 
to  be  examined,  may  receive  a  certificate  of  attendance. 

To  supply  the  place  of  a  regular  division  of  studies  for  different  callings,  one 
of  the  earlier  programmes  contained  a  recommendation  of  certain  courses  of  study 
as  preparatory  to  particular  occupations.  The  recommendations  were  the  follow- 
ing : — For  tradesmen,  the  two  years  of  the  real  school,  and  one  year  of  the  com- 
mercial school ;  or  for  a  more  complete  education,  an  additional  year,  embracing 
the  courses  of  chemistry,  physics,  and  technology  of  the  technical  school.  For 
dyers,  printers  in  stuffs,  bleachers,  manufacturers  of  chemical  products,  of  salt, 
of  saltpeter,  for  miners,  metallurgists,  brewers,  &c.,  special  chemistry,  physics, 
and  technology,  with  some  of  the  courses  of  the  conmiercial  school.  For  ma- 
chinists, hydraulic  engineers,  mill-wrights,  foremen  in  manufactories,  and  mining 
engineers — a  course  of  two  years  was  recommended,  the  first  to  embrace  mathe- 
matics, physics,  and  drawing,  and  the  second,  mechanics,  njachine-drawing,  and 
technology.  As  a  preparation  for  agriculturists  and  foresters — courses  of  mathe- 
matics, physics,  practical  geometry,  chemistry  and  book-keeping.  For  miners, 
mathematics,  physics,  practical  geometry,  mechanics,  drawing,  and  book-keeping. 
For  surveyors,  mathematics,  physics,  practical  geometry,  drawing,  and  book- 

There  is  still  a  regular  course  laid  down  for  architects  and  civil  engineers,  the 
satisfactory  completion  of  wliich  entitles  to  a  diploma.  The  first  year  includes 
elementary  mathematics,  technology,  and  drawing;  the  second,  higher  mathe- 
matics, physics,  and  drawing  ;  the  third,  the  applied  mathematics,  mechanics, 
practical  geometry,  and  drawing ;  the  fourth,  architecture,  engineering,  drawing, 
technolog}-,  chemistry,  and  book-keeping. 

The  library  of  the  institute  is  appropriated  to  the  several  departments,  and  13 
used  by  the  students,  as  well  as  by  the  professors.  Yearly  appropriations,  besides 
the  entrance  and  diploma  fees,  are  devoted  to  its  increase.  The  professors  have 
the  right  of  recommending  such  works  to  be  purchased  as  they  may  deem  of  use 
in  their  departments.  An  annual  is  published  by  the  institute,  consisting  of  origi- 
nal and  selected  scientific  articles,  by  the  professors,  and  notices  of  tie  institution. 

To  mark  the  advance  in  the  subjects  and  courses  of  instruction,  we  give  in 
-detail,  (1)  the  requirements  for  admission  to  either  of  the  special  divisions  in 
1868,  and  (2)  the  distribution  of  studies  in  the  I.  Technical  Section ;  11,  Com- 
mercial Section ;  and  III.  The  Special  Courses. 


Requirements  for  Admission  into  the  Polytechnic  Institution  in  Vienna. 

Candidates  for  admission  as  ordinary  students  into  tlie  Polytcclmic  Institution, 
are  subject  to  examination  in  the  subjects,  and  to  the  extent  given  below. 

a.    Mathematics. 

1.  Arithmetic  and  Algebra. — Cipliering  in  general,  and  calculation  with  com- 
mon fractions  and  decimal  fractions  in  particuhir ;  change  of  common  fractions 
into  decimal  fractions,  and  continuous  fractions,  rule  of  three,  reduction,  chain 
rule,  division  ;  calculation,  with  logarithms ;  extraction  of  square  and  cubic 
roots  of  numbers ;  the  rules  of  algebra ;  the  properties  of  products  and  quotients, 
of  powers,  radicals,  and  logarithms;  divisibility  of  numbers;  greatest  common 
measure,  and  least  common  multiple ;  properties  of  common  continued  fractions  ; 
outlines  of  the  theory  of  combination  ;  Newton's  binomial  proposition ;  simple 
equations  with  one  and  more  unknown  quantities,  equations  of  tlie  second  degree 
with  one  and  two  unknown  quantities,  and  equations  of  higher  degrees  witli  one 
and  more  unknown  quantities,  in  as  far  as  they  can  be  resolved  into  quadratic 
equations ;  simple  indeterminate  equations ;  arithmetical  and  geometrical  pro- 
gression ;  calculation  of  interest. 

2.  Plane  Geometry;  a. — Planimetry;  congruence,  similarity,  superficial  con- 
tents, and  transformation  of  rectilinear  figures,  more  particularly  of  triangle 
and  square;  properties  of  the  circle;  lines  and  angles  of  the  circle;  its  rela- 
tion to  the  triangle,  to  the  square,  and  to  regular  polygons ;  its  periphery  and 

6,  Goniometry  and  Trigonometry. — The  goniometric  functions,  their  properties 
and  mutual  relations,  and  the  more  important  formulas  connected  with  them, 
particularly  for  the  sums  and  differences  of  two  angles,  and  for  double  and  semi- 
angles  ;  problems  of  the  resolution  of  the  triangle,  and  application  of  this  calcu- 
lation in  given  cases. 

c.^  Analytical  Geometry. — Proposi'tion  of  the  equations  for  the  straight  line  and 
the  circle  in  rectangular  co-ordinates ;  problems  relating  to  the  straight  lines  and 
the  circle;  proposition  of  the  equations  for  the  ellipse,  the  parabola,  and  hyper- 
bola from  their  definition  ;  deduction  of  the  principal  properties  of  these  lines, 
more  ])articularly  as  regards  the  focus  and  the  tangents. 

3.  So'id  Geometry;  a. — Stereometiy ;  propositions  and  problems  as  to  the  x-e- 
lations  between  points,  stx-aight  lines,  and  planes ;  properties  of  the  parallel- 
opipedon,  of  the  prism  in  general,  of  pyraniids,  of  regular  bodies;  superficies 
and  solid  contents  of  angular  bodies ;  properties  of  the  cylinder,  the  cone  and 
the  sphere,  their  superficies  and  solid  contents,  lines  and  angles  on  the  surface  of 
the  sphere. 

h.  Spherical  Trigonometry. — Properties  of  the  spherical  triangle ;  problems  for 
the  solution  of  this;  execution  of  the  calculation  in  given  cases. 

In  all  these  matters  accurate  understanding  of  the  theory,  as  well  as  skill  and 
certainty  in  the  execution  of  the  calculations  is  required. 

h.     Geography  and  History. 

Geography. — Knowledge  of  the  leading  points  of  mathematical  and  physical 
geography,  particularly  of  orography  and  hydrography;  survey  of  political 
geography ;  knowledge  of  the  most  important  bi-anches  of  production,  and  of 
the  internal  relations  of  the  leading  countries;  closer  acquaintance  Avith  the 
political  geography  and  statistics  of  Austria,  particularly  relating  to  the  natioiuil 
and  productive  circumstances,  and  the  state  of  civilization  in  the  several  portions. 

History. —  Synoptical  knowledge  of  ancient  history,  more  especially  of  Grecian 
history  to  the  period  of  the  doAvnfall  of  the  Macedonian  Empire.  As  regards 
the  history  of  the  East,  the  development  of  the  Egyptians,  the  Persians,  and  the 
trading  colonies  of  the  Phoenicians  is  more  particularly  to  be  held  in  view  ;  the 
Hellenic  states  and  constitutions  dui'ing  the  heroic  period  ;  the  wanderings  of  the 
Darians;  the  Greek  colonies;  the  legislation  of  Lycurgus,  and  the  Messinian 
war;  Solon;  the  Persian  war;  the  Peloponnesian  war;  the  Theban  war,  and 
the  leadership  of  Thebes;  Philip  of  Macedonia;  Alexander's  expeditions  into 
Asia;  the  fate  of  the  States  which  were  formed  out  of  the  empire  of  Alexander. 

Roman  History  up  to  the  time  of  Augustus. — The  constitution  of  Rome  during 
the  time  of  the  kings ;  the  llepublican  constitution ;  the  struggles  between  patri- 


cians  and  plebians  for  equality  of  rights  ;  the  war  with  Tarento  and  Pj^rrhiis ; 
the  Punic  wars ;  the  Gracchi-Marius  and  Sulla;  the  first  triumvirate;  Julius 
Caesar ;  the  second  triumvirate ;  Caesar  Octavian  Augustus. 

Survey  of  medieval  history,  and  more  particularly  of  German  history.  Con- 
stantine  the  Great  and  the  development  of  Christianity.  The  migration  of  na- 
tions and  the  founding  of  new  empires.  The  Franks,  Charlemagne.  Dissolu- 
tion of  the  empire  of  the  Franks.  The  Saxon  Emperors,  especially  Otto  I,  the 
Salic  Frank  Dynasty,  Conrad  II,  Henry  III,  Henry  IV,  and  Henry  V.  The 
Crusades  and  their  consequences.  The  Babenbergs.  Foundation  of  the  power 
of  the  Ilapsburgs.  Charles  IV  and  Wenzel.  Sigismund  and  the  ecclesiastical 
relations  of  his  times.  Germany  under  Frederick  III  and  Maximilian  I.  The 
Italian  republics  of  the  middle  ages. 

More  detailed  acquaintance  with  the  history  of  modern  times,  and  more  par- 
ticularly with  the  history  of  Germany  and  Ausiria.  Discoveries  and  inventions. 
The  revival  of  art  and  science.  The  Reformation.  Charles  V,  Philip  II,  and 
the  Netherlands.  The  religious  wars  in  France.  Henry  IV,  The  thirty  years 
war.  England  under  tiie  Tudors,  the  Stuarts,  Cromwell.  France  under  Riche- 
lieu and  Mazarin.  The  age  of  Louis  XIV.  The  Austro-Turkish  wars.  Sweden 
under  the  Vasas.  War  of  the  Spanish  succession.  The  northern  war.  Charles 
VI.  The  Silesian  war  and  the  war  of  the  Austrian  succession.  Maria  Theresa. 
Joseph  II.  The  North  American  Avar  of  independence.  History  of  the  revolu- 
tionary period  from  1789  to  1815. 

c.     Physics. 

The  requirements  are  in — a.  General  k'  owledge :  a  perfectly  distinct  under- 
standing of  the  fundamental  principles  of  the  science,  and  a  knowledge  of  the 
most  important  phenomena  in  nature  and  of  the  laws  that  govern  them,  founded 
on  experimental  demonstration,  and  on  elementary  mathematical  proofs. 

6.  Special  knowledge  :  knowledge  of  the  general  properties  of  physical  bodies, 
of  the  different  forces  working  in  them,  of  the  various  forms  of  aggregation,  of 
the  different  degrees  of  solidity,  of  the  laws  of  elasticity,  adhesion,  decomposi- 
tion, crystalization. 

In  general  mechanics,  determination  and  measurement,  combination,  and  res- 
olution [zerlegung)  of  forces  from  a  single  point  of  attack  or  from  several  points, 
the  momentum  of  revolution  (Drehungsmoment)  and  its  composition,  the  simplest 
and  most  important  of  the  complex  mechanical  prin*>iples  of  the  theory  of  mo- 
tion, uniform  and  irregular  motion,  velocity,  combination,  and  resolution  of  mo- 
tion, curvelinear  motion,  centripetal  and  cen  rifugal  force,  gravity,  and  the  mo- 
tion produced  by  it,  projectile  motion,  oscillatory  motion,  revolving  motion, 
point  of  inertia,  free  axis  of  rotation,  impingement  of  elastic  and  of  non-elastic 
bodies,  resistance  of  motion,  motion  of  working  power  and  of  vital  force. 

Theory  of  the  balance,  absolute  and  specific  weight,  influence  of -the  earth's 
rotation  round  its  axis  on  its  form,  and  on  the  intensity  of  gravitation  in  differ- 
ent geographical  latitudes,  ebb  and  flood. 

Fundamental  principles  of  liquid  bodies,  form  of  the  free  surface  and  the  con- 
ditioning causes,  pressure  on  the  bottom  and  the  side  walls  of  the  containing 
vessel,  and  the  practical  applications  to  be  deducted  therefrom.  Equilibrium  in 
communicating  vessels,  the  most  important  phenomena  of  capillary  attraction, 
rising  (Aiifireib)  equilibrium  of  floating  bodies,  determination  of  density  by 
means  of  areometer  and  water  poise,  velocity  of  outflow  under  a  constant  amount 
of  pressure,  re-action  of  the  jet  and  its  applications,  the  shock  of  fluids,  and  the 
most  important  applications  to  water-wheels,  turbines,  &c. 

General  •  properties  of  elastic  fluid  bodies,  measurement  of  elasticity,  atmos- 
pheric pressure,  and  the  measurement  of  this  by  means  of  different  kinds  of 
barometers,  its  variableness  at  different  altitudes  above  the  level  of  the  sea. 
Mariotte's  law  and  its  most  important  applications ;  different  kinds  of  air  pumps. 
Determination  of  the  specific  weight  of  atmospheric  air,  and  of  the  density  of 
gases.  Gay-Lussac's  law :  theory  of  the  balloon,  forcing  pumps,  siphons,  &c. 
Laws  of  absorption,  velocity  of  out-flow  under  constant  uniform  pressure. 

Principal  phenomena  of  magnetism.  Outlines  of  the  magnetism  of  the  earth, 
magnetic  point,  magnetic  axis,  laws  of  distant  effects  of  magnetism,  methods  of 
magnetising,  paramagnetism,  and  diamagnetism. 


PVincipal  electrical  phenomena,  electrostatic  induction,  laws  of  distant  action, 
and  the  production  of  such  action  by  means  of  the  revolving  balance  (Drehwage), 
the  electrosco])e,  tlie  Leyden  jar,  and  rlie  condcnsator;  elcctrophoricnl  action, 
rapidity  of  the  transmission  of  the  electric  condition,  principal  phenomena  of 
contact  electricity,  laws  of  the  gradation  of  tension,  theory  of  the  simple  and 
complex  voltaic  julos,  battery,  current,  physiological,  thermal  and  chemical  effects 
of  the  current.  Principal  features  of  electrolysis,  the,  strength  of  the  current, 
and  its  measui-ement  by  chemical  effects.  Effects  of  the  magnetic  current,  galva- 
nometers, multiplicators,  &c.  Electrodynamic  and  magnetic-electric  induction, 
thermo-electricity,  idea  of  the  resistance  of  conduction,  Ohm's  law,  and  its  most 
important  applications,  bifurcation  of  the  current.  The  leading  points  in  the 
applications  of  the  laws  of  electro-magnetism  to  telegraphy  and  electro-magnetic 
motors.     Atmospheric  electricity. 

Leading  points  in  the  theory  of  undulation.  Difi^^rent  kinds  of  waves,  reflec- 
tion and  interference  of  waves,  particularly  of  the  waves  of  sound,  rapidity  of 
sound,  conditions  of  sound,  musical  tones  and  determination  of  the  number  of 
their  vibrations,  tones  of  tightly  strung  cords,  of  bars,  ot  sound-boards  (sound 
figures),  and  of  columns  of  air,  reverberation  of  sound,  structure  of  the  organ 
of  hearing. 

Elements  of  the  science  of  light.  Elements  of  the  theory  of  shadows,  princi- 
ples of  photometry,  reflection  by  plane  and  curved  surfaces  ;  simple  refraction  on 
plane  and  spherical  surfaces  (elements  of  the  theory  of  lenses),  distribution  of 
color.  Franenhofer's  lines,  principles  of  spectrum  analysis,  achromatic  prisms 
and  lenses,  chemical  effects  of  light,  optical  instruments  of  certain  construction 
(camera-obscura,  camera-chiara,  telescope,  &c. ),  the  eye  and  its  structure,  sub- 
jective phenomena  of  color,  and  diaphragmatic  phenomena.  Rapidity  of  the 
transmission  of  light,  the  most  important  phenomena  of  interference  and  refrac- 
tion, the  fundamental  phenomena  of  double  refraction,  polarisation  by  refraction 
and  reflection,  color  of  laminae,  explanation  of  these  phenomena  by  the  theory 
of  undulations. 

!E*rincip]es  of  the  theory  of  heat ;  expansion  of  bodies  by  heat,  the  thermome- 
ter, conduction  of  heat ;  change  of  the  state  of  cohesion,  latent  and  specific  heat, 
the  elements  of  calometry,  generation  of  steam,  laws  of  the  tension  of  steam, 
determination  of  the  density  of  steam,  vapor  contained  in  the  atmosphere,  hy- 
grometry,  the  steam-engine.  Radiating  heat  and  the  means  of  measuring  the 
intensity  of  this,  laws  of  radiation.  Phenomena  of  combustion,  heat  caused  by 

d.     Natural  History. 

Mineralogy. — The  candidate  should  be  acquainted  with  the  most  important  of 
those  properties  of  minerals  by  which  they  are  characterized,  and  in  accordance 
with  these  to  determine  and  describe  the  most  common  minerals,  or  those  which 
are  most  important  as  to  their  uses.  But  the  knowledge  of  a  definite  scientific 
system  of  minerals  is  not  required. 

With  respect  to  the  general  portions  of  mineralogy  (characterization,  termin- 
ology,) the  examination  will  eitend  to  : 

1.  Crystallography,  embracing  the  moi*phological  properties  of  minerals.  A 
knowledge  of  the-  six  systems  of  crystals  according  to  the  tises  on  which  they 
are  based,  and  according  to  their  sample  forms,  as  also  of  the  most  common 
combinations  of  two  or  more  forms  will  be  required.  The  knowledge  of  ciystal- 
lographic  symbols,  or  of  calculating  and  measuring  crystallography,  will  not  be 

2.  Mineral  physics  embracing  the  physical  properties  of  minerals  :  divisibility, 
hardness,  and  specific  weight ;  brightness,  transparency,  color  (idiochromatic 
and  allochromatic)  minerals,  veins  (sfrich) ;  diftlrence  between  minerals  with 
simple  and  with  double  refraction,  between  magnetic  and  non-magnetic  minerals ; 

3.  Mineral  chemistry,  or  chemical  properties  of  minerals;  elements,  combina- 
tions, equivalents,  chemical  constitution ;  difference  betAveen  metallic  and  non- 
metallic  minerals ;  definition  of  ores,  (sulphurous,  oxygenated,  and  saline  ores,) 
of  stones,  (silicate,)  and  of  salts,  (carbonate,  sulphate,  tS^c.) 

A  knowledge  of  the  chemical  reaction  of  minerals  is  not  required. 


Among  the  most  common,  and  most  important  minerals,  as  to  their  uses  in 
special  mineralogy  are  counted: 

1.  From  among  the  group  of  metallic  minerals, 
a.  The  metals  occurring  in  a  pure  form. 

h.  The  most  important  ores,  such  as  iron  pyrites,  magnetic  iron,  iron  glance, 
red  oxide  of  iron,  brown  iron  ore,  sparry  iron  ore,  manganese,  red  ore  of  nickel, 
shining  cobalt  ore,  copper  ore,  variegated  copper  pyrites,  copper  glance,  red  cop- 
per ore,  malachite,  lapis  lazuH,  sulphuret  of  lead,  white  lead  ore,  green  and  brown 
lead  ore,  tin-stone,  shining  silver  ore,  gray  copper,  red  silver  ore,  cinnabar,  sul- 
phuret of  zinc,  lamellar  calamine,  sulphuret  of  antimony,  arsenical  pyrites. 

2.  From  the  group  of  non-metallic  minerals. 
a.  Sulphur  and  graphite. 

h.  The  most  important  stones :  quartz,  opal,  feldspar,  analcime,  staurolitc,  mica, 
chlorite,  talc,  serpentiae,  steatite,  ho-rnb-lende,  augite,  granite,  vesuvian,  cyanite, 
olivine,  tourmaline  ;  also  the  most  important  of  the  precious  stones ;  the  diamond, 
corundum,  (sapphire  and  niby,)  topaz,  spinel,  zircon,  beryl,  (emerald.) 

c.  The  most  important  salts ;  calcareous  spar,  aragonite,  gypsum,  anhydrite, 
ponderous  spar,  celestine,  apatite,  nitre,  fluor  spar,  rock  salt. 

The  candidate  must  he  able  to  indicate  the  most  important  morphological, 
physical,  and  chemical  properties  of  all  the^e  minerals,  as  also  their  most  impor- 
tant uses,  and  the  localities  in  wdiich  they  are  principally  found. 

The  knowledge  of  a  systematic  nomenclature  (as  for  instance  that  of  Mohs) 
is  not  required,  nor  either  the  chemical  formulas. 

Botany  and  Zoology. — In  botany  and  zoology  the  candidate  is  expected  to  he  able 
to  give  a  systematic  sketch  of  each  of  the  kingdoms,  and  to  possess  a  knowledge 
of  the  most  important  plants  and  animals  which  enables  him  to  distinguish  and 
characterize  them.  By  the  most  important  plants  and  animals  are  meant  such 
as  are  especially  interesting  on  account  of  their  frequent  presence  in  our  coun- 
tiy,  of  their  application  in  arts  and  industry,  of  their  usefulness,  or  their  inju- 
riousness,  of  the  conspicuous  place  which  they  occupy  in  the  household  of  na- 
ture, or  of  their  peculiar  ge/)graphicnl  distribution. 

Plants  and  animals  of  this  kind  will  be  laid  before  the  candidate  for  him  to 
classify  and  characterize. 

As  more  important  subjects  of  examination  may  be  mentioned  : 

a.  In  Botany :  principal  organs  of  the  phanerogamous  plants;  foiTns  of  the 
roots,  the  pedicels,  and  the  leaves;  blossoms;  various  parts  of  the  fiow^er;  outer 
circle  of  petals,  anther,  stamen,  pistil,  and  seed  bud;  survey  of  the  different 
kinds  of  fruits ;  properties  of  the  seed. 

Characteristics  of  the  cryptogamous  plants  in  general.     Linne's  system. 

Classification  of  plants  according  to  the  natural  system. 

Characteristics  of  the  various  classes  of  non-floAvering  plants,  and  the  different 
orders  of  vasculiferous  cryptogamia,  {Gefafscrytogamen.) 

Characteristics,  affinities,  geographical  distribution,  and  use  of  the  toost  im- 
portant families  of  seed-bearing- plants. 

b.  In  Zoology:  the  principal  functions  of  animal  life,  motion,  sensation,  nutri- 
tion, and  propagation;  indication  of  the  most  important  organs  conv ected there- 
Avith ;  the  local  position  of  the  latter  in  the  animal  body,  and  their  nature  in 
general  must  be  demonstrated  on  one  of  the  higher  (vertebrate)  animals;  influ- 
ence of  climate  on  animal  life  ;  division  of  the  animal  kingdom  into  classes, 
(vcrtcbrata,  mollusca,  &c.,)  indicating  the  distinctive  characteristic  of  each;  di- 
vision of  mammalia,  birds,  reptiles,  and  insects  into  orders.  Distinctive  charac- 
teristics of  the  various  families  of  carnivora,  of  pachyderma,  and  of  ruminata. 

e.     Geometrical  and  Free-hand  Drawing. 

Orthogonal  projection ;  representation  of  straight  lines  and  planes ;  graphic 
solution  of  problems  relative  to  their  mutual  relations ;  representations  of  bodies 
bounded  by  planes;  intersections  of  their  surfaces;  representation  of  conic, 
cylindrical,  and  rotative  surfaces ;  their  intersection  with  straight  Tines  and 
planes,  and  their  mutual  intersections,  as  also  their  points  of  contact  Avith  planes  ; 
application  of  this  to  the  determination  of  shadows. 
,  Elements  of  the  method  of  perspective  projection. 

Free-hand  drawing,  to  draw  a  head  or  an  entire  figure  in  correct  outline  from  a 
model,  and  to  draw  an  ornament  with  shading. 




The  course  of  instruction  consists  of  a  preparatory  division  comprisinf^  two 
years,  and  four  special  divisions,  viz  :  1.  Bridges  and  roads.  2.  Architecture. 
3.  Construction  of  machines.  4.  Chemistry.  The  teaching  commences  on  the 
1st  of  October  and  ends  on  the  31st  of  July.  It  is  divided  into  courses  of  a 
year,  and  courses  of  half  a  year.     The  subjects  taught  are  • 

A  Mathematics,  descriptive  geometry,  practical  geometry,  higher  land  sur- 
veying, spherical  astronomy,  technical  mechanics,  analytical  mechanics,  general 
physics,  teclniical  physics,  inorganic  chemistry,  organic  chemistry,  analytical 
chemistry,  mineralogy,  geology,  zoology,  paleontology,  and  botany. 

B.  Study  of  machines,  general  elements  of  maHiinery,  construction  of  ma- 
chines, mechanics  relating  to  construction,  general  elements  of  the  construction 
of  buildings,  architecture  and  the  art  of  building ;  bridges  and  roads,"  railways, 
description  of  soils ;  technical  chemistry,  knowledge  of  merchandise,  agricultural 
and  forest  economy. 

C.  General  history,  history  of  Austria,  histoiy  of  the  building  art,  history 
of  the  inductive  sciences;  German  literature;  esthetics,  political  economy,  sta- 
tistics ;  mercantile  law,  law  of  exchange,  maritime  law ;  Austrian  organization 
and  administration ;  book-keeping. 

D.  Technical  and  free-hand  drawing ;  decoration,  aijd  drawing  of  ornaments ; 
landscape  drawing ;  modeling. 

E.  French,  Italian,  and  English  languages;  stenography. 

These  subjects  are  distributed  between  the  preparatory  and  special  divisions, 
and  nearly  the  same  number  of  hours  is  allotted  to  each,  as  in  the  Prague  Insti- 
tute just  described.  The  lessons  in  botany,  zoology,  gco'ogy,  mechanical  and 
chemical  technology,  construction  of  machines,  art  of  building,  and  in  the  agri- 
cultural sciences,  are  followed  by  excursions  and  visits  to  establishments.  The 
practical  course  of  geometry  is  also  terminated  by  important  field  operations. 

The  folloAviug  are  studies,  with  the  hours  per  week  allotted  to  each : 







of  1|  hours 


devoted  to 

Lessons         Hours 
of  1 };  hours  devoted  to 
each.       (   drawing. 


Mathematics,  (1st  course,)  -        -        - 
Descriptive  geometry,       ... 
Inorganic  chemistry,    -         -        -         - 



Technical  and  free-hand  drawing,    - 


8      , 




Total, - 



13                14 


Mathematics,  (2d  course,)   - 
General  physics,       -        -        .        . 
Technical  mechanics,  -        -        - 
Practical  geometry,  -        -        -        - 
Technical  and  free-hand  drawing, 













I. — Division  of  Bridges  and  Roads. 






Lessons         Hours 

of  li  hours 

devoted  to 

of  li  hours  devoted  to 






Stereotomy  and  perspective. 









Analytical  mechanics,          ... 




Elements  of  machinerv,  -        .        - 





Construction,  (1st  course, ) - 











Technical  phvsics,        -        .        -        - 





Applied  mechanics,  -        -        -        - 










Land  surveying,       -        -        - 



1                 4 

Bridges  and  roads,       .... 




Projects  and  construction. 









History  of  constructive  art. 





Organization  of  construction,  - 





Construction  of  bridges. 





Construction  of  railways, 









Total,        -        -        -        -        - 





II. — Division  of  Architects  and  Buildings. 


Stereotomv  and  perspective, 





Elements  of  machinerv,  - 



3    ■ 


Constructive  mechanism,     -        -        - 





History  of  constructive  art, 





Architecture,  (1st  course,)  - 




,      8 

Total,       -        -        -    .   - 






Technical  phvsics,        .... 





Applied  mechanics,  -        -        .        - 





Elements  of  construction,    ... 





Architecture,  (2d  course,) 





Architectural  drawing  and  projects,    - 











Organization  of  construction, 





Architecture,  (3d  course,) 















III. — Division  of  Mechanicians. 





Lessens         Hours 

Lessons    |     Hours 

of  11  hours  devoted  to 

of  labours  devoted  to 






Tecliiiical  physics,       ...        - 





Elements  of  construction, 





Analvticjil  mechanics,          -        -        . 










Macliinc  construction,          .        .        . 



3       ' 


Manufacture  of  machines. 











Constructive  mechanism,          -        ^ 





Applied  mechanics,      -        -        .        - 





Apparatus  for  warming  and  lighting, 










Machine  construction,      ... 





Projects  and  manufacture,  -        -        - 










IV. — Division  of  Applied  Chanistry. 


General  physics,  -        -        -        -        - 





Applied  mechanics,  -        -        - 















Organic  chemistry,      .        -        -        - 





Analytical  chemistry,       -        .        - 





Manipulation  in  the  lahoratory,  - 











Technical  physics,        .        .        -        - 





Elements  of  construction, 




Technoloay  of  mechanics,  - 





Acquaintance  with  raw  materials,    - 





Metallurgy  and  salt  works,  - 





Materials  for  heating  and  lighting,  - 





Manufacture  of  salts,  glass,  &c.,- 





Manipulation  in  the  laboratory, 











Elements  of  machinery,  -        -        - 





Printins:,  dyeing,  bleaching,  &c., 





Permented  liquors,  manufacture  of  sugar, 

soap,  stearine,  &c.,    -         -         - 





Manipulation  in  the  laboratory. 











II.  Commercial  Section. — The  course  of  instruction  comprises  the  follow- 
ing subjects: 

1 .  Commercial  science,  giving  a  complete  exhibit  of  commercial  economy,  of 
arts  and  manufactures,  commercial  atiairs  in  relation  to  the  statistics  of  the 
population  and  the  commercial  history  of  the  world :  5  hours  per  week. 

2.  Commercial  law,  legislation  with  regard  to  commerce,  maritime  law,  &c. : 
3  hours  per  week. 

3.  Commercial  composition,  ordinary  commercial  style  and  correspondence :'  5 

4.  Commercial  calculations,  with  special  reference  to  the  principal  practical 
applications  of  political  arithmetic :  5  hours. 

5.  Book-keeping — book-keeping  as  a  special  science,  and  as  apphed  to  com- 
merce and  industry  :  4  hours. 

6.  Knowledge  of  goods ;  the  qualities  and  properties  of  different  products, 
materials,  and  manufactures:  3  hours. 

7.  Commercial  geography  :  3  hours. 

8.  Statistics,  from  an  industrial  and  commercial  point  of  view:  4  hours. 

9.  History  of  the  Austrian  constitutional  law :   2  hours. 

10.  History  of  the  Austrian  administrative  law:   2  hours. 

III.  Extra  Courses. — Connected  with  the  Polytechnic  Institute,  special 
courses  are  given  in: 

1.  Mechanical  constructions,  comprising  the  application  of  mechanics  to  arch- 
itecture and  the  art  of  constructions :   3  hours. 

2.  National  political  economy,  with  special  regard  to  arts  and  manufactures: 
2  hours. 

3.  History  of  Austrian  commercial  law:  1  hour. 

4.  Spheric  astronomy:  3  hours. 

5.  Science  of  the  guarantee  of  capital  and  interest.  This  comprises  an  ex- 
hibit of  the  development  of  this  science,  its  usefulness  and  its  importance,  and 
an  exhibit  of  its  theoretical  basis. 

6.  Instruction  in  first  surgical  aid  to  be  rendered  in  cases  of  accidents  result- 
ing from  certain  industries :    2  hours. 

7.  Calligraphy:   2  hours. 

8.  Stenography  (Gabelsberger's  system) :  3  hours. 

9.  German  literature ;  Commentaries  on  the  life  and  poetry  of  Goethe :  2 

"10.  Organic  chemistry ;  Alcohols. 

11.  General  and  microscopic  vegetable  anatomy,  (during  the  winter  half-year.) 

12.  Vegetable  physiology  in  its  relation  to  agriculture,  (during  the  summer 

IV.  School  of  Languages. — Instruction  is  given  in  the  following  lan- 
guages: Turkish,  5  hours ;  Persian,  5  hours ;  Arabic,  6  hours ;  Itahan  Ifinguage 
and  literature,  6  hours;  English  language  and  literature,  3  hours;  French  lan- 
guage and  literature,  5  hours. 

V.  School  op  Industrial  Drawing. — 1.  Elementary  drawing,  comprising : 
(a.)  Drawing  from  nature:  figures,  plants,  ornaments,  &c. ;    (6.)  Descriptive 

geometry;  (c.)  drawing  of  projections  and  perspective. 

2.  Technical  drawing,  comprising  all  the  varieties  of  drawing  applied  to  the 
designing  and  construction  of  models  intended  for  spinning,  printing  tapestry, 

3.  Drawing  applied  to  the  arts  of  construction  and  metallurgy. 

4.  Popular  course  of  machine-drawing,  with  explanations  of  the  construction 
and  the  working  of  machines. 

The  drawing-classes  are  open  every  day  from  8  to  12,  and  on  Sundays  from 
9  to  12.  ' 

The  whole  Institute  numbers:  19  pubhc  and  ordinary  professors ;  1  public 
extraordinary  professor ;  1  assistant  professor ;  7  tutors  ;  6  private  professprs ; 
2  extra  tutors ;  18  assistants  ;  3  librarians  ;  2  superintendents  of  the  techno- 
logical museum ;   2  superintendents  at  the  astronomical  observatory. 

The  technological  museum  comprises  more  than  200,000  specimens  of  models, 
machines,  &c.,  admirably  arranged. 



(Extracts  from  Prof.  Koristka's  account  of  Fliyhcr  Polytechnic  Instruction  in  Get' 
many,  France  and  Switzerland).* 

The  Polytechnic  schools  are  the  creation  of  our  own  (Jay.  Not  one  of  them 
is  a  hundred  years  old,  for  the  oldest,  that  in  Paris,  was  founded  in  1794.  Then 
followed  the  school  of  Prague,  1806,  (begun,  it  is  tine,  as  a  special  school,  in 
1765);  Vienna,  1815;  Berlin,  1821;  Carlsruhe,  1825;  the  Paris  central  school, 
{ecole  centrale,)  1829  ;  Munich,  1827  ;  Nuremburg,  1829  ;  Augsburg,  1833  ;  Stutt- 
gart, 1829,  then  Planover,  1831;  in  Belgium,  Liege,  and  Ghent,  1835,  and  at 
length,  within  the  last  twenty  years,  the  new  polytechnic  institutes  in  Austria, 
and  also  certain  beginnings  in  England.  At  the  same  time,  Ave  must  mention 
that  only  a  few  of  these  schools  in  Germany  received  in  the  begiiming  the  name 
or  had  the  full  character  of  polytechnic  schools.  They  were  founded  under  the  name 
of  Industrial  Schools,  extended  their  scope  gradually,  and  at  length  received  the 
new  designation  as  well  as  their  present  internal  organization. 

The  first  schools  of  this  kind,  both  in  Austria  and  in  Gex-many,  comprised  all 
technical  subjects  which  the  scholai'S  were  obliged  to  learn  in  turn.  In  the  be- 
ginning, while  industry  was  little  developed  and  technical  knowledge  little  cared 
for,  these  institutions  answered  fully  to  the  demand,  and  the  schools  of  Vienna 
and  of  Prague  Avere,  at  that  time,  considered  model  institutions.  But  through 
the  rapid  advances  of  art  and  industry  in  our  day,  these  schools  did  not  need  so 
long  a  time,  as  did  those  of  former  times,  to  divide  themselves  into  groups.  In 
the  course  of  twenty  to  thirty  years  followed  the  division  of  labor,  and  with  this 
came  the  problem  :  how  to  extend  the  single  schools  so  that  those  who  desired 
it  could  carry  on  exhaustive  studies  on  particular  subjects,  and  on  the  other 
hand,  to  provide  for  a  general  course,  taking  up  all  branches  as  formerly.  It  was 
found  impossible  to  unite  these  two  aims. 

Necessarily,  then,  those  schools,  which  wished  to  supply  the  new  demands  of 
technical  knowledge  and  industry,  were  gradually  obliged  to  alter  their  organi- 
zation ;  to  fulfil  especially  the  chief  requirements  of  the  same ;  to  introduce  more 
exhaustive  courses,  so  that,  far  instance,  a  course  which  originally  consisted  of 
instruction  in  mechanics  was  divided  into  two  parts,  theoretical  and  practical 
mechanics,  afterAvards  into  three  parts,  when  the  construction  of  machines  Avas 
added  to  the  two  former  studies,  and  later  yet  special  instruction  Avas  given  in 
the  making  of  steam-engines  and  locomotives. 

It  Avas  the  same  Avith  the  art  of  building,  and  with  technical  chemistry.  Almost 
all  the  schools  in  Germany,  Belgium,  and  France,  yielded  sooner  or  later  to  this 
practical  necessity,  and  so  arose  the  organization  of  the  so-called  Fac/i-schools,  i.  e., 
schools  in  Avhich  particular  branches  of  biTsiness  are  taught. 

In  Austria,  however,  and  in  some  parts  of  Bavaria,  the  old  order  of  things  re- 
mained, for  Avhich  they  offered  as  excuse  the  actual  state  of  industry  and  the 
little  need  of  a  present  division  of  labor ;  but  they  Avere  at  length  obliged  to  yield. 

True,  Hanover  did  not  accept  the  organization  of  schools  for  particular  indus- 
tries (Fachsc/nden),  but  it  has  been  found,  on  comparing  the  plans  of  their  schools 
with  those  of  Carlsruhe  or  Zurich  that  they  differ  only  in  name.  Still,  there  was 
wanting  in  Hanover  the  plan  of  supervision  adopted  in  the  special  schools,  and 

*  Der  noehere  polytechnische  Untenicht  in  Deutschland ,  in  der  Schweiz,  in  Frankreich,  BeU 
gien  und  England.    Carl  Koristka,  Prof,  am  polytechnischen  Landesinstitut  zu  Prague,  &c. 


with  this  the  conferences  of  the  teachers  seemingly  so  necessary  tq  their  pros- 
perity ;  but  this  also  was  not  long  wanting.  Finally,  we  might  add  that  ac- 
cording to  the  plan  of  education  in  Paris,  there  was  no  real  division  for  special 
studies  there  also,  but  all  that  has  been  said  of  Hanover  applies  to  Paris  as  well, 
and  besides,  there  the  lectures  of  the  professors  form  but  a  part  of  the  instruction. 
Instruction  by  recitation  forms  a  feature  ^f  even  more  importance,  and  the  pupils 
were  certainly  divided  according  to  their  intended  pursuits. 

As  for  the  number  of  the  divisions,  we  find  in  all  the  schools  at  least  four :  chemi- 
cal, mechanical,  architectural  (the  latter  divided  into  two  parts,  that  of  building 
with  especial  attention  to  architectural  ornament),  and  that  of  highways,  rail- 
ways, bridges,  &c.,  styled  in  France  and  Belgium  des  ponts  et  chaiissees 

These  four  groups  form  the  principal  divisions  in  most  polytechnic  schools ; 
only  a  short  time  ago,  Berlin  transferred  the  building  department  from  the  in- 
dustrial school  to  the  academy  designed  for  this  special '  study,  but  in  Dresden 
both  branches  of  building  are  united.  In  Belgium  the  schools  at  Liege  and  at 
Ghent  are  connected  with  each  other. 

The  division  of  technical  studies  into  these  three  or  four  distinct  parts  is  so 
decidedly  demanded  by  the  nature  and  practice  of  technical  science,  that  it  is 
unnecessary  to  defend  or  support  it  here. 

Another  question  is,  whether  the  whole  field  is  occupied  by  these  four  groups, 
or  if  others  are  not  necessary.  It  cannot  be  denied  that  there  is  a  great  number 
of  branches,  which  it  would  have  been  better  to  confide  to  special  schools  :  as  for 
instance,  mining,  foundries,  agriculture,  forest  culture,  ship-building,  &c.,  not  to 
speak  of  military  fortifications,  There  is  no  doubt  that  one  might  give  special 
instruction  in  these  in  the  polytechnic  schools  just  as  well  as  in  mechanics,  chem- 
istry, &c.,  provided  thorough  instruction  in  these  branches  is  desired.  Mean- 
while, at  the  same  time  with  the  polytechnic  schools,  even  earlier  there  arose, 
at  Freiburg,  Schemnitz,  Mariabrunn,  Tharand,  Altenburg,  Hohenheim,  &c., 
special  schools  where  practical  as  well  as  theoretical  instruction  was  imparted 
with  great  success. 

This  further  division  has  resulted  only  in  profit  to  the  polytechnic  schools,  their 
organization  becoming  more  simplified,  and  united  action  being  much  facilitated. 
Some  of  them  possess  one  or  more  of  these  special  schools  besides  the  before- 
mentioned,  as,  for  instance,  Zurich  has  a  forest-school,  Carlsruhe  a  forest,  mer- 
cantile, and  post  school,  Berlin  a  ship-building  department,  Liege  a  mining 
school,  &c. 

No  one  will  deny  that  almost  all  branches  of  science  are  in  some  way,  more  or 
less,  connected,  and  that  it  is,  without  doubt,  very  necessary  and  desirable  that 
the  intelligent  workman  (techniker)  should  know  something  out  of  his  own  nar- 
row field.  This  argument  was  for  a  long  time  the  chief  weapon  of  the  defenders 
of  the  old  state  of  things  in  Austria ;  according  to  their  notions,  the  artist  should 
have  made  himself  thoroughly  familiar  with  a  course  of  general  study.  But  cer- 
tain as  it  is,  that  a  mechanic  should  possess  sufficient  knowledge  of  building  as  to 
be  able  to  judge  a  plan  accurately,  so  sure  is  it,  that  at  present  one  no  longer  ex- 
pects from  a  machinist  that  he  should  be  able  to  plan  and  superintend  the  build- 
ing of  a  railway,  nor  from  an  architect  a  chemical  analysis  ;  and  the  change, 
moreover,  is  regretted  by  no  one.  In  order  to  meet  the  real  necessities  of  the 
case,  lectures  on  the  most  practical  and  important  parts  of  other  branches  of 
science  should  be  judiciously  given. 

In  almost  all  the  polytechnic  schools,  we  find  one  or  more  general  classes,  in 


which  those  things  are  taught  which  form  the  common  basis  of  all  technical 
knowledge,  or  which  give  the  pupils  superior  culture,  Carlsruho  has  three,  [Stutt- 
gart two,  Dresden  one,  Berlin,  Liege,  and  Ghent,  one  or  two  such  general 
classes! ;  in  Paris  the  whole  polytechnic  school,  consisting  of  two  classes,  is  noth- 
ing more  than  a  general  preparation  for  tlic  special  departments.  Even  in  Zu- 
rich, where  there  was  formerly  great  opposition  to  this  plan,  a  preparatory  class 
has  lately  been  formed,  although  these  classes  are  very  much  opposed,  there  are 
certainly  branches  on  which  all  technical  science,  in  every  department,  is  based, 
such  for  instance  as  higher  mathematics,  physics,  with  the  geometry  involved  in 
it,  which  might  be  taught  with  advantage  in  one  or  two  general  mathematical 
classes,  which  all  pupils,  without  exception,  would  pass  through.  We  cannot 
demand  of  these  preparatory  schools  that  they  give  their  pupils  the  pure  disci- 
pline of  science,  so  far  as  is  necessary  in  the  polytechnic  schools,  but  on  the  other 
hand,  since  these  subjects,  which  really  demand  a  riper  judgment  for  their  com- 
prehension, are  to  be  taught  in  the  polytechnic  school,  this  leaves  time  to  the 
pupils  during  the  one  or  two  years  they  pass  in  the  preparatory  school,  to  choose 
their  occupation  or  profession. 

Let  us  sum  up  in  a  few  words  the  present  organization  of  the  polytechnic 
schools  :  First,  one  grand  division  consisting  of  one  or  two  classes,  and  open  to 
all  scholars  in  common ;  then  four  branches  for  the  four  technical  divisions,  for 
building,  architecture,  mechanics,  and  chemistry,  to  which  special  courses  may  be 
added  with  advantage. 


A  preparation  for  entering  the  Polytechnic  Schools,  in  both  Germany  and 
Switzerland,  can  be  sought  in  private  or  even  self-instruction,  since  examinations 
are  always  held  on  entering  the  schools,  and  it  is  not  necessary  that  the  candid- 
ate should  have  been  through  any  particular  school.  Meanwhile,  it  is  plain  that 
this  method  is  very  uncertain  and  expensive,  and  therefore,  in  all  countries, 
where  polytechnic  institutions  have  been  established,  preparatory  schools  have 
also  been  established  wherever  they  did  not  before  exist. 

These  latter  schools  have,  however,  not  the  aim  alone  of  preparing  for  the  poly- 
technic school,  but  instruction  for  the  middle  classes  of  the  industrial  popidation 
is  joined  with  it,  is  indeed  for  the  most  part,  the  real  aim,  preparation  for  the 
polytechnic  school  being  only  a  mino"  end.  Many  polytechnic  schools  of  Han- 
over and  Dresden  give  this  preparatory  instruction  themselves,  either  in  a  pre- 
paratory course  or  in  their  lowest  classes. 

The  different  names  of  these  preparatory  schools  are  :  Trade  (gewerbe)  schools, 
(schools  for  artizans),  real  schools  (schools  where  modern  languages  and  the 
sciences  are  taught),  real  gymnasiums  (corresponding  to  the  American  Pligh 
School),  industrial  schools,  &c.  These  must  be  carefully  distinguished  from  the 
secondary  and  other  improvement  schools  mainly  for  mechanics,  which  admit  only 
artizans  and  work-people  as  scholars,  and  give  instruction  mostly  during  the  even- 
ing and  on  Sundays.  As  chief  representatives  of  this  class  of  schools,  we  would 
mention  the  "  Canton  schools  for  artisans"  (Kanton-Industrieschulen),  "the  dis- 
trict school  for  artisans"  (Kreisgeiverbeschulen),  and  the  projected  school  of  lan- 
guage and  science  (ReaJgymnasien)  in  Bavaria,'and  the  "  provincial  schools  "  for 
artisans  (Provinzia/gewerbeschiilen)  of  Prussia. 

The  chief  branches  of  study  everywhere  are  the  elementary  mathematics  and 
drawing,  further  thorough  instruction  in  the  mother-tongue,  physics,  and  foreign 


modern  languages.  In  mathematics  the  course  goes  at  least  as  far  as  the  use  of 
logarithms,  equations  of  the  second  degree,  plane  trigonometry,  and  in  the  Swiss 
schools  still  further.  We  cannot  of  course  dwell  longer  on  these  schools  here, 
our  only  object  being  to  see  the  requirements  for  entering  the  polytechnic 

The  schools  for  artisans,  of  Switzerland,  form  generally  a  second  division  of 
the  canton-schools,  whose  first  division  is  the  gymnasium.  The  case  is  the  same 
with  the  industries-school  at  Zurich.  It  forms,  together  with  the  gymnasium 
there,  the  admirably  organized  canton-school,  which  is  directly  connected  with 
the  common-school  (  Volkschide).  The  industrial-school  has  the  work  of  prepar- 
ing the  pupil  directly  for  practical  life  or  for  admission  to  higher  technical  schools. 
It  is  divided  into  an  upper  and  lower  school,  each  of  which  has  three  sub-divis- 
ions. The  hours  of  instruction,  per  week,  are  specified.  In  the  lower  industrial 
school  are  taught:  religion  6  hours,  German  language  12,  geography  5,  history 
8,  natural  history  4,  natural  philosophy  4,  practical  arithmetic  (including  de- 
cimals and  proportions)  9,  mathematics,  including  fundamental  rules  and  equa- 
tions of  the  1st  and  2d  degree,  4,  geometry  (planimetry  and  measurement  of 
bodies)  6,  geometrical  figures  6,  French  language  16,  English  language  (not  ob- 
ligatory) 8,  (free-hand  drawing)  designing  8,  calligraphy  4,  singing  3,  gymnastics 
6,  use  of  weapons. 

In  th<5  upper  school  all  these  branches  (gymnastics  and  use  of  weapons  ex- 
cepted) are  not  obligatory.  Pupils  can  enter  any  one  of  the  three  principal 
departments,  that  of  mechanics,  of  chemistry,  or  of  commerce,  into  w'hich  the 
instruction  is  divided.  The  rector  is,  however,  required  to  see  that  in  the  choice 
of  branches  by  the  scholar,  he  does  not  take  special  studies  alone  and  entirely 
neglect  the  general  branches.  Every  scholar  must  be  occupied  at  least  thirty 
hours  a  week.  In  the  upper  school  are  taught :  religion,  only  in  the  first  year, 
2  hours,  theoretical  mathematics,  continued  fractions,  logarithms,  progressions, 
algebraic  analysis,  higher  equations,  plane  and  spherical  trigonometry  in  full, 
analytical  geometry  20  hours  a  week  in  all  three  year  courses,  geometry  by 
figures  6,  technical  design  18,  practical  geometry,  with  simple  field-measurements 
and  designs,  7,  theoretical  mechanics,  and  mechanical  technology,  6,  chemistry 
and  chemical  technology  with  practice  in  the  laboratory  10,  lectures  8,  exercises, 
botany  and  zoology,  3,  mineralogy  2,  knowledge  useful  to  merchants,  i»  seven 
courses,  26,  French  11,  English  12,  Italian  10,  German  7,  history  12,  geography 

5,  free-hand  drawing  10,  calligraphy  2,  singing,  gymnastics,  and  the  use  of  arms. 
The  canton-school  at  Zurich  is  admirably  arranged.     The  total  numher  of 

scholars  at  the  industrial  school,  in  1861,  w^as  370.'  As  soon  as  tliere  are  over 
forty  scholars  in  a  class  a  division  is  made. 

The  Provincial  schools  for  artisans  (Kreisgewerbesclmleti)  and  the  gymnasium 
for  language  and  science  (ReaJgymnasien)  of  Bavaria,  which  we  wish  to  bring 
up  as  a  second  example  of  the  preparatory  instruction,  have  the  same  double 
aim  as  the  first  mentioned  example.  According  to  the  present  organization 
these  schools  have  a  three  years'  course  divided  for  industrial  occupations  and 
commerce.  The  follqAving  branches  are  taught :  higher  arithmetic  5  hours,  ele- 
mentary mathematics,  including  logarithms  and  plane  trigonometry,  1 2,  natural 
history  and  encyclopaedia  of  science  10,  physics  3,  practical  chemistry  5,  religion 

6,  German  10,  geography  6,  sketching,  projecting,  and  designing,  24,  calligraphy 
2,  modeling  in  clay  8,  those  who  are  to  be  merchants  take,  instead  of  the  draw- 
ing and  modeling,  French  and  English,  10,  mercantile,  arithmetic,  and  counting- 


room  knowledge,  15.  An  important  reform  is  projected  (carried  out  in  1864) 
for  those  autl  all  technical  schools  in  Bavaria,  so  that  the  school  of  science 
is  alone  to  fit  this  class  of  pupils,  while  the  real  gymnasiums  are  to  take  a 
middle  place  between  these  and  the  polytechnic  schools.  This  is  to  have  a  four 
years'  course,  and  to  teach  the  following  branches :  mathematics,  arithmetical 
equations,  the  study  of  functions,  plane  and  spherical  trigonometry,  25  hours, 
natural  history  5,  physics  and  chemistry  10,  geometry  by  figures  6,  designing  24, 
religion  8,  German  9,  Latin  10,  French  16,  English  4,  geography  and  history  7. 

In  several  of  the  greater  States  of  middle  Germany  already  such  real  gymnasi- 
ums exist,  and  it  is  not  to  be  denied  that  there  are  many  good  reasons  for  organi- 
zation. They  give,  in  truth,  a  second  drill,  and  are  often  used  as  a  preparation 
for  the  polytechnic  schools.  The  provincial  schools  for  artisans  throughout 
Prussia  have  a  similar  organization,  and  such  ought  really  to  be  organized  in 
every  capital  city.  Each  of  these  schools  have  only  two  classes  and  a  one  year's 
course.  These  are  especially  designed  for  boys  of  14  at  least,  that  they  may 
there  obtain  that  instruction  necessary  to  them  in  their  business,  or  prepare  them 
to  be  received  into  the  Trade  Institute  at  Berlin. 

The  following  are  the  branches  taught  with  the  number  of  hours  devoted  to 
them :  elementary  mathematics,  including  logarithms,  equations  of  the  second 
degree  and  progressions,  plane  ti-igonometry  and  conic  sections,  elements  of  de- 
scriptive geometry,  21  hours,  physics  and  chemistry,  with  experiments,  12,  me- 
chanics and  instruction  on  machines  3,  instruction  in  building  3,  mineralogy  2, 
designing  and  modeling  14,  sketching  18.  The  lower  class  is  chiefly  for  theo- 
retical instruction  and  drawing,  the  upper  for  the  practice  of  what  has  already 
beenf  learned. 

Besides  these  there  are,  in  Germany,  a  great  number  of  similar  schools  under 
the  name  of  real  schools,  as  at  Darmstadt,  &c.,  or  higher  district  schools,  people's 
schools,  as  at  Hanover,  which  undertake,  also,  the  courses  of  a  gymnasium,  and 
usually  accomplish  the  whole  in  from  six  to  seven  years. 























Dresden,    -            -            - 












Hanover,    - 






Paris,  (Central  School) 
Liege,  (School  of  Arts)     - 
Prague,  (old  plan) 
"         (new  plan) 










In  no  field  of  technical  science  has  such  great  progress  been  made  in  the  last 
thirty  years  as  in  that  of  mechanics.  In  no  branch  of  study,  therefore,  is  the 
difference  between  our  Austrian  and  foreign  institutions  of  learning  so  great  as 
in  this,  and  that  also  as  much  in  the  manner  of  teaching  as  in  the  arrangement 
of  the  subjects  taught  and  the  helps  used. 



While  with  US,  iu  Prague  and  in  Vienna,  last  year  [1862]  the  whole  subject, 
excepting  mechanical  technology,  was  taught  by  a  single  teacher  in  a  single 
course  of  a  year  with  from  five  to  ten  weekly  hours  of  instruction,  the  same  sub- 
ject has  been  divided  in  Germany  into  three  individual  branches  with  at  least 
one  teacher  for  each  branch. 

Theoretical  and  analytical  mechanics,  and  machine  construction,  are  the  chief 
branches  taught  at  every  good  polytechnic  school,  and  the  last  mentioned  is  even 
dfvided  into  two  or  more  branches  besides  the  necessary  instruction  in  drawing 
and  construction.  We  need  only  to  glance  at  the  figures  of  the  foregoing  table 
in  order  to  see  how  far  behind  the  others  we  are.  Certainly,  it  heightens  the 
merits  of  the  Austrian  teachers  of  mechanics,  who  thus,  in  the  short  time  granted 
them  by  the  school-programme  of  instruction,  must  go  over  the  whole  extended 
subject  with  its  branches,  and  every  unprejudiced  person  will  acknowledge  that 
they  have  accomplished  much  under  the  unfavorable  circumstances. 

As  for  the  division  of  the  subject,  this  is  described  in  the  account  of  the  schools 
at  Carlsruhe,  Zurich,  Dresden  and  Berlin.  We  will  only  add  a  few  remarks ; 
and  first,  the  school  at  Zurich  differs  from  most  others,  in  the  opinion  that  differ- 
ent courses  of  lectures  shall  be  given  on  the  theory  of  machines  (maschinm-khre) 
and  on  their  construction  (maschinen-bau)  but  that  these  lectures  shall  be  given 
by  separate  professors,  while  other  schools,  particularly  Carlsruhe,  consider  this 
impossible,  or,  at  least  injudicious. 

It  is  certainly  true  that  the  theory  of  machines  differs  from  machine-building, 
and  that,  since  Rcdtcnbacher,  Weissbach,  and  especially  Reuleaux,  have  brought 
the  latter  to  an  independent  art,  a  union  of  these  two  subjects  under  one  teacher 
can  scarcely  exist  v/ithout  more  or  less  neglecting  one  or  the  other.  On  the 
other  hand,  we  must  also  acknowledge  that,  since  both  subjects  complete  each 
other,  the  lectures  must  be  so  arranged  that  this  difiiculty  can  only  be  overcome 
by  the  most  friendly  understanding  between  the  two  professors,  as  happily  is  the 
case  in  Zurich  at  the  present  time. 

In  France,  it  is  only  lately  that  the  new  opinions  have  been  adopted.  By  the 
old  plan  mechanics  v/ere  taught  in  two  branches :  theoretical  and  practical,  the 
latter  being  divided  into  several  courses,  as  hydraulic  machines,  steam-machines, 
&c.  With  their  excellent  mathematical  apparatus,  the  French  technical  teachers 
explained  with  ease  the  general  principles  involved  in  every  machine,  regarding 
each  as  an  independent  example,  but  their  defect  lay  in  paying  little  regard  to 
empiricism,  while  the  English  fell  into  just  the  opposite  mistake,  and  devoted 
themselves  exclusively  to  proportions  and  to  innumerable  exjjerimeitts  and 

A  second  remark  has  reference  to  machine  shops  as  to  whose  introduction  into 
the  Austrian  schools  there  is  such  difference  of  opinion ;  the  call  from  business 
men  (industriellen)  being  so  loud  for  such  workshops,  that  to  appease  them  the 
scholars  should  become  finished  mechanics  before  coming  to  them. 

It  would  be  well  to  take  counsel  from  the  experience  of  the  schools  mentioned 
in  the  first  part  of  this  report.  The  institute  at  Berlin  has  the  greatest  and  old- 
est arrangement  of  this  kind.  The  work-shop  costs  over  9,000  thalers  yearly, 
but  the  interest  shown  by  the  scholars  is  very  little,  and  all  competent  judges  at 
Berlin  desire  it  to  be  discontinued  or  greatly  limited.  Then  come  Augsburg 
and  Nuremburg,  where  the  work-shops  are  on  a  more  modest  scale,  but  where, 
'on  account  of  the  severe  discipline  and  the  small  number  of  scholars  (not  over 
twenty),  the  results  have  been  most  favorable.      Then  we  must  mention  Liege, 


where  the  work-shops  nre  leased  to  a  macliinist,  and  where,  also,  a  very  practical 
arrangement  is  made  with  regard  to  ngrieulturc.  In  our  oj)inion,  although  the 
number  of  scholars  is  even  smaller,  the  results  arc  even  more  favorable.  In  all 
other  schools  the  machine-shops,  whenever  there  are  any,  are  considered  as  side- 
affairs,  as  in  Carlsruhe  and  Zurich.  In  Hanover,  Dresden,  and  the  central 
school  of  Paris  there  are  no  such  work-shops  for  scholars.  Dresden  gives  the 
most  instruction  in  this  respect.  True,  there  were  no  machine-shops  arranged 
for  the  school,  but  the  government  had  made  a  contract  with  one  quite  celebrated, 
by  which  the  scholars  were  permitted  to  work  there  a  certain  number  of  hours, 
weekly,  during  the  whole  course,  and  to  receive  instruction  there.  In  the  year 
1829,  these  hours  comprised  48  per  cent,  of  the  whole  time  of  instruction,  but  it 
diminished  yearly,  the  lectures  and  exercises  in  designing  being  increased  at  its 
expense,  so  that,  in  1835,  it  was  only  35,  in  the  year  1838  only  26,  in  1849  only 
14  per  cent.,  and  in  1852  was  wholly  discontinued. 

All  these  results  speak  in  no  way  favorably  for  the  work-shops.  It  is  also  in 
the  nature  of  the  case  that  their  establishment  can  never  have  the  exj^iected  re- 
sults in  most  polytechnic  schools;  for,  in  the  first  place  the  costs  of  such  a  work- 
shop, and  its  yearly  support,  is  very  considerable.  Secondly,  only  a  few  scholars 
can  be  taught,  for  it  is  impossible  to  instruct  60  to  80  scholars,  which  is  the 
number  at  Vienna  and  Prague,  without  enormous  outlay.  Thirdly,  the  matter 
must  be  regarded  in  an  economical  point  of  view,  as  it  is  plain  that  in  a  private 
machine-shop  much  more  economy  of  time  and  work  can  be  practiced  than  at 
such  a  public  school  Finally,  the  milder  discipline  of  a  polytechnic  school  is  a 
hindrance  to  success,  since  the  pupils  are  under  no  more  strict  regulations  in 
their  practical  work  than  in  their  theoretical  studies,  and  yet,  as  every  one  knows, 
the  severest  discipline,  the  most  exact  observance  of  the  hours  of  labor,  is  neces- 
sary in  a  machine-shop  (fahrik)  if  anything-  is  to  be  accomplished,  and  order  to 
be  sustained.  The  opinion  of  those  who  think  that  young  men  are  only  spoiled 
in  the  shops  is  therefore  not  wholly  without  reason.  But  should  a  school  which 
has  large  means  and  few  scholars  wish  to  establish  such  work-shops,  we  would 
recommend  the  method  of  Liege,  or  that  of  Augsburg  and  Nuremburg. 

But  what  shall  we  do  then  ?  How  shall  young  mechanics  fit  themselves,  prac- 
tically, for  their  work  ? 

We  reply,  that  a  part,  and  that  a  very  important  one  of  the  practical  education, 
consists  in  a  systematic  study  of  machine-building,  as  that,  at  present,  is  taught 
in  the  better  polytechnic  schools,  the  great  industry  in  the  construction  and  de- 
signing of  machines  in  th£i  school  itself  But  we  can  never  demand  from  a 
school  that  it  should  instruct  the  pupil  in  all  the  practical  points  relating  to 
machine  construction  as  thoroughly  as  the  work-shop  can  do  with  regard  to  the 
single  machine,  to  whose  construction  it  has  been  dedicated  for  years.  If,  how- 
ever, we  demand  this  kind  of  practice,  it  can  be  obtained  only  b}'  the  pupil's 
taking  practical  lessons  in  a  machine-shop  either  before  his  entrance  into  the 
school  or  after  he  graduates.  The  easiest  method,  and  the  one  we  would  recom- 
mend, is  the  one  in  present  use  in  Dresden  and  proposed  at  Stuttgart,  namely, 
that  the  scholar  enter  upon  this  practical  part  after  the  first  year  passed  at  the 
school,  for  reasons  previously  given.  In  Austria  little  attention  has  as  yet  been 
given  to  this  branch,  and  provision  for  the  scholars  in  home  institutions,  since 
many  of  these  are  in  the  hands  of  foreigners,  is  extremely  difficiilt.  To  help  the 
scholars  in  this  respect,  the  school-committee  should  make  a  contract  with  the 
best  manufactories  (Fabriken)  to  receive  yearly,  for  a  specified  sum,  a  certain 



number  of  young  mechanics  as  apprentices.  The  scholars  should  pay  this  sum 
to  the  school  and  the  school  to  the  factory.  Those  of  the  best  scholars  who  have 
no  means  should  receive  assistance,  the  school  paying  for  them  out  of  its  own 
funds.  We  are  convinced  that  the  best  factories  would  consider  this  an  honor, 
and  that  this  branch  of  manufactures  in  Austria  would  thus  be  so  raised,  that  in 
twenty  years  all  such  aid  would  be  imnecessary.  This  plan  h*as  been  tried  in 
Hanover,  and  in  a  very  short  time  obtained  the  best  results.  Naturally,  we  hold 
the  establishment  of  a  small  work-shop,  with  an  experienced  superintendent  at 
its  head,  as  very  desirable  for  every  polytechnic  school.  The  chief  aim  of  such 
work-shops  should  be  to  keep  in  repair  the  models  it  already  possesses,  to  invent 
new  according  to  the  directions  of  the  teachers,  and  to  reserve  a  few  places  for 
such  scholars  for  whom  it  had  previously  been  impossible  to  visit  a  machine-shop 
in  order  to  instruct  such  in  the  more  common  practical  parts  of  working  in  metals, 
and  to  prepare  them  to  attend  a  larger  work-shop.  A  small  number  of  places 
would  answer  for  a  large  number  of  scholars  by  letting  them  take  turns,  and 
great  care  is  to  be  taken  that  this  instruction  be  kept  in  the  background,  and  at 
the  same  time  that  it  do  not  degenerate  into  a  mere  pastime. 











Zurich,          -        -        -        - 






Carlsruhe,         -        -        - 






Stuttgart,     -        -        -        - 






Munich,  (Engineers'  School,) 






Dresden,       -        -        .        - 






Hanover,  -        -        -        - 






Paris,  (Central  School,) 





Ghent,  (Civil  Engineering,) 




■  . , 


Prague,  (old  plan,) 






"        (new  plan,) 






From  this  table  we  see  that  the  greatest  number  of  courses  and  lectures  on  this 
subject  are  given  in  the  school  at  Carlsruhe.  As  for  the  lessons  of  design,  we 
must  remark  that  here  in  mechanics,  as  well  as  in  the  making  of  bridges  and 
roads,  the  number  of  hours  given  in  the  plan  is  only  the  minimum.  In  reality, 
the  industrious  student  must,  in  order  to  satisfy  his  teacher,  devote  much  more 
time  to  construction  and  designing.  The  chief  difference  betAveen  the  Austrian 
and  other  schools  is,  that  in  ours  the  constructive  part  (chiefly  at  least)  is  taught, 
while  the  architectural  part  is  left  in  the  hands  of  the  art  academies,  (not  to  be 
confused,  however,  with  special  schools,  like  that  of  the  Berlin  Building  Acad- 
emy,) Avhile  in  all  the  foreign  schools,  with  exception  of  the  Parisian,  several 
terms  are  devoted  to  this ;  sometimes,  also  several  teachers  demanded.  And,  in- 
deed, one  cannot  understand  why  it  should  not  be  possible  to  give  a  thorough 
education  to  architects  of  the  highest  grade  at  our  polytechnic  schools.  The 
building  of  houses  is  indeed  a  branch  in  itself,  and  the  desire  to  separate  the 
practical  from  the  esthetical  part  of  planning  a  building,  and  to  establish  diiFer- 
,ent  schools  for  each,  seems  to  us  unnecessary,  and  moreover,  directly  opposed  to 
a  harmonious  union  of  both  aims.  Besides  this,  the  pupils  after  leaving  the  school 
will  be  much  governed  in  their  future  course  by  inclination.    If  one,  however. 



grants  to  the  polytechnic  school  the  right  of  educating  professional  architects, 
one  should  not  take  from  it  the  right  to  form  the  taste  of  the  pupils,  and  their 
appreciation  of  the  beautiful,  at  least  as  much  as  is  now  done  in  the  Austrian 
schools,  for  under  present  arrangements,  the  pupil  would  find  it  much  more  use- 
ful to  travel  for  one  year,  than  to  spend  three  there. 

For  this  reason,  we  find  lectures  on  building  materials  and  building,  as  well 
as  those  upon  style,  history  of  architecture,  &c.,  given  in  great  numbers  at  for- 
eign schools,  as  is  also  intended  by  the  new  plan  at  Prague. 

In  the  best  schools,  the  demands  upon  the  scholar  in  the  highest  course  (last 
term)  are  very  great.  We  have  had  opportunity  to  see  in  Carlsruhc  and  Zurich 
great  and  detailed  designs,  made  by  scholars,  of  which  many  skilled  architects 
need  not  have  been  ashamed.  There  is  difference  of  opinion,  as  to  Avhether  at  Carls- 
ruhe  and  Zurich  there  should  be  one  general  course  of  study  for  all  the  scholars, 
or  whether  one  should  adapt  the  studies  to  each  individual  scholar,  as  at  other 
schools.  Those  persons  who  superintend  special  schools  are  really  the  only  ones 
who  should  decide  here. 

In  all  schools,  for  the  purpose  of  illustrating  the  courses,  models  in  wood,  clay, 
and  plaster  of  Pai-is,  are  furnished.  We  do  not"  contradict  ourselves  in  the 
opinion  given  in  the  previous  article,  by  recommending  the  establishing  of  such 
workshops  as  these  everywhere.  Their  cost  is  not  great,  the  interest  of  the  pupils 
is  kept  awake,  and  leads  soon  to  the  wished-for  result ;  a  thing  not  always  to  be 
affirmed  of  the  machine  shops.  The  reparation  of  wood  models,  the  modeling 
of  ornaments  in  clay,  stone,  and  the  forming  of  objects  from  drawings,  are 
excejlent  exercises  for  the  pupil.  That  here  too,  a  previous  practical  experience 
is  very  useful,  and  in  many  schools  is  understood  to  precede  these,  we  do  not 
need  to  state.  Excursions  to  interesting  buildings  in  process  of  construction, 
accompanied  by  the  professor,  are  at  all  times  to  be  recommended. 










Zurich,          .         .         -         - 






Carlsruhe,         .        -        - 






Stuttgart,     -        -        -        - 






Munich,    -        -        -        - 






Dresden,       -        -        -        - 






Hanover,  -        - 






Paris,  (Roads  and  Bridges,) 





Ghent,  ( Civil  Engineering, ) 





Prague,  (old  plan,) 






"        (new  plan,) 






This  subject  is,  without  question,  best  provided  for,  as  the  table  shows,  in  the 
school  des  ponts  et  chaussees  in  Paris,  which  school  is  entirely  devoted  to  this 
branch.  We  should  also  remark  that  one  or  two  courses  and  one  teacher  might 
in  this  table  be  added  to  the  German  schools.  We  have  already  mentioned  them 
in  the  article  on  building.  They  comprise  instruction  on  building  materials,  and 
carpentry  and  masonry,  but  belong  equally  to  the  construction  of  streets  and 
bridges.     That  which  has  been  said  in  the  previous  article  about  workshops  for 



modeling  in  wood,  clay,  and  plaster  of  Paris,  applies  perfectly  to  this  subject. 
It  is  acknoAvledged  in  all  schools  that  pupils  in  this  branch  need  the  most  thorough 
and  exhaustive  mathematical  instruction,  as  well  as  that  instruction  on  machines, 
at  least  belongs  to  the  preparatory  course.  On  the  other  hand  they  are,  in  gen- 
eral, excused  from  the  greater  part  of  the  architectural  branches.  We  have 
already  given  the  programme  of  instruction  in  Carlsruhe  and  at  Paris.  It  only 
remains  for  us  to  express  the  wish  that  the  professors  of  the  technical  schools 
should  join  with  those  of  the  building  and  railway  department,  in  order  that  the 
students  in  this  branch  may  have  the  opportunity  of  prolonged  practice,  for  the 
simple  visiting  of  a  building  in  process  of  construction  Avith  the  professors,  as  is 
the  custom  in  many  schools,  cannot  suffice. 



Zurich,     -        -        , 
Carlsruhe,     -        -        - 

Dresden,  ... 
Berlin,  -  .  - 
Hanover,  -  .  . 
Paris,  (Central  School,) 
Liege,  (School  of  Arts,) 
Prague,  (old  plan,)  - 
"        (new  plan,) 







The  practical  exercises  of  the  scholars  in  the  chemical  laboratory  are  not  given 
here,  since  in  most  schools  no  regular  time,  but  often  a  whole  day,  on  which  the 
lectures  are  suspended,  is  devoted  to  them.  There  is  only  a  very  small  difference 
in  this  respect  between  foreign  schools  and  ours.  Everywhere  there  is  the  same 
division  into  general,  analytical,  and  special  chemistry,  Avhich  latter  division  has, 
in  general,  four  or  five  subdivisions.  It  is  to  be  wished,  first,  that  the  laboratories 
were  at  least  twice  as  large,  in  order  to  satisfy  present  needs,  and  to  accommo- 
date all  capable  scholars  with  practical  work ;  in  the  second  place,  that  the  labo- 
ratories Avere  better  endoAved  and  arranged,  since  they  are  very  poorly  furnished, 
that  of  Vienna  excepted ;  and.  thirdly,  that  there  might  be  more  teachers,  in 
order, to  take  up  the  subjects  more  in  detail.  The  school  course  of  Zurich,  Carls- 
ruhe, and  the  Central  School  at  Paris,  show  the  division  of  instruction,  and  at 
the  last  school  the  comprehensiA^e  analytical  method  of  treating  the  most  impor- 
tant inorganic  and  organic  compounds  is  especially  interesting.  The  schools 
of  Zurich  and  Carlsruhe  have  perhaps  the  best  laboratories ;  those  of  Stuttgart, 
Berlin,  HanoA^er,  and  Dresden  are  good. 


We  have  already  remarked  that  the  proper  organization  of  a  technical  institu- 
tion is  veiy  essential  to  its  success.  Even  more  important  is  the  method  of  teach- 
ing, for  it  is  possible  that  a  school  under  the  old  system  of  things  might  accom- 
plish much,  if  possessing  some  superior  professors ;  but  it  is  completely  impossi- 
ble that  a  school  sbould  ansAver  the  Avants  of  the  age,  if  it  possesses  inferior 
teachers,  even  though  it  have  the  best  possible  organization. 

It  is  thus  a  natural  question,  in  Avhat  way  and  by  what  means  a  school  is  to 
obtain  a  superior  class  of  instractors  1    Before  ansAvering  that  question,  we  must 


mention  another  important  point  connected  with  this.  In  most  schools  the 
chief  professors  form  a  corps  of  instructors,  the  faculty,  which  has  certain  rights, 
and  upon  which  falls  directly  the  discipline  and  direction  of  the  school,  Berlin 
being  the  only  exccj)tjpn.  The  present  arrangement  at  the  Austrian  Universi- 
ties, which  is  projected  in  Prague,  is  convenient,  namely,  that  the  assistant 
teachers,  tutors,  resident  graduates,  &c.,  vote  certain  ones  among  their  num- 
ber into  the  faculty.  The  system  of  tutors  is  indeed  as  yet  allowed  only 
in  the  polytechnic  school  at  Zurich,  but  we  cannot  see  why  this  plan  should 
not  work  as  well  elsewhere.     In  the  Austrian  schools  there  is  more  liberality. 

At  the  head  of  the  faculty,  and  hence  of  the  school,  in  all  schools  is  a  director 
(president).  He  is  either  chosen  yearly  and  approved  by  government,  or  is  ap- 
pointed directly  by  government,  as  at  Dresden,  Berlin,  Hanover,  and  of  course 
at  Paris  also.  Tbis  circumstance,  the  yearly  choice  of  a  director  or  his  appoint- 
ment by  government,  is  of  great  importance  for  the  progress  of  each  school,  for 
it  is  sure  that  in  the  first  case  this,  as  well  as  the  direct  guidance  of  the  school, 
is  in  the  hands  of  the  faculty,  while  in  the  second  case,  Avhatever  rights  may  be 
granted  the  faculty,  they  arc  really  vested  in  the  hands  of  the  director.  It  is 
rather  a  delicate  point  for  us  to  endeavor  to  express  the  different  views  held  in 
Germany  on  this  subject,  since,  however  much  Ave  may  guard  against  it,  we  may 
be  accused  of  seeking  our  own  interests.  Notwithstanding,  we  hold  it  for  our 
duty,  here  where  a  principle  is  in  question,  and  where  we  are  not  sure  that  any  one 
director  will  agree  with  us,  to  pronounce  our  opinion,  that  under  the  present  cir- 
cumstances in  the  higher  technical  institutions,  we  Avould  much  prefer  the  periodi- 
cal choice  of  a  director  (we  state  no  term  of  service),  and  that  by  choice  of  the 
faculty.  The  most  weighty  arguments  against  the  choice  are  the  greater  author- 
ity of  a  constant  director,  his  influence  upon  the  instruction  that  it  may  be  well- 
ordered,  the  more  severe  discipline  Avhich  he  could  enforce,  the  avoiding  of  quar- 
rels and  jealousies  among  the  professors,  as  is  the  case  at  a  yearly  choice.  These 
advantages  have  not  always  been  obtained,  for  the  authority  of  the  (public  school) 
teachers  from  among  whom  the  director  should  be  chosen,  rests  only  upon  their 
ability  and  success.  Careless  teachers  would  certainly  be  corrected  sooner  by 
the  disapproval  of  the  faculty,  than  by  the  director  alone,  for  in  quiet 
times  good  discipline  depends  upon  the  individual  teachers,  and  in  disturbed 
years  severe  discipline  can  be  carried  out  least  of  all  by  a  director  who  does  not 
always  possess  the  confidence  and  support  of  the  faculty.  Certainly  any  of  us, 
who  has  lived  the  last  twenty  years,  can  cite  examples  of  this.  Finally,  there  are 
parties  in  every  corporation,  to  avoid  which,  one  must  have  no  faculty  at  all. 

On  the  other  hand,  a  yearly  choice  has  the  advantage,  that  only  a  very  worthy 
member  of  the  faculty  will  be  chosen.  This  director,  clothed  with  the  whole 
moral  power  of  his  brother  professors,  the  man  in  whom  they  place  full  con- 
fidence, has  thus  great  influence  on  the  students.  The  faculty  will  choose 
only  such  a  man  as  will  work  energetically  to  further  the  interests  of  the  school, 
and  who  will  not  pursue  his  own  department  of  science  to  its  injury. 

In  places  where  the  director  is  chosen  yearly,  the  practical  instruction  must 
naturally  be  separated  from  the  scientific,,  and  be  entrusted  to  a  teacher  or  other 
officer.     In  the  universities  this  method  has  so  far  succeeded  admirably. 

But  certainly  the  worst  method  is  that  adopted  in  some  of  our  neighbor  States, 
where  the  direction  of  technical  institutions  has  been  put  in  the  hands,  not  of 
former  teachers,  but  of  officers  of  the  ministerial  department,  and  no  influence 
at  all,  in  the  direction  of  the  school,  granted  to  the  faculty. 


If  we  come  now  to  the  rights  of  the  faculty,  the  one  above-named  is  certainly 
the  most  important,  namoJy,  the  choice  of  a  director,  since  the  whole  tone  of  the 
institution,  and  its  attitude  towards  the  world,  depends  directly  upon  this,  and  in 
this  Avay  is  directly  countenanced  by  the  faculty.  The  other  most  important 
rights  ai*e  those  of  discipline,  which  all  faculties  possess,  that  of  making  sugges- 
tions as  to  endowments  and  stipends,  as  well  as  suggesting  reforms  of  individual 
branches  of  instruction,  which  right  appertains  to  most  faculties  in  GeiTnany, 
but  those  of  France  do  not  possess  it.  Finally,  the  right  of  making  suggestions 
when  a  vacancy  in  the  faculty  is  to  be  filled.  This  is  a  privilege  which  only  the 
Austrian  schools  enjoy,  but  one  to  be  wished  most  heartily  to  others.  The  ob- 
jection has  been  raised  that  in  such  case,  out  of  desire  to  aid  friends,  quite  other 
than  pure  scientific  merit  may  procure  the  appointment,  and  this  objection  is  not 
wholly  ■without  grounds.  It  would,  however,  never  be  dangerous,  since  the  fac- 
ulty has  only  the  right  of  proposing  tAvo  or  three  candidates,  not  of  appointing 
them,  this  right  remaining  in  the  hands  of  the  supreme  authority  under  which 
the  school  stands.  "We  could,  however,  wish  that  the  faculty  might  possess  more 
rights  than  are  commonly  possessed  by  it ;  and  thus  w^e  come  again  to  the  ques- 
tion with  which  we  started  in  this  article,  namely,  how  a  technical  institution 
may  secure  for  itself  and  maintain  a  thorough  system  of  instruction  1 

In  the  German  schools  it  is  not  a  matter  of  so  great  importance  that  the  fac- 
ility has  no  influence  over  the  filling  of  vacancies'  in  the  school,  since  it  has  al- 
ways been  a  point  of  honor  in  the  middle  and  smaller  States  to  obtain  the  great- 
est possible  reputation  for  their  own  university  and  polytechnic  school.  We 
have  seen  how  even  ministers  of  state  have  not  scorned  to  make  a  journey  and 
to  negotiate  personally  with  the  persons  devoted  to  this  or  that  science.  In 
Austria  this  is  quite  different,  for  by  the  system  of  salaries,  a  kind  of  regular 
advancement  takes  place  when  vacancies  occur,  so  that  worthy  scientific  men 
have  no  hope  of  rising  through  their  talents.  In  Prague  the  salaries  have  been 
very  considerably  reduced  since  1806.  In  many  institutions  of  Austria  they  are 
less  than  are  given  to  an  overseer  in  a  factory.  How  can  we  demand  men  to 
give  a  young  man  the  education  of  an  engineer,  or  of  a  superintendent  of  a  fac- 
tory, for  the  purpose  of  teaching,  when  he  can  at  once  get  three  times  as  large  a 
salary  in  the  workshop  as  in  the  school.  Notwithstanding  we  hear  complaints 
that  so  few  talented  men  engaged  in  industrial  pursuits,  and  devote  themselves  to 
technical  instruction,  while  the  very  best  teachers  in  the  technical  schools  in  Ger- 
many, as  Karmaroch  in  Hanover,  Redtenbacher  (now  dead)  m  Carisruhe,  Schnei- 
der in  Dresden,  &c.,  are  Austrians  who  have  deserted  their  own  country  because 
it  offers  them  no  situation  befitting  their  talents. 

Wherever  the  school  is  divided  according  to  the  different  branches,  as  at  Zurich, 
Carisruhe,  and  Stuttgart,  frequent  meetings  are  evervwhere  held  by  their  pro- 
fessors, who  watch  over  the  progress  of  instruction  at  the  special  schools ;  and 
choose  from  their  own  number  a  president  of  these  meetings. 

In  the  French  schools,  as  well  as  at  Zurich,  Berlin,  and  Hanover,  a  special 
committee  is  appointed  to  watch  over  the  progress  of  the  school.  This  com- 
mittee consists  of  a  director  and  two  or  three  professors,  besides  several  distin- 
guished scientific  and  business  men,  and  the  higher  ministerial  authority.  These 
are  appointed  by  government,  which  then  makes  directly  on  it  all  calls  for  ad- 
vancement in  instruction,  and  for  filling  vacant  professorships.  It  is  evident  that 
this  superintendence  of  government  must  be  granted  in  concuiTence  with  the 
professors  and  the  director. 



The  division  of  the  pupils,  the  method  of  admission,  fees  of  tuition,  discipline 
and  examinations  are  to  be  considered  under  this  head. 

In  almost  all  the  schools  of  Germany  and  Switzerland  there  are  two  classes 
of  scholars:  One  of  them,  which  is  the  principal  one  everywhere,  has  the  name 
scholar  or  student,  (in  Austria,  audience) ;  the  second  ciitegory  has  in  Zurich 
and  Hanover,  the  name  "  hearers  ;  "  in  Carlsruhe  and  Dresden,  "  transient  aud- 
itors" (hospcs)  ;  in  Stuttgart,  and  also  in  Austria,  "special  hearers  or  scholars." 

The  first  class  bind  themselves  to  go  through  the  whole  course,  prove  their 
preparation  on  entering,  and  conform  to  the  customary  reviews,  examinations, 
and  written  work.  The  latter  class  are  not  bound  to  any  of  these  things.  They 
are  men  in  an  independent  position,  or  with  regular  employments,  hearing  only 
certain  lectures  without  being  obliged  to  pass  an  examination  on  them.  In  the 
French  schools,  in  that  of  bridges  and  highways,  as  well  as  in  the  mining  school, 
there  are  also  two  divisions,  the  eleves  ingenieures  and  the  eleves  eoctet-nes,  but  the 
only  difference  here  is  that  the  first  are  graduates  of  the  polytechnic  school,  who 
have  to  submit  to  no  entrance  examination,  and  who  will  be  received  into  the 
service  of  the  state,  while  the  second  class  have  none  of  these  privileges,  and 
must  go  through  the  whole  course.  In  the  Central  School  at  Paris,  and  at  the 
Belgian  schools,  there  is  only  one  class  of  pupils. 

At  all  the  polytechnic  schools  it  is  required  that  the  pupils  shall  be  of  a  certain 
age  on  entering ;  at  Zurich  and  Berlin,  17  years  old  ;  at  Stuttgart,  Dresden,  and 
Haijover,  16  ;  the  Paris  schools  alone  demand  no  particular  age.  Further,  an 
examination  is  required  in  all  schools  on  entering  ;  but  in  Berlin  and  Dresden 
the  certificate  of  a  gymnasium  or  of  an  industrial  school  is  accepted.  At  all 
these  examinations,  mathematics  and  designing  are  the  principal  requirements, 
but  some  knowledge  of  physics,  natural  history,  and  style,  is  required.  These 
examinations  are  most  severe  in  France,  where  a  list  of  questions  is  made  out 
for  every  subject,  and  an  examining  committee  are  appointed  who  are  exceed- 
ingly conscientious  in  their  duties.  In  the  German  schools  these  examinations, 
from  the  desire  to  fill  up  the  schools,  are  unfortunately  not  as  severe  as  they 
should  be  for  the  good  of  the  schools.  The  introduction  of  such  examinations 
would  be  of  great  advantage  to  the  schools  of  Vienna  and.  Prague,  since  this 
would  bring  all  the  scholars,  so  differently  prepared  at  different  schools,  up  to 
one  level,  leave  the  poorer  scholars  to  the  industrial  schools,  and  picking  out 
only  the  best,  would  at  once  reduce  the  number,  and  bring  together  a  more  intel- 
ligent and  energetic  class  of  students. 

The  tuition  varies  exceedingly  at  the  different  polytechnic  schools.  The 
smallest  tuition  fee  is  that  paid  at  Stuttgart,  15  florins;  next  year  this  is  to  be 
doubled.  Then  follows  Zurich,  50  francs  ;  this  also  is  to  be  doubled  ;  then  Han- 
over, from  24  to  36  thalers ;  Berlin  and  Dresden,  40  thalers ;  in  Dresden,  for 
natives  only,  foreigners  pay  60 ;  and  finally,  Carlsruhe,  66  florins.  The  most 
expensive  school  is  the  ecole  centrale  of  Paris,  where  the  annual  tuition  is  800 
francs.  In  all  these  schools,  practice  in  the  chemical  laboratories  is  extra ;  in 
Zurich,  it  is  40  francs ;  in  Carlsruhe,  44  florins  ;  in  Berlin,  50  thalers.  In  almost 
all  schools,  industrious  and  poor  scholars  are  released  from  these  expenses,  but 
this  for  only  a  fcAv  at  a  time ;  for  instance,  in  Hanover,  generally  only  4  or  5  per 
cent. ;  in  Zurich,  6 ;  in  Carlsruhe,  10  ;  in  Dresden,  at  the  most,  20  per  cent. 
We  are  pleased  with  the  two  conditions,  high  tuition  fees  and  few  exceptions  to 


their  payment.  In  the  higher  institutions  of  learning,  the  tuition  should  not  be 
merely  nominal,  even  though  the  State  itself  be  bound  to  render  assistance  to 
the  institution.  Rather  help  the  poor  student  with  stipends  sufficient  to  obtain 
him  his  daily  bread,  and  to  permit  him  to  devote  himself  exclusively  to  his 
studies.  This  is  the  method  at  the  industrial  institute  at  Berlin,  and  at  both  the 
polytechnic  and  the  central  school  of  Paris.  The  tuition  fees  in  all  the  pol;f- 
technic  schools  come  into  the  school  fund,  with  the  one  exception  of  Zurich, 
where  two- thirds  of  it  is  divided  among  the  professors. 

In  order  to  give  a  fair  judgment  upon  the  discipline  of  all  the  schools,  it  would 
be  necessary  to  make  quite  a  stay  at  each,  since  the  practice  is  generally  milder 
than  the  rule  would  indicate.  The  French  schools  are  certainly  the  most  severe, 
confinement  {career)  being  among  their  punishments.  For  the  rest,  in  some 
German  schools,  as  at  Dresden  and  Carlsruhe,  conduct  while  out  of  the  school  is 
watched,  and  irregularities  censured,  but  in  most  schools,  conduct  during  session 
hours  alone  is  regarded,  and  whatever  misdeeds  occur  out  of  these  hours  are  left 
to  the  police.  In  Stuttgart  the  pupils  of  the  mathematical  department  are  sub- 
ject to  severer  discipline  than  those  of  the  special  departments.  On  the  other 
hand,  in  Berlin,  where  a  few  years  ago  such  extremely  severe  discipline  was 
practiced,  they  are  fallen  now  into  the  opposite  extreme. 

In  our  opinion,  severe  discipline  is  of  little  avail.  This  is  proved  in  the 
Parisian  schools.  If  the  students  are  intelligent  and  ambitious,  the  discipline 
will  be  good  without  rules.  Whenever  admission  examinations  are  demanded,  a 
sure  means  of  discipline  is  secured.  A  second  means  seems  to  lie  in  the  hands 
of  the  individual  teachers,  who  by  frequent  association  with  the  students,  Avill 
inspire  them  with  zeal,  and  awaken  intellectual  activity  within  them.  Should 
there,  notAnthstanding,  be  some  unruly  spirits,  a  fifteen  years'  experience  has 
proved  to  us  that  in  most  cases,  a  careful  examination  by  the  faculty  will  accom- 
plish much  more  than  severe  military  rules. 

The  greatest  difference  between  the  Austrian  schools  and  those  of  other  coun- 
tries we  find  to  consist  in  the  way  in  which  the  progress  and  industry  of  the 
scholars  are  judged.  In  the  French  and  Belgian  schools,  even  when  the  student 
does  not  board  in  the  school,  he  is  required  to  pass  his  time  there  fi-om  eight  in 
the  morning  to  six  in  the  evening,  one  hour  only  being  taken  out  for  dinner. 
The  lectures  themselves  occupy  little  time ;  during  the  greater  part-  of  it,  the 
scholar  must  occupy  himself  with  his  studies  in  the  school-room,  where  he  is  un- 
der the  constant  surveillance  of  the  repeators  (repetiteurs) .  In  Germany  this 
surveillance  is  not  so  severe ;  home  study  is  more  recommended  to  the  scholar. 
In  other  schools  more  time  is  given  to  repetitions  and  to  written  work  than  in 
Austria,  for  these  alone  determine  the  ability  and  knowledge  of  the  student,  and 
that  much  more  surely  than  the  final  examinations  in  the  letter  country,  to 
wliich  all  students,  who  desire  a  certificate  at  the  end  of  the  year,  have  to  subject 
themselves.  That  these  final  examinations  are  in  reality  no  sure  proof  of  the 
industry  and  ability  of  the  student,  all  Austrian  technical  teachers  are  agreed, 
but  also  they  agree  as  fully  that  in  those  of  our  technical  institutions,  which  like 
Vienna  and  Prague,  are  so  overfilled,  so  long  as  this  lasts,  without  at  least  the 
doubling  of  the  number  of  teachers,  the  abolition  of  the  final  examinations  and 
the  introduction  of  the  other  method  is  a  pure  impossibility.  In  Germany,  the 
ratio  of  teachers  to  scholars  is  1  :  8  to  1  :  1 8 ;  in  Prague  and  Vienna,  1  :  25  and 
I  :  30,  and  in  some  years  even  greater. 


There  are  three  kinds  of  institutions  designed  to  give  special  instruction  in 
ao-riculture  and  kindred  industries,  viz :  1.  Scliools  of  Agriculture,  which  are 
of  three  grades;  2.  Schools  of  Forestry,  which  are  likewise  classiiic^d  into  supe- 
rior, middle,  and  lower  oradcs ;  3.  Veterinary  Schools,  of  which  there  arc  6  -with 
21  professors,  and  391  pupils. 


The  Special  Schools  of  Agriculture,  of  which  there  are  seventeen,  may  be 
classed  as  follows : 

1.  The  superior  agricultural  schools  of  Austria  are  among  the  oldest  and  best 
in  Europe,  that  at  Krumman  in  Bohemia,  having  been  founded  in  1799,  and  that 
at  Graetz,  Trieste,  Lomberg,  and  Trutsch,  in  1809. 

The  school  at  Graetz  has  nine  professors,  a  model  farm,  a  botanical  garden, 
rich  collections  in  natural  history,  and  an  establishment  for  silk  worms. 

The  superior  school  at  Krumman  in  Bohemia,  founded  by  Prince  Schwart- 
zenberg  in  1799,  is  located  on  an  immense  domain,  and  is  conducted  with  every 
appliance  of  botanical  gardens,  model  farms,  stock,  illustrative  collcc^ons  of  imple- 
ments and  machines,  laboratories,  herbarium,  and  numerous  and  able  professors. 

The  superior  school  or  academy  at  Altenburg  in  Hungary,  provides  for  the  com- 
plete study  of  agricultural  science.  It  has  nine  professors  and  147  pupils.  The 
school  fee  is  63  florins  ;  the  total  yearly  cost  19,400  florins.  It  is  a  government 
establishment,  possessing  collections  of  all  kinds,  a  chemical  laboratory,  a  tech- 
nological gallery,  a  library,  and  a  botanical  garden.  It  gives  instruction  in  ar- 
boriculture and  in  rural  and  forest  management.  The  exhibition  of  samples  of 
the  grain  cultivated,  and  models  of  the  implements  used  on  the  model  farm,  of 
the  insects  and  animals  w^hich  injure  the  plants,  the  herbals  and  soils,  the  copy- 
books, and  drawings  by  the  students,  exhibited  at  Paris  Exhibition  of  1867,  re- 
ceived the  special  notice  and  award  of  the  jury. 

2.  Middle  agricultural  schools  have  been  founded  at  Grossau,  in  Lower  Aus- 
tria ;  at  Teschen-Liebwerd,  in  Bohemia ;  at  Kreutz,  in  Ci'ontia,  and  at  Dublany, 
in  Gallicia.  The  studies  occupy  two  years.  There  ai'e  27  professors,  and  164 
outdoor  pupils.  The  school  fee  is  from  30  to  52  florins.  The  yearly  expendi- 
ture amounts  to  9,200  florins.  They  are  maintained  by  local  resources  and  agri- 
cultural societies. 

3.  There  are  seven  lower  agricultural  schools  :  at  Grossau,  in  Lower  Austria ; 
at  Liebejei-Rabin  ;  at  Teschen-Liebwerd,  in  Bohemia ;  at  Gratz,  in  Styria ;  at 
Kreutz,  in  Gallicia ;  at  Ezernichow%  in  Gallicia  ;  and  at  Laybach,  in  Carinthia. 
These  schools  have  23  professors  and  230  pupils.  The  school  fee  varies  from  30 
to  40  florins,  partly  met  by  the  work  of  the  pupils. 

4.  Besides  the  above,  there  are  several  schools  devoted  to  special  departments 
of  rural  economy,  such  as  raising  of  bees,  &c.,  as  well  as  chairs  of  agriculture 
in  13  higher  literary  institutions. 


The  Schools  of  Forestry,  (9,  with  36  professors,)  are  classified  as  follows  : 
1.  Superior  forest  academies  are  established  at  Mariabrunn  in  Lower  Austria, 
and  at  Schemnitz  in  Hungary.     The  studies  extend  OA'er  from  two  to  three 
years.     The  qualification  for  admission  is  a  certificate  of  studies  from  a  gymna- 


sium  or  a  superior  practical  school  These  establishments  have  a  museum,  col- 
lections, a  botanical  garden,  and  a  laboratory.  They  have  14  professors  and  160 
pupils  in  the  two  together.  The  school  fee  is  10  florins.  There  are  some  gratu- 
itous pupils.     Both  schools  are  maintained  by  the  government. 

2.  The  middle  forest  schools  are  situated  at  Wiessewasser,  in  Bohemia ;  at 
Aussen,  in  Moravia ;  at  Kreutz,  in  Croatia.  The  studies  occupy  from  two  to 
three  years.  The  primary  school  preparation  only  is  required.  These  schools 
have  12  professors  and  100  pujiils.  The  gratuitous  admission  is  compensated  by 
the  work  of  the  pupils. 

3.  At  Pibram,  in  Bohemia ;  at  Windschacht,  in  Hungary ;  and  at  Nagnay,  in 
Transylvania,  there  are  lower  Forest  Schools.  The  courses  extend  over  two  or 
three  years.  The  preparation  required  is  the  primary  school  and  the  habit  of 
working.  There  are  eight  professors  and  eighty-seven  pupils,  all  gratuitous* 
These  establishments  are  maintained  by  the  State. 


The  Imperial  Forest  Academy  at  Mariabrunn  passed  through  various  phases 
before  it  was  reorganized  in  1866.  Formerly  the  Minister  of  Finance  had  the 
general  supeiwitendence,  but  at  present  it  is  assigned  to  the  Minister  of  Com- 
merce and  Political  Economy.  Its  aim  is  to  impart  a  thorough  theoretical  and 
practical  instruction  in  forest  economy,  for  which  purpose  the  large  imperial 
forests  in  the  neighborhood  are  placed  at  its  disposal.  The  course  is  of  three 
years  duration,  and  consists  partly  of  class  lectures,  and  partly  of  scientific  ex- 
cursions and  studies  in  the  surrounding  forests. 

The  students  are  either  regular,  who  go  through  the  complete  course,  or  extra- 
ordinary, who  take  only  a  partial  course.  Students  are  admitted  on  presentation 
of  a  testimonial  certificate  of  satisfactory  scholarship  in  a  real  school  or  gymna- 
sium ;  if  from  the  latter,  they  must  give  additional  evidence  of  proficiency  in 
geometrical  drawing.  Since  "maturity  examinations  "  have  not  been  generally' 
introduced  in  the  real  schools,  those  students  who  cannot  present  a  testimonial, 
have  to  undergo  an  examination  extending  over  all  those  subjects  which  are  re- 
quired for  admission  at  the  polytechnic  institute  in  Vienna.  As  a  general  rule 
all  candidates  must  give  proof  that  for  one  year  they  have  been  engaged  in  prac- 
tical forest  economy.  To  be  admitted  as  an  extraordinary  student,  the  candidate 
must  have  completed  the  18th  year  of  his  age,  and  be  sufficiently  versed  in  the 
preliminary  studies. 

Formerly  students  were  obliged  to  live  in  the  academy  buildings,  which  condi- 
tion has  been  lately  abolished.  Ordinary  students,  who  have  gone  through  the 
complete  course  of  instruction,  may  be  admitted  to  a  rigorous  examination,  (for 
a  diploma,)  the  conditions  of  which  are  prescribed  by  an  imperial  resolution  of 
January  16th,  1850.  This  examination  is  held  by  a  special  examination  com- 
mittee, and  consists  of  two  divisions :  Fii'st,  mathematics,  geodesy,  forest  sur- 
veying, mechanics,  construction  of  machinery,  architecture,  chemistry,  forest 
botany,  geology,  climatology,  forest  entomology.  Second,  forest  economy  in  all 
its  various  branches.     This  examination  is  both  written  and  oral. 

The  director  of  the  academy  is  chosen  by  the  ministry,  who  at  the  same  time  has 
the  functions  of  a  professor,  and  is  assisted  by  four  professors  and  three  assistants. 

The  salary  of  the  director  is  3,000  florins  ;  that  of  the  professors,  1,500  ;  2,000 
after  ten  years'  service,  and  2,500  after  twenty  years.  The  assistants'  salaiy  is 
500  florins.  The  director,  professors,  and  assistants  live  rent  free  in  the  academy 



"We  find  in  Austria  the  earliest  efforts  to  adapt  scliools  and  instruction  to  the 
needs  of  a  commercial  career.  Tha  plan  drawn  up  by  Wolf  of  Baden,  and  ap- 
proved by  the  Empress  Maria  Theresa,  (who  had  authorized  instruction  in  book- 
keeping in  the  Piarist  schools  in  1763,)  for  a  Commercial  Academy  in  Vienna 
in  1770,  was  intended  "to  offer  to  young  men  who  intend  to  devote  themselves 
to  commercial  pursuits,  a  fundamental  knowledge  of  all  that  distinguishes  a  skil- 
ful commercial  man  from  a  shop-keeper."  The  number  of  pupils  was  limited  to 
sixty,  and  the  course  embraced,  besides  other  studies,  the  German,  French,  and 
Italian  languages,  general  and  commercial  geography,  commercial  and  maritime 
law,  book-keeping,  and  drawing.  In  1799,  the  plan  of  this  academy  was  re- 
modeled, and  again  in  1808,  making  the  studies  more  scientific,  as  well  as  more 
practical.  On  the  model  of  this  school,  institutions  were  founded  at  Brunn  in 
1811,  at  Brody  in  1815,  and  at  Lemberg  in  1817,  and  a  commercial  class,  in 
the  same  year,  was  added  to  the  navigation  school  at  Trieste.  In  all  the  modifi.- 
cations  of  the  real  schools,  the  commercial  classes  have  been  provided  for. 


1.  In  1857,  the  Academy  of  Commerce  at  Vienna  was  founded  for  young  men 
intending  to  follow  commercial  pursuits.  A  capital  of  400,000  florins  was  sub- 
scribed, and  suitable  premises  built  for  the  purpose.  The  school  is  provided 
with  technological  collections,  a  museum  of  natural  productions,  and  complete 
chemical  laboratories.  A  committee  composed  of  nine  members  presides  over 
the  general  management.  The  instruction  is  given  in  two  divisions,  one  of  them 
preparatory,  requiring  two  years'  study,  the  other  technical,  occupying  tbe  same 
length  of  time.  The  number  of  hours  per  week  devoted  to  the  different  branches 
of  instruction  is  shown  in  the  following  table : 




No.  of  hours. 



No.  of  hours. 







Religion,     - 
German,  - 
Geography,      - 
History,      - 
Natural  history. 
Piiysics,      - 





Commercial  calculations. 
Book-keeping,    -        -        - 
Commercial  correspondence. 
Political  economy,     - 
Commercial  law  and  exchanges, 
Geography,     commercial    and 

statistical,          ... 
Commercial  history,  - 
Chemistry,    -        -        -        - 
Physics,     -        -        -        - 
Study  of  merchandise  and  tech- 
nology, -        -        -        - 
Austrian  commerce  and  manu- 
factures,        -        .        - 
Model  counting-house,  - 














Totals,    - 




Totals,   -        -        -        - 




Besides  this  compulsory  curriculum  there  are  French,  English,  and  Italian 
classes,  one  or  other  of  which  every  pupil  must  attend,  or  tv^^o,  or  all,  if  he 
pleases.  There  are  excellent  laboratories  for  those  pupils  who  wish  to  learn 
how  to  analyze  different  kinds  of  merchandise.     This  study  is  altogether  op- 


tional.  In  winter,  qualitative  analysis  is  taught,  and  quantitative  in  summer. 
The  school  fee  is  157  tlorins,  50  kr.  a  year  for  all  the  courses. 

Into  the  first  class  of  the  academy  are  admitted  :  those  youths  who  have  satis- 
factorily finished  a  higher  real  school,  or  higher  gymnasium,  or  the  preparatory 
class  of  some  commercial  academy ;  furthermore,  those  who  in  a  rigorous  exam- 
ination for  admission  give  satisfactory  evidence  of  possessing  the  degx-ee  of  gen- 
eral knowledge  acquired  usually  in  the  preparatory  course  of  the  academy.  As 
a  general  rule,  only  such  are  admitted  to  this  examination  as  have  entered  their 
16th  year.  For  entering  the  second  class  of  the  academy,  it  is  necessary  either 
to  have  gone  through  the  first  class,  or  pass  a  rigorous  examination. 

To  tiie  first  year  of  the  preparatory  course  are  admitted :  youths  who  have 
absolved  a  three  years'  class,  lower  real  school  or  lower  g\Tiinasium ;  those  who 
(wherever  they  may  have  received  their  previous  instruction)  by  a  rigorous  ex- 
amination show  the  degree  of  knowledge  usually  acquired  at  the  schools. 

To  the  second  year  of  the  preparatory  course,  those  are  admitted  who  have 
either  gone  thi'Ougl.^;he  first  class  of  the  same  course,  or  (wherever  they  may- 
have  been  educated)  show  that  degree  of  knowledge  which  is  necessary  for  un- 
derstanding the  subjects  taught  in  the  second  class.  Only  such  are  admitted  to 
an  examination  for  this  class  as  have  entered  the  15th  year  of  their  age.  Every 
scholar  is  obliged  to  attend  all  the  recitations  marked  obligatory  in  the  plan  of 
study.     Extraordinary  students  are  only  admitted  in  the  higher  classes. 

At  the  close  of  the  courses  there  are  examinations  for  those  who  please  to  pre- 
sent themselves,  and  certificates  of  capacity  are  given  to  all  who  pass  satisfacto- 
rily. Among  the  optional  branches  of  instruction  are  stenography,  to  which 
some  importance  is  attached,  and  drawing,  which  is  cultivated  both  artistically 
and  for  its  commercial  uses. 

Besides  the  regular  classes  during  the  day,  there  are  evening  classes  for  per- 
sons already  engaged  in  business.  These  are  held  from  7  to  9  o'clock  from  Oc- 
tober till  Easter,  and  are  attended  by  about  250  persons  who  pay  four  florins 
for  each  course,  with  the  exception  of  the  living  languages,  which  are  only  two 
florins,  and  stenography,  fixed  at  one  florin.  The  subjects  taught  in  these 
classes  are  commercial  arithmetic,  book-keeping,  commercial  correspondence,  tho 
rules  of  commerce,  and  exchange,  &c.,  the  living  languages,  and  stenography. 
The  majority  of  the  persons  attending  the  evening  classes  present  themselves  for 
examination  to  obtain  certificates. 


2.  The  Academy  of  Commerce  at  Prague  was  founded  in  1826.  It  has  a  three 
years'  course,  in  addition  to  a  certificate  of  studies  completed  in  the  trade  school, 
or  the  real  gymnasium.  The  French  language  is  obligatory ;  English  and  Italian 
are  optional  studies.     There  were  in  1867,  204  pupils. 


3.  The  Academy  of  Commerce  at  Pcsth  was  founded  in  1859,  by  the  Chamber 
of  Commerce,  and  in  1867  had  136  pupils,  distributed  through  a  three  years' 
course,  which  was  founded  on  the  basis  of  the  studies  of  the  real  school  com- 
pleted. It  employs  29  professors,  a  portion  of  whom  are  attached  to  other  insti- 
tutions of  the  city,  giving  special  instruction  in  this  academy. 

The  commercial  academies  at  Graetz  and  at  Reichenberg  (Bohemia)  has  a 
gimilar  organization. 


The  following  are  tlie  schools  of  art,  as  applied  to  painting,  sculpture,  engrav- 
ing, and  music,  in  Austria  : 


1.  The  Imperial  Academy  of  the  Fine  Arts  in  Vienna  was  founded  hy  Joseph 
I,  in  1704,  and  completed  by  Charles  V,  in  1726.  It  is  a  State  institution,  as  a 
gallery,  a  body  of  artists,  and  a  school  of  instruction  in  art  having  1 1  professors 
and  an  average  of  over  200  pupils.  It  has  a  valuable  collection  of  pictui'cs, 
several  of  them  by  the  first  artists,  such  as  Claude,  Murillo,  and  Titian. 

2.  At  Gratz,  there  is  an  Academy  of  Painting,  maintained  by  the  province, 
with  30  to  50  pupils.  " 

3.  At  Prague,  the  Academy  of  Arts  is  maintained  by  the  "  Patriotic  Society 
of  the  Friends  of  Art,"  with  Rn  average  of  61  pupils. 

4.  The  School  of  Fine  Arts  at  Cracow  is  maintained  in  connection  with  the 
Technical  Institute,  Avith  5  professors  and  24  joupils. 

5  Drawing  is  taught  as  a  regular  and  indispensable  branch  in  all  technical 
schools,  and  in  fifty-two  art  schools  so  designated. 


1.  The  Conservatory  of  Music  at  Vienna  originated  Avith  an  association,  but 
receiA'cs  an  annual  subsidy  from  the  government.  It  has  a  six  years' course ; 
fees,  4  to  6  floi'ins  per  month.  It  has  a  director,  20  professors^  and  an  average 
of  OA'er  200  pupils  of  both  sexes. 

2.  The  Conservatory  of  Music  at  Prague  is  supported  by  the  "  Society  for  the 
Improvement  of  Music,"  Avith  aid  from  the  government.  It  has  three  depart- 
ments :  one  for  instrumental  music,  Avith  a  six  years'  course ;  one  for  singing, 
W'ith  a  tAvo  years'  course ;  and  one  for  the  opera,  with  a  tAvo  or  three  years' 
course.  The  teaching  is  gratuitous  for  natiA^es.  There  is  a.  director,  a  sub- 
director,  and  19  professors. 

3.  The  fifty-two  art  schools  mentioned  above,  are  also  schools  of  music.  They 
are  partly  organized  by  associations,  partly  by  professors,  and  number  in  all,  231 
professors,  and  3,973  pupils  of  both  sexes. 

There  are  several  institutions  of  special  and  professional  instruction  for  Avomen, 
of  which  we  giA'e  a  brief  notice. 

1.  There  exists  in  Vienna  an  Institute,  Avhere  the  daughters  of  ofHcers  with 
limited  means  and  large  families  are  educated  so  as  to  be  able  to  take  situations 
as  governesses  in  Avealthy  families. 

The  pupils  are  78  in  number,  and  the  expSnse  of  the  establishment  is  defrayed 
by  the  government  and  private  benefactions. 

Girls  are  admitted  from  six  to  eight  years  of  age,  and  remain  till  they  are  20. 
The  pupils  are  distributed  into  four  classes,  and  each  class  has  two  divisions. 

The  directress  of  the  establishment  has  imder  her  orders  four  sub-directresses, 
a  mistress  for  needlework,  and  a  mistress  to  teach  housekeeping. 

2.  There  are  8  schools  for  mid  wives :.  at  Linz,  Klagenfurt,  Laybach,  Trieste, 
Allc-Laste  near  Trent,  Zara,  Venice,  Czernovicz.  Instruction  of  the  same  kind 
is  also  given  to  Avomen  at  the  faculties  of  medicine  and  surgical  establishments , 


A  large  number  of  apprentice-mid  wives  receive  considerable  pecuniary  assistance 
during  their  studies  from  the  provinces  and  townships. 

Candidates  must  be  at  least  24  years  of  age,  and  less  than  50,  must  be  able  to 
read  and  write,  be  of  good  reputation,  and  of  healthy  constitution. 

The  course  of  instruction  occupies,  according  to  circumstances,  four,  five,  or 
six  months.  It  is  both  theoretical  and  practical,  and  is  given  by  a  professor  of 
obstetrics,  aided  by  a  midwife  and  a  nurse. 

In  most  of  the  schools  there  are  two  promotions  yearly.  On  leaving,  the 
pupils  have  to  undergo  a  severe  examination,  for  which  those  who  have  the 
means  pay  a  fee  of  30  florins. 

There  are  ten  professors  engaged  in  these  schools,  with  a  like  number  of  mid- 
wives  and  nurses.  The  professor's  salary  is  from  420  to  630  florins.  More  than 
1,200  midwives  are  instructed  every  year  in  these  establishments.  The  expen- 
diture amounts  to  9,815  florins. 


Austria  was  one  of  the  earliest  to  establish  courses  of  instruction  in  the 
sciences  connected  with  the  profitable  exploration  of  mines,  and  the  smelting 
of  ores.  The  Academy  at  Schemnitz  was  founded  in  1763,  lectures  having  been 
given  at  even  an  earlier  period  to  a  class  of  men  charged  with  the  superinten- 
dence of  the  salt-works,  mines,  collieries,  and  furnaces  belonging  to  the  crown. 


Mining  academies  exist  at  Schemnitz,  in  Hungary ;  at  Leoben,  in  Styria ;  and 
at  Pibram,  in  Croatia. 

The  courses  last  from  two  to  four  years.  The  qualification  for  admission  is  a 
certificate  from  a  gymnasium  ©r  a  higher  practical  school.  There  are  23  pro- 
fessors and  255  pupils.  The  school  fee  is  10  florins,  and  many  pupils  are  ad- 
mitted without  payment.  The  total  expense  is  14,700  florins.  These  establish- 
ments are  supported  by  the  State. 

In  addition  to  these  special  schools  of  mining,  the  sciences  which  belong  to 
the  subject  are  thoroughly  taught  at  the  Polytechnic  School,  and  iDustrated  in 
the  collections  of  the  Geological  Institute,  at  Vienna. 


The  Mining  Academy  at  Schemnitz  was  founded  during  the  reign  of  Maria 
Theresa,  to  aid  in  tKe  developing  the  mines  adjacent  to  that  town,  and  distrib- 
uted through  the  surrounding  district,  and  in  training  engineers  and  overseers 
of  the  imperial  mines  in  other  parts  of  the  empire. 

The  institution  is  well  endowed,  and  well  equipped  with  a  laboratory,  and  all 
the  facilities  of  assaying  and  smelting.  The  course  extends  through  three  years. 
First  year. — Geometry,  algebra,  tngonometry,  and  conic  sections,  physics,  me- 
chanics, crystallography,  and  drawing.  Second  year. — Chemistry,  mineralogy, 
metallurgy,  and  geology.  Third  year. — Surveying,  machinery,  art  of  mining, 
with  practical  exercises,  dressing  of  ores,  smelting,  construction  of  machines  and 
buildings,  mining  accounts,  &c.      A  fourth  year  is  given  to  additional  practical 



The  Grand  Duchy  of  Baden  had,  in  1861,  on  a  territory  of  5,904 
square  miles,  1,369,291  inhabitants,  of  whom  896,683  were  Catholics, 
24,099  Jews,  and  the  rest  Protestants. 

About  two-thirds  of  the  population  are  engaged  in  agriculture,  and 
the  industrial  acdvity  of  the  other  third  is  turned  to  ribbons  and  cot- 
ton fabrics,  clocks  and  fabrics  of  straw,  toys  and  trinkets.  There 
are  over  300  lar^je  manufacturinoj  establishments.  The  income  for 
1862  was  17,140,192  florins,  (about  $7,000,000,)  and  the  state  budget 
for  public  instruction,  in  1863,  contains  the  following  items: 

Popular  schools,     ------      86,084 

Normal  schools,  ....  -  30,086 

^    Special  aid  to  teachers  in  primary  schools,  -  -       56,000 

Higher  burgher  schools,  .  .  .  _  31,000 

Secondary  schools,  .  .  -  -  -       68,838 

Teaching  of  gymnastics,  -  -  -  -  8,250 

Universities,  -  -  -  -  -  -     178,087 

Technical  or  professional  schools,        -  .  -  18,025 

Cabinets  of  physics,  collections  of  natural  history,  &c.,  at 

Carlsruhe,     ------  3,279 

Aid  to  savants,  artists,  museums,  &c.,        -  .  -        5,677 

Total,    -----.  485,326 

The  supervision  of  public  instruction,  and  of  all  institutions  of 
education  aided  out  of  the  budget,  belongs  to  the  Ministry  of  the 
Interior,  who  acts  through  a  Council  of  Education,  which  is  com- 
posed of  a  member  for  each  of  the  four  circles,  or  districts,  into 
which  the  kingdom  is  divided,  and  a  representative  of  each  of  the 
highest  authorities  in  the  evangelical,  Catholic,  and  Jewish  church 

The  system  of  public  schools*  embraces: 

I.  Primary  Schools, — which,  in  Baden,  are  denominational  in 
their  local  management,  but  which  must  be  attended  by  all  children 
over  six  and  under  fourteen  years,  unless  excused.  There  were  in 
1866,  2,157  primary  schools,  of  which  1,389  were  Catholic,  740 
Protestant,  and  28  Jewish,  with  an  aggregate  attendance  of  200,000 

*See  Report  on  National  Education  in  Europe,  Part  I,  Germany. 



pupils.  Eveiy  parish  must  provide  in  winter,  in  the  primary  f  chool- 
house,  for  a  class  of  girls  in  sewmg,  knitting,  and  other  horae-Avork, 
for  one  hour  after  the  boys  are  dismissed.  An  evening  class  is  main- 
tained twice  a  week,  for  young  persons  (whose  attendance  is  optional,) 
who  have  left  school,  for  further  instruction  in  penman-hip,  letter 
writing,  and  the  elements  of  natural  history,  and  the  industries  of 
the  locality ."* 

II.  Secondary  Schools, — including  28  burgher  scliools,  (superior 
]6rimary  schools.)  with  2,154  pupils;  5  high  schools  for  girls,  with 
280  pupils  ;  3  pedagogiums,  with  382  pupils  in  a  course  of  6  years  ; 
8  lyceums,  wdih  2,108  pupils  in  a  course  of  9  years  ;  and  5  gymna- 
siums, with  652  pupils  in  a  course  of  8  years. 

III.  Superior  Schools,  or  Universities,  viz :  One  at  iHeidelberg, 
founded  in  1386,  with  a  faculty  of  theology,  philosophy  and  philology, 
medicine,  and  law,  and  an  aggregate  of  752  students  ;  1  at  Freiburg, 
founded  in  1454,  with  a  faculty  of  Catholic  theology,  law,  medicine, 
and  philosophy,  and  an  aggregate  of  356  students;  1  Cathohc  archi- 
episcopal  seminary,  with  35  students. 

IV.  Special  and  Professional  Schools,  viz :  3  primary  normal 
schools,  with  170  pupils  ;  3  superior  normal  schools,  (connected  with 
the  pedagogiums,)  with  50  pupils  ;  2  agricultural  schools,  with  80 
pupils ;  1  veterinary  school,  with  10  pupils  ;  2  military  schools,  (one 
a  review  school  for  staff  officers,)  with  60  pupils  ;  1  normal  school 
for  gymnastics,  with  35  pupils  ;  1  school  of  the  fine  arts,  with  35 
pupils  ;  41  schoo'S  of  arts  and  trades,  with  4,803  pupils  ;  1  poly- 
technic school,  with  six  sections,  (1  for  mechanics,  1  for  engineers, 
1  for  builders,  1  for  foresters,  1  for  chemists,  1  for  constructors  of 
machines,  1  for  post  office  and  other  public  service,)  and  589  pupils  ; 
1  watchmaking  school,  with  80  pupils ;  3  straw-plaiting  schoolf=, 
with  120  pupils;  1  workmen's  society  industrial  scliool,  with  80 
pupils  ;  1  institution  for  deaf  mutes,  with  30  pupils  ;  1  institution 
for  the  blind,  with  25  pupils. 

V.  Associations  for  the  Adrancemeni  of  Literature,  Science,  and 
the  Arts. — Under  this  head  there  are:  1  museum  of  natural  history; 
1  gallery  of  paintings  and  statuary  ;  5  public  libraries,  with  an  aggre- 
gate of  200,000  volumes,  &c.,  &c. 

*  By  the  law  of  1864,  the  primary  schools  are  divided  into  elementary  and  superior ;  the  ele- 
mentary are  confined  to  the  rural  districts  which  can  maintain  only  one  teacher,  and  the  mini- 
mum instriaction  fixed  by  law  ,  the  superior  primary  schools  are  taught  by  two  or  more  teachers, 
each  of  whom  must  give  thirty-two  lessons  a  week.  When  a  school  exceeds  sixty  pupils,  there 
must  be  three  classes.  The  schools  are  to  become  less  denominational,  and  each  commune  can 
elect  its  own  committee,  one  of  whom  must  be  the  teacher,  and  in  the  /arger  communes,  a 
physician,  as  well  as  the  pastor. 


Out  of  the  many  excellent  institutions  for  special  instruction  in 
the  Grand  Duchy  of  Baden,  "vve  select  for  particular  descnption,  two 
which  have  attained  great  reputation.* 


The  PoLYTECHXic  School  of  the  Grand  Duchy  of  Baden  is  located  at 
Carlsnihe,  the  capital  of  the  duchy,  a  city  of  25,000  inhabitants  in  1860.  The 
germ  existed  in  a  school  of  engineering  founded  in  1814,  which  was  expanded 
into  a  h\rge  scientific  school  in  1825,  by  Prof.  "Winter,  under  tlic  encouragement 
and  aid  of  tlie  Grand  Duke  Louis,  receiving  a  building,  and  a  forest  school  in 
1832,  and  a  chemical,  a  machine  construction,  and  a  commercial  department  in 
1836,  and  then  attained,  by  steady  growth,  the  proportions  of  the  most  complete 
polytechnic  school  in  Germany.  Without  large  or  diversified  industries  in  the 
city  of  its  location,  and  with  several  competing  institutions  of  the  same  charac- 
ter in  close  proximity,  (Stuttgart,  Darmstadt,  and  lately  Zurich,)  the  number 
of  scholars  has  steadily  increased,  and  its  range  of  instruction  has  kept  pace 
with  the  demands  of  the  age,  because  its  managers  have  been  successful  in  ob- 
taining and  retaining  an  able  corps  of  professors,  and  have  provided  them  with 
suitable  class-rooms,  lecture-halls,  laboratories,  workshops,  and  aH  the  material 
aids  of  technical  instruction. 


This  establishment  is  a  kind  of  technical  university,  which,  in  addition  to 
scientific  studies  of  a  high  order,  comprises  in  its  organization  several  special 
divisions.  The  first  of  these  is  devoted  not  merely  to  mathematical  science,  as 
its  name  would  seem  to  indicate,  but  also  to  the  general  scientific  knowledge 
necessary  for  the  other  technical  divisions,  and  which  the  pupils  may  acquire  by 
following  the  particular  courses  relating  to  those  sciences.  This  institution  was 
the  first  of  its  class  to  introduce  the  system  of  independent  schools,  or  divisions 
in  the  several  great  departments  of  industry,  foimded  on  a  commoa  scientific 

The  technical  divisions,  or  schools. 




requiring  2 

or  2^  years. 

Architects.  liSX       " 


2"      " 
4        " 



'  t€ 






Constructors  of  machines,    - 











1         " 

The  only  qualification  for  admission  is  that  the  candioate  shall  possess  the 
requisite  instruction  to  enable  him  to  folloAV  one  of  the  divisions.  There  is  no 
absolutely  compulsory  series  of  study;  the  examinations  alone  impose  on  the 
pupils  the  necessity  of  acquiring  the  necessary  instruction,  and  thus  indicate  to 
them  the  courses  which  are  indispensable. 

♦Compiled  from  Programmes  of  Institutions,  Report  of  French  Commission,  and  Report  of 
Hamburgh.  Committee,  and  memoranda  of  a  visit.  -  , 


Mathematical  Division. 
The  studies  of  this  division  extend  over  two  years.  For  admission  to  the  first 
year's  course  the  candidate  must  be  above  17  years  of  age,  and  must  prove  that 
he  is  sufficiently  acquainted  with  elementary  mathematics,  and  can  treat  of  a 
given  subject  in  the  German  language.  A  candidate  may  enter  the  second  year's 
course  at  once  on  showing  that  he  knows  the  subjects  taught  in  the  first  year, 
and  that  he  is  18  years  of  age.     The  following  is  the  progranmie  of  studies: 

First  Year:  ■ 

Differential  and  integral  calculus,          -  -            -           -      5 

Plane  and  spherical  trigonometry,   -  -            -            -            2 

Analytical  geometry  of  two  dimensions,  -            -            -      2 

Descriptive  geometry,           -             •  -            .            _            g 

Elements  of  mechanics,              -            -  -            -            -       5 

Experimental  physics,           -            -  -            -            -            4 

(And  one  hour  of  repetition.) 

German  language,          -            -            -  -            -            -      2 

Erench  language,      -            -            -  -            -            -            3 

Eree-hand  drawing,        -            -            -  -            -            -      2 

Modeling,      -            -            -            -  -            -            -            4 

Second  Year: 

Differential  and  integral  calculus,          -  -            -            -      4 

Analytical  geometry  of  three  dimensions,  -            -            -            2 

Analytical  mechanics,    -            -            -  -            -            -       5 

Descriptive  geometry,           -            .  ...            4 

Technical  drawing,  (summer,)  -            -  .            .            -      4 

Practical  geometry,  -            -            -  -            -            -            4 

Higher  physics,  (winter,)            -            -  -            -            -      3 

Physical  experiments,  (summer,)     -  -            -            -6 

General  chemistry,  (course  of  the  chemical  division,)  -  -      4 

Mineralogy  and  geology,      -            -  -            -            -3  to  4 

German  literature,          -            -            -  -            -            -      2 

Erench  language,      -            -            -  -            -            -            3 

English  language,           -            -            -  -   .         .            -      3 

Eree-hand  drawing,  -            -            -  -            -            -            4 

Modeling,            -            -            -'-  -            -            -4 

Division  of  Engineers. 

This  division  prepares  for  all  the  branches  of  the  profession,  military  engineer- 
ing excepted. 

To  be  admitted,  the  candidate  must  possess  the  knowledge  acquired  in  a' gym- 
nasium or  lyceum  as  far  as  the  second  class,  and  that  of  the  two  years'  mathe- 
matics of  the  preceding  school  In  the  absence  of  certificates,  the  candidate 
must  pass  an  examination. 

The  studies  occupy  two  years,  according  to  the  following  programme  : 


First  Year:  

Calculation  of  variations,  (winter,)  -            -            -  -  2 

Surveying,     -•-            -            -  -  -  -  2 

Method  of  least  squares,            -  -            -            -  -  1 

Applied  mechanics,  -            -            -  -  -  -  3 

Technological  chemistry,            -  -            -            -  -  3 

Eoads,  hydraulic  constructions,  (with  three  afternoons  of  ex- 
periments,)     -            -            -  -            -            -  -5 

Construction  of  machines,   -            -  -  -  -  12 

Grerman  literature,         -           -  -           •           -  -  1 


Ancient  and  mediaeval  literature,     -  -  •  -  5 

Practical  construction  in  wood  and  stone,        -  -  4  to  6 

Free-hand  and  landscape  drawing,  -  -  -  -  4 

English  language,  -  -  -  -  •  -      3 

Second  Year: 

Bridges  and  roads,    ------  6 

Construction  of  railways,  -  -  -  -  -      2 

Exercises  in  practical  building  every  afternoon  in  winter,  and 

both  morning  and  afternoon  in  summer,       -  -  - 

Construction  of  machines,    -----  6 

Questions  in  mathematical  physics,  (summer,)  -  -      2 

Popular  law,  .._...  2 

German  literature,  -  -  -  -  -  -      5 

Ancient  and  mediaeval  history,        -  ...  5 

Free-hand  and  landscape  drawing,        -  -  -  -      4 

Third  Year ;         " 

This  course,  which  is  one  of  six  months  only,  is  intended  for  engineers  who 
intend  to  practice'  in  the  Grand  Duchy.  They  have  to  familiarize  themselves 
with  the  regulations  and  usages  as  to  contracts  for  public  works,  as  well  as  to 
price  currents  (two  hours  per  week.) 

Drawing  up  of  projects,  specifications,  estimates,         -  -      8 

Higher  architecture,  ------  3 

The  pupils  are  taken  out  for  excursions  to  building  yards  and  works  in  course 
of  execution ;  in  this  case  the  lessons  are  interrupted. 

Division  of  Builders. 

This  division  is  subdivided  into  two  parts ;  the  lower  section  is  intended  to 
train  builders,  (werJcmeister,)  capable  of  projecting  and  executing  all  ordinary 
buildings  for  dwellings  and  manufacturing  purposes.  The  higher  division  is 
meant  to  train  architects  in  the  higher  sense  of  the  Avord,  and  those  who  pass 
through  it  are  expected  to  improve  themselves  subsequently  by  traveling  to  study 
the  more  remarkable  creations  of  their  art. 

This  division  requires  four  years'  study ;  the  qualifications  for  admission  are 
tlie  same  as  for  the  engineering  division,  except  that  only  the  first  year's  course 
of  the  mathematical  division  is  necessaiy. 

First  Yea 

1st  division,)        .  -  - 

Mineralogy  and  geology. 
Building  materials, 
Descriptive  geometry,  - 
Statics  of  buildings, 
Architectural  drawing  from  copies, 
Drawing  of  plans,  -  -  - 

Landscapes,       .  -  _ 

Drawing  of  ornaments, 
Modeling  in  plaster, 
Building  arches  in  the  yard. 
Modeling  in  wood, 
Ancient  and  mediaeval  history, 
German  literature. 

Hours  in 

Hours  in 









3  to  4 

3  to  4 
































Hours  in 

Hours  in 
















-    — 






Second  Year. 

Knowledge  of  machines,   -  -  - 

Bridges  and  roads,        -  -  - 

Technical  architecture,       -  -      .      - 

Elementary  studies  of  projects. 
Architectural  drawing  from  models   and  copies, 

projects,         -    ■        -  -        .    - 

Projects  of  dwelling  houses. 
Landscape  drawing,      -  -  - 

Drawing  ornaments  from  copies,  - 
Modeling  in  plaster,      .  -  - 

Building  arches  in  the  yard, 
Modeling  in  wood,        -  .  - 

Ancient  and  medieval  history,      -  .  -      -  _ 

Literature,        -----_  „ 

Third  Year  : 

Technical  course  of  architecture,  2d  part,            -  3  3 

Higher  art  of  building,             -            -            -  3  3 

History  of  ancient  architecture,     -            -            -  2    '  2 

Plans  of  dwelling  houses,         -            .             -  6  9 
Graphic  studies  on  the  more  remarkable  orders  and 

edifices,          -            ....  2  3 

Aerial  perspective,              -  .         -            -            -  2  3 

Drawing  ornaments  from  models  and  nature,  3  3 

Drawing  of  figures,             ....  4  4 

Free-hand  draAving,      -            -            -            -  4  4 

Modeling  from  models,       -            -            -            -  5  4 

Ancient  and  mediaeval  history,             -            -  -  - 

German  literature, .-----  - 

Fourth  Year: 

Popular  law,     -  -  -  -  - 

Higher  art  of  building,      -  -  .  - 

History  of  medi£eval  and  modern  architecture. 
Projects  of  great  public  buildings, 
Study  of  the  architecture  of  the  middle  ages,  and 

copying  of  the  principal  monuments,    - 
Perspective  views  in  Avater  colors,        -        .     - 
Drawing  of  ornaments,      .  -  .  - 

Pigure  drawing  from  plaster  models  and  nature, 
Pree-hand  drawing,  .  .  .  - 

Modeling  from  nature  or  fancy. 

Ancient  and  mediaeval  history,       -  -  -      -  - 

German  literature,        --.-_.  - 

The  mornings  left  free  are  devoted  to  graphic  studies,  and,  at  the  end  of  the 
school  year,  there  is  a  competition  for  the  fourth  class.  A  gold  medal  is  given 
for  the  best  project. 

In  these  programmes  for  the  architectural  division,  it  is  worthy  of  remark  that 
there  is  no  mention  of  mathematical  instruction  with  regard  to  the  stability  of 
buildings,  the  strength  of  materials,  «S:e.  Such  being  the  case,  it  is  not  easy  to 
see  the  utility  of  the  high  mathematics  and  mechanical  analysis  required  for  ad- 
mission into  this  division,  the  first  two  years  of  which  are  intended  to  form 
builders  and  overseers  of  works.  It  would,  perhaps,  be  better  to  require  less  of 
the  higher  mathematics  and  more  of  the  applications  of  the  principles  of  science 
to  the  art  of  building.  The  practice  of  exercising  the  pupils  of  this  divi'sion  in 
the  actual  construction  of  various  arches  appears  to  be  excellent.    But  as  this 






















can  only  be  done  with  bricks,  it  should  not  set  aside  that  of  makinf^  vaults  and 
other  constructions  in  plaster  on  a  reduced  scale,  which  oblige  the  pupils  to  trace 
all  the  panels  and  completely  realize  the  different  parts. 

After  the  first  two  years'  studies,  the  pupils  who  have  no  higher  ambition 
than  to  l)ccomc  builders  or  overseers  of  works  have  acquired  sufficient  theoreti- 
cal and  practical  instruction. 

Division  of  Foresters. 

The  instmction  of  this  division  consists  of:     1.  A  preparatory  course;    2. 

Two  years'  studies.     To  enter  the  preparatory  course,  the  qualification  required    j 

is  proficiency  in  the  subjects  taught  in  a  lyceum  as  far  as  the  second  class,  or    > 

else  in  all  the  classes  of  a  gymnasium.     The  following  is  the  programme : 

Preparatory  Course:  

Arithmetic  and  algebra,  -  -  -  -  -  3 

Plane  and  solid  geometry,    -----  3 

Experimental  physics,    -  -  -  -  -  -  4 

General  and  special  botany,  -  -  -  -  4 

Zoology,  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  3 

Botanical  excursions  and  observations  once  a  week  in  summer. 

History  of  German  literature,    -  -  -  -  -  2 

Popular  law,  -  -  -  -  -  -  2 

Rudiments  of  forest  science,      -  -  -  -  -  2 

Practical  instruction  in  forest  questions  and  in  the  accounts  of 

forest  administration,  -  -  -  -  -  - 

First  Year: 

General  arithmetic  and  algebra,       -            -            -            -  2 

Plane  polygonometry,  spherical  trigonometry,  -            -            -  2 

Mathematical  forest  exercises,           -            -            -            -  4 

General  chemistry,          -            -    '        -            -            -            -  4 

Mineralogy,  (winter,)            -            -            -            -            -  3 

Geology,  (summer,)        -            -            -            -            -            -  4 

Practical  mineralogy,            -            .            _            .            _  2 
General  botany,  anatomy,  chemistry,  physiology,  geography, 
(winter,)    -..----4 

Climate,  meteorology,  knowledge  of  soils,        -            -            -  3 

Natural  history  of  timber  trees,        -            -            .            -  2 

Forest  management,  (winter,)   -            -            -            -            -  3 

Forest  dues,  -------  2 

Practical  geometry,        -            -            -            -            -            -  4 

Excursions  and  explanations  in  the  forest,  -            •            -  - 
Botanical  excursions,    -             ----.-. 

Second  Year: 

Solution  of  problems,           -            -            .            -            .  2 

Agricultural  chemistry,               -            -            -            -  -      2 

Administrative  science,  political  and  financial  economy,     -  2 

Roads  and  hydraulic  constructions,  (elements,)             -  -      2 

Guarding  and  protecting  of  forests,             -            -            -  2 

State  of  foi-cst  science,  -            -            -            -            -  -      2 

Working  and  valuations  after  rational  methods,     -            -  4 

Valuation  of  the  soil  and  produce  of  the  forest  as  the  basis  of 

their  real  worth,    ------  2 

Notions  on  the  chase,     -            -            -            -            -  -      2 

Forest  administration,           -----  2 

Forest  police,      -            -            -            -            -            -  -      3 

Forest  laws  and  those  of  the  chase,  -            -            -            -  2 

Excursions  and  journeys  Avith  applications. 



Division  of  Chemists. 
This  division  is  especially  devoted  to  young  men  who  purpose  following  careers 
in  which  a  knowledge  of  chemistry,  physics,  and  natural  history  may  be  useful, 
whether  they  intend  to  devote  themselves  to  chemistry  or  to  engage  in  mining 
or  metallurgical  works.  Admission  is  free  to  all  who  possess  the  instruction 
necessary  for  following  the  courses,  and  are  full  1 7  years  of  age.  The  subjects 
taught  are  summarily  stated  in  the  following  programme  : 

General  chemistry,  1st  course,  inorganic  part,  (winter  term,)  - 
Organic  chemistry,  (summer  term,)  ... 

General  chemistry,  2d  course,  history  and  philosophy  of  chem- 
istry.  (one  year,)   -  -  - 
Repetition  of  chemistry,  (winter,)  -  -  .  . 
Conference  on  chemical  analysis,  (summer,) 
Art  of  assaying  metals,               .            .            .            .            _ 

Manipulations  in  the  laboratory,      -  -  .  _ 

Qualitative  and  quantitative  analysis,  -  -  -  - 

Agricultural  chemistry,  (winter,)     -  - 

Chemical  technology,  organic  and  inorganic,  various  manu- 
factures, (one  year,) 
Metallurgy,  (one  year,)  ------ 

Experimental  physics, 

Repetitions  of  physics,  ------ 

Higher  physics,          ------ 

Botany  and  geology,      ------ 

Mineralogy,  (winter,)  -  -  -  -  . 

Physical  geography,  (summer,)  .  -  -  - 

Knowledge  of  useful  minerals,  (winter,)      -  -  - 

Practical  mineralogy,  excursions,  &c.,  (summer,) 
Crystallography,  (winter,)    -  -  .  -  - 



This  very  extensive  curriculum  constitutes  a  series  of  courses  which  may  be 
followed,  not  only  by  the  pupils  more  Especially  destined  for  the  chemical  arts, 
but  also  for  those  of  the  other  divisions.  To  take  part  in  the  chemical  manipu- 
lations, the  pupils  pay  44  florins  a  year,  and  are  supplied  with  all  the  needful 

Division  of  Constructors  of  Machines. 

The  qualification  for  admission  is  the  instruction  acquired  by  a  pupil  during 
the  first  year  of  the  mathematical  division.  The  whole  course  takes  two  years. 
The  number  of  hours  per  week  devoted  to  each  subject  is  indicated  in  the  follow- 
ing programme  : 

First  Year: 

On  machines,     -  -  -  - 

Construction  of  machines,    - 

Arrangements  of  machines. 

Experimental  physics, 

Applied  mechanics,        - 

Practical  geometry,  -  -  - 

Mechanical  technology,  - 

Chemical  technology. 

Metallurgy,         ...  -  - 

Knowledge  of  useful  minerals. 

Roads  and  hydraulic  constructions. 

Free-hand  di'awing,  -  -  -     • 

Ancient  and  medieval  history,  - 

Practice  in  workshops  from  4  to  6  p.  m. 

German  and  French  literature,  - 




Second  Yem- :  ^ 

On  nuii'hines,  ... 

Coustruetioa  of  machines, 

Putting-  up  machines, 

Mechanical  technology,  - 

Select  questions  of  mathematical  physics, 

Higher  physics-,  -  -  -  - 

General  chemistry,    -  -  - 

Itl.       repetitions,  (winter,)     - 
Road  and  Ixydraulic  constructions, 
Kiiihvays,  (summer,)      -  -  - 

Chemical  technology, 
Metallurgy,         .  .  -  - 

Ancient  and  mediaeval  history, 
German  literature,          -  .  - 

Free-hand  drawing   -  -  - 

English  language,  ... 

Practice  in  workshops  from  4  to  6  p.  m.. 



Commercial  Division. 

The  qualification  for  admission  to  this 
acquired  in  an  upper  middle  class  school. 
the  following  programme : 

On  commerce,    -  -  - 


Commercial  correspondence, 

Commercial  arithmetic, 

Knowledge  of  merchandise, 

Commercial  geography, 

Commercial  liistory, 

(  German, 
Languages.  }  French,    - 

(  English, 
Drawing,       -  .  - 

division  is  the  instruction  that  can  be 
The  instruction  is  given  according  to 

-  -  -  -       5 

Post  Office  Division. 
The  qualification  for  admission  is  the  degree  of  instruction  acquired  on  leaving 
the  upper  class  of  a  gymnasium  or  the  higher  division  of  the  fifth  in  a  lyceum. 
Two  years  are  required  to  complete  the  courses  which  are  arranged  as  follows : 

First  Year: 

Arithmetic,  -  -  -  -  - 

Mechanics,    -  -  -  -  - 

Experimental  physics,    -  -  -  - 

French  language,      .  -  -  - 

German  language,  ,  -  -  - 

Calligraphy,  -  -  -  -  - 

Second  Year: 

Political  arithmetic,        -  -  -  - 

Geography,    ----- 
General  notions  of  political  economy,  (summer,) 
Popular  law,-  .... 

Commercial  law,  .... 

Application  of  mechanics  to  conveyance,     -    _ 





















-       9 




-       1 




Ancient  and  mediaeval  history,  -  -       .    -  -  -      5 

German  literature,    -  -  -  -  -  .  2 

French  language,  -  -  -  -  .  -      3 

French  littraiure,      .  -  -  -  .  -  2 

English  language,  -   .         -  -  -  -  -      3 

Calligraphy,  -------2 


The  committee  of  management  consists  of  a  director,  two  councillors,  the 
librarian,  the  secretarj^,  and  an  accountant.  The  staff  of  teachers,  professors, 
assistant  professors,  .and  masters  is  arranged  as  follows  : 

Mathematics,       -  -  -  - 

Natural  sciences,        -  -  - 

Architecture  and  building. 

Bridges  and  roads,    -  -  -  - 

KnoAvledge  of  machines. 

Forest  sciences,  .  .  _  _ 

Commerce,  -  -  - 

General  courses,  (languages  and  literature,) 
Sculp  tui-e,     .  -  -  -  - 

Calligrajihy,        -  -  -  -  - 

"Workshops,  - 

The  professors  are  appointed  and  paid  by  the  government.  The  director  is 
elected  for  one  year,  by  the  heads  of  the  several  divisions. 

The  students  are  classified  as  regular  or  irregular.  The  latter  are  persons  of 
ripe  age,  and  generally  graduates  of  other  technical  schools,  and  attend  only 
special  courses  of  lectures,  by  permission.  The  regular  students  must  be  mem- 
bers of  some  particular  division,  and  pay  an  admission  fee  of  S3. 00,  and  an  annual 
tuition  of  66  Rhenish  florins.  The  tuition  covers  more  than  half  the  expendi- 
tures of  the  institution.     The  rest  is  paid  by  the  government. 

The  discipline  of  the  institution  is  strict,  and  the  head  of  each  department  is 
charged  with  the  supervision  of  his  pupils. 

The  number  of  pupils,  regular  and  irregular,  in  1861,  was  826,  and  the  age 
ranges  from  18  to  22  years. 

Buildings  and  Material  Equipments. 
The  building,  laboratories,  and  collections  for  illustrating  the  studies  of  the 
several  divisions,  are  among  the  best  in  Europe.  The  main  building  is  406  feet 
(Bavarian)  long,  and  42  feet  deep,  with  wings  100  feet  long,  by  40,  in  the  rear. 
The  laboratory  of  the  chemical  department  is  in  a  separate  stmcture,  (220  feet 
long,  by  50  deep,)  and  will  accommodate  100  students  at  their  manipulations, 
with  separate  rooms  for  distillation,  and  other  processes.  There  is  a  separate 
building,  of  the  same  size,  for  the  lectures,  models  and  designs  for  machines,  in 
which  the  collections  are  very  large  and  complete.  The  workshops,  three  in 
number,  are  not  large,  and  the  only  one  appropriated  to  students  is  not  largely 
resorted  to.  The  cost  of  the  buildings  was  about  $250,000.  The  collections 
and  instruments,  for  illustration  in  each  division,  are  large  and  admirably  selected, 
or  constructed  on  the  premises  for  use. 



The  object  of  the  trade  schools  [gewerbe  schiden,)  of  Baden,  as  expressed  in  the 
words  of  the  hiw,  is  "  to  afford  to  young  persons  .who  propose  to  follow  a  trade, 
or  mechanic  art,  which  requires  no  liigh  grade  of  technical  or  scientific  training, 
and  who  have  already  acquired  a  practical  knowledge  of  its  rudiments,  such 
Jcnowledgc  and  skill  as  will  make  them  capable  of  an  intelligent  pursuit  of  it." 

The  scliools  are  open  to  apprentices,  or  those  about  to  become  apprentices, 
above  the  age  of  fourteen ;  to  journeymen,  of  good  character,  possessing  suffi- 
cient preparatoxy  knowledge,  and  to  any  one  who  may  Avish  to  attend  any  single 

Attendance  upon  them  Avas,  until  recently,  obligatory  upon  all  apprentices, 
but  the  regulation  was  found  to  bring  in  pupils  who  felt  no  interest  in  the  studies, 
and  did  not  profit  by  the  instruction,  but  disturbed  those  who  were  studious. 

There  were  4,920  pupils  in  all  the  schools,  (forty-one  in  1868,)  of  w^hich  about 
600  Avere  journeymen,  and  800  pupils  not  yet  connected  Avith  any  trade. 

The  number  of  professors  Avas,  in  1862,  thirty -four,  Avith  thirty-six  assistants, 
and  the  total  of  their  salaries  Avas  30,533  florins  of  the  Rhine.  The  expenses  are 
defrayed  in  part  by  the  state,  in  part  by  the  parishes,  and  a  small  tuition  fee  is 
charged,  Avhich  may  be  remitted,  in  case  of  inability  to  pay. 

The  school  is  held,  during  the  Avinter,  from  seven  to  ten  in  the  morning;  during 
the  summer,  from  six  to  nine,  and  on  the  afternoon  of  Sundays.  The  Avhole 
course  lasts  three  years,  and  is  preceded  by  a  preparatory  course.  Pupils  are  not 
obliged  to  pursue  those  studies  Avhich  haA-e  no  reference  to  their  future  occupation. 

The  best  of  these  schools,  although  not  the  one  numbering  the  most  pupils,  is 
that  at  Baden-Baden.     Its  curriculum,  which  Ave  take  as  an  example,  is  as  folloAVS : 


Commercial  course,  1st  class,  (1  hour  per  week,)  keeping  accounts,  drawing  up 
bills,  letters  of  credit,  bills  of  exchange,  notes,  receipts,  &c. ;  2d  class,  (I  hour,) 
certificates,  forms  conferring  poAvers  of  attorney  {fonnules  de  pleins  pouvoirs,)  ad- 
A-ertisements,  letters  of  credit,  &e. ;  3d  class,  (1  hour,)  bills  of  exchange,  princi- 
pal documents  made  valid  by  the  mere  signature  of  the  individual  putting  them 
forth,  { principaux  actes  sous  seing  price,)  petitions  to  the  government,  commercial 
letters,  &c. 

Course  of  arithmetic,  1st  class,  (2  hours,)  simple  fractions  and  decimals,  com- 
parison of  the  Aveights  and  measures  used  in  France  and  Baden,  proportions,  rule 
of  three;  2d  class,  (1  hour,)  rcAicAv  of  AA'liat  Avas  taught  the  first  class,  rules  of 
interest,  alligation,  partnership,  extraction  of  square  root;  3d  class,  (1  hour,) 
equations  of  the  first  degree  and  several  unknoAvn  quantities,  continuation  of  the 
rules  of  partnership  and  of  interest,  extraction  of  cube  root. 

Course  of  geometry,  1st  class,  (1  hour,)  triangles,  squares,  and  polygonal  figures ; 
2d  class,  (1  hour,)  mensuration  of  surfaces;  3d  class,  (1  hour,)  mensuration  of 
the  volume  and  Aveight  of  regular  bodies. 

Course  of  industrial  economy,  2d  class,  (1  hour,)  connections  between  workman 
and  employer;  3d  class,  (I  hour,)  connections  between  employer,  master  Avork- 
man,  and  workman. 

Course  of  hook-heepirig,  3d  class,  (1  hour,)  drawing  up  of  inA^entories,  transac- 
tion of  fictitious  business. 

Course  of  natural  history  and  mechanics,  2d  class,  (1  hour,)  considerations  upon 
the  general  qualities  of  bodies,  centres  of  graA'ity,  stability,  parallelogram  of 
forces;  3d  class,  (1  hour,)  hydraulic  press,  pumps  of  various  kinds,  heat,  and 

Course  of  geometrical  drawing,  includes  a  course  of  free-hand  draAving  and 


Course  of  free-hand  drawing,  1st  class,  (1  hour,)  regular  plane  figures ;  2(1  class, 
(1  hour,)  regular  solids;  3d  class,  (3  hours,)  machines,  plans,  subjects,  &c. 
Course  of  modeling,  the  3  classes,  (4  hours,)  turning,  metal  and  wood  work. 

To  the  practical  course  are  assigned  five  workshops,  in  which  the  pupils  work 
from  half  past  seven  to  nine.  '  The  number  of  pupils  in  this  school  is  200. 

The  other  leading  trade  schools  are  at  Constance,  233  pupils ;  Freiburg,  361  ; 
Carlsruhe,  304  ;  Pforzheim,  483  ;  Heidelberg,  424  ;  and  Mannheim,  282. 


Since  the  sixteenth  century  the  manufacture  of  clocks  has  been  one  of  the 
staple  trades  of  this  part  of  Germany;  and  in  18^7  it  is  estimated  that  there 
were  more  than  4,000  persons  employed  in  watchmaking.  In  the  year  1849  a 
special  school  for  this  branch  of  industry  was  established,  and  the  place  selected 
for  its  seat  was  Furtwangen,  in  the  canton  of  Freiburg,  the  old  centre  of  the 
clock  manufacture  in  the  Black  Forest. 

This  school  now  comprises  :  1.  A  general  trade  school  ( Gewerheschule)  teach- 
ing more  especially  everything  connected  with  clockmaking.  2.  A  purely  prac- 
tical school,  with  workshops  for  improving  Avorkmen  in  the  diiferent  branches 
of  the  art,  and  provided  with  everything  required  for  promoting  the  progress  of 
horological  manufactures  in  Baden  generally. 

Industrial  School. — The  instruction  given  here  consists  of  three  courses,  each 
occupying  a  year.  The  classes  are  always  held  in  the  morning,  beginning  at  six 
o'clock  in  winter,  and  at  five  in  summer,  and  vary  from  seven  hours  to  fifteen 
and  a  half  hours  per  week  for  each  class  of  pupils.  Moreover,  seeing  the  gen- 
eral importance  of  free-hand  drawing,  three  hours  are  devoted  to  it  every  Sunday 
for  apprentices  and  workmen.  The  clockmaking  school  even  supplies  pupils  of 
insufficient  means  with  all  the  necessary  material. 

For  children  of  either  sex,  between  the  ages  of  eight  and  fourteen,  there  are 
three  courses  of  drawing.  Instruction  in  modeling  is  given  to  joiners,  sculptors, 
and  painters,  if  they  desire  it.  Besides,  pupils  are  also  taught  moulding,  the  art 
of  casting,  of  taking  impressions  on  various  materials,  gilding  on  wood  and 
stone,  burnishing,  varnishing,  polishing,  copper  plate  printing,  &c. 

In  1861  this  school  had  49  pupils  and  seven  free  auditors. 

There  are  :  1 .  A  principal  professor  of  special  drawing,  of  mechanics,  of  the 
knowledge  of  machines,  of  applied  physics  and  chemistry.  2.  A  professor  of 
free-hand  drawing,  of  oniaments,  modeling,  and  decoration.  3.  An  assistant 
master  for  German,  arithmetic,  geometry,  geometrical  constructions,  and  com- 
mercial accounts. 

The  instruction  is  thus  distributed  among  the  three  classes : 


First  Class:  

Arithmetic  and  plane  geometry,  -  -  -  -      3 

German  language,     -  -  -  -  -  -  2 

Geometrical  constructions ;  drawing  applied  to  clockmaking,  2  to  3 
Free-hand  drawing,  -  -  -  -  -  -lto3 

Second  Class: 

Arithmetic  and  geometry,  surfaces,  volumes,  curves,  &c.,  -    2  to  3 
German,  contracts,  commercial  correspondence,  -  -      2 

Book-keeping,  ------  1 

Applied  mechanics  and  physics,  power  and  work,  centre  of 
gravity,  the  pendulum,  simple  machines,  lever,  wedge, 
screw,  pulley,  -•-  -  -.-  -  '.^ 


Motions  of  clockwork,  generalities  on  the  measure  of  time, 

constituent  parts,  and  their  relations,  -  -  -       1 

Drawing  geometrical  constructions,  penetrations,  curves  for 

the  teeth  of  wheels,  tools,       -  -  -  -  2  to  3^ 

Free-hand  drawing  with  the  pencil,  shading,  -  -     1  to  3 

Third  Class: 

Arithmetic  and  mechanics,  problems  in  clockwork,  transfor- 
mation of  movements,       -  -  -  -  -lto2 
Motions  of  clockwork,  calculation  of  wheels,  the  different 

kinds  of  clocks,  the  best  escapements,  tools,  and  machines,     -      2 
Applied  physics,  especially  with  relation  to  clockwork,       -  l|- 

Special  di-awing  for  clockwork,  -  -  -  -  -      4 

Free-hand  drawing,  shading,  -  -  -  .  i^ 

Workshops  for  Improvement. — There  are  at  present  three  of  these  v/orkshops, 
two  for  watches  and  one  for  clocks. 

The  first  watch  workshop  admits  young  men  who  intend  to  follow  the  trade, 
and  gives  them  all  the  means  of  becoming  expert  workmen.  The  second  shop 
is  a  continuation  of  the  first,  that  is  to  say,  as  soon  as  a  young  man  has  acquired 
in  the  first  sufficient  skill  to  take  part  in  the  manufacture  of  watches,  he  is  at 
liberty  either  to  enter  any  private  manufactory  or  to  pass  into  the  second  shop, 
where  he  continues  to  work  under  the  direction  of  the  professor,  at  the  same 
time  receiving  wages.  Skilful  watchmakers  are  also  received  in  this  second  shop 
to  work  by  the  piece.  Both  these  shops  are  under  the  same  roof  as  the  school. 
The  workshop  for  clocks  is,  on  the  contrary,  owing  to  want  of  room,  in  the  resi- 
dence of  the  professor,  and  as  he  keeps  a  workshop  of  his  own  for  clocks,  the 
organization  is  analogous  to  the  one  we  have  described  for  watches.  Every 
pupil  has  a  place  to  himself  like  a  workman ;  the  tools  are  exactly  the  same  as 
in  a  complete  watch  and  clock  manufactory,  organized  according  to  the  best  and 
most  recent  processes,  and  on  the  system  of  division  of  labor. 

The  workshops  are  never  closed  for  want  of  work;  but  there  are  holidays  at 
Easter,  at  the  end  of  the  school  year,  and  in  Carnival  time,  just  the  same  as  in 
the  other  manufactories  of  the  Black  Forest.  The  working  hours  are,  in  accord- 
ance with  the  general  usages  of  the  trade,  from  7  to  11 .30  a.  m.,  and  from  1  to 
7  p.  m.,  that  is  10^  hours'  work  per  day, — 63  hours  per  week.  Of  those  who 
attend  the  trade  school,  those  in  the  first  class  have  seven  hours'  instruction,  and 
58  of  practice  in  the  workshops,  in  all  65  hours  in  winter;  those  of  the  second 
class,  12  hours  and  54  hours,  or  66  hours  in  all ;  those  of  the  third  class,  7  hours 
and  58  hours,  or  65  hours.  In  summer  the  theoretical  courses  begin  at  an  earlier 
hour,  which  prolongs  to  66  or  68  hours  the  time  employed  per  week. 

In  the  workshop  for  clocks  the  hours  of  work,  according  to  the  custom  preva- 
lent in  the  Black  Forest,  are  13  per  day.  In  the  second  shop  those  who  work 
by  the  piece  can  leave  off  at  dusk. 

There  is  no  time  fixed  for  pupils  to  remain  in  either  workshop ;  their  stay  de- 
pends on  the  aptitude,  application,  and  progress  of  each  individual.  In  general 
the  apprenticeship  does  not  exceed  three  years.  In  the  contract  signed  on  enter- 
ing, the  pupil  engages  to  pay  a  certain  sum  in  case  he  leaves  the  school  by  his 
own  desire,  or  if,  on  withdrawing  from  the  watch  workshop,  he  leaves  the  Black 
Forest.     In  all  other  cases  the  instruction  is  gratuitous. 

Each  of  the  two  workshops  has  a  bench  for  10  pupils,  the  number  of  practical 
pupils,  therefore,  can  not  exceed  20. 


Workshops  foi-  Watches. — The  principle  of  division  of  labor  is  adopted  in  these 
shops,  so  that,  as  soon  as  a  pupil  possesses  a  general  knowledge  of  the  trade,  he 
is  advised  to  select  the  particular  speciality  for  which  he  has  most  aptitude,  or 
which  best  meets  the  actual  wants  of  the  establishment. 

The  instruction  therefore  consists  :  1.  Of  a  general  part  common  to  all  the 
pupils.  2.  Of  a  part  special  to  each  pupil,  and  which  will  render  him  perfectly 
competent  to  undertake  one  or  more  of  the  branches  forming  the  complete  manu- 
facture. 3.  Of  a  part  intended  to  form  workmen  thoroughly  versed  in  both  the 
practice  and  the  theory  of  the  art. 

The  first,  or  general  part,  forms  the  basis  of  all  the  subsequent  instruction, 
and  is,  therefore,  of  the  utmost  importance.  While  the  pupils  are  going  through 
it  the  professor  has  ample  opportunities  of  appreciating  their  capabilities  and 
of  deciding  what  special  branch  will  best  suit  them. 

In  this  part  of  the  course  the  pupil  has  to  acquire, — dexterity  in  filing,  turn- 
ing, drilling,  polishing,  &c. ;  a  knowledge  of  the  treatment  of  materials,  harden- 
ing and  annealing  of  steel,  hammer-hardening  of  brass,  &c. ;  the  power  of  mak- 
ing small  tools,  such  as  punches,  drills,  counter-sinks,  rimers,  screw-taps,  &c. ; 
tlic  iise  of  the  simple  machine  tools ;  a  facility  of  producing  pieces  in  the  rough, 
a  knowledge  of  the  constituent  parts  of  a  watch,  the  practice  of  drawing  watches, 
and  all  their  parts. 

The  details  of  the  practical  teaching  are  so  numerous  that  it  is  impossible  to 
give  them  here.  Strict  attention  is  paid  to  the  perfection  of  the  work,  and  to 
the  exact  proportions  of  size.  The  parts  most  minutely  examined  for  the  mak- 
ing of  the  pieces  in  the  rough  are  the  lever,  escapements,  the  balances,  the  cut- 
ting and  setting  of  the  jewels  the  position  of  the  wheels,  &c.  The  instruction 
of  the  complete  watchmaker  embraces  a  knowledge  of.  all  parts  of  the  divided 
labor ;  it  must  also  familiarize  the  pupil  wdth  the  geometrical  proportions  of  the 
parts  of  a  watch,  enable  him  to  judge  of  its  movement,  to  undertake  improve- 
ments, and  even  to  devise  new^  systems. 

This  instruction  is  given  by  a  professor  and  his  assistant,  both  practical  watch- 

In  the  year  1860  there  were  13  pupils,  four  of  whom  had  completed  the  course 
at  its  close.  In  1860-61  there  were  only  11  pupils,  as  none  are  admitted  but 
those  who  display  more  than  the  average  talent. 

Workshops  for  Clocks. — The  object  of  these  is  to  improve  this  branch  of  manu- 
factures in  the  Black  Forest.  Owing  to  the  peculiar  organization  of  the  clock 
manufacture,  it  is  very  difficult  to  establish  the  principle  of  division  of  labor  in 
this  branch ;  the  instruction  given,  therefore,  is  such  as  to  enable  every  pupil  to 
take  any  work  that  he  can  obtain  in  establishments  already  existing,  or  to  set 
up  a  workshop  of  his  own.  It  is  indispensable  that,  while  more  especially  culti- 
vating the  branch  for  which  he  feels  most  inclined,  he  must  none  the  less  learn 
to  make  complete  movements,  and  to  prepare  the  different  pieces  in  the  rough, 
othenvise  he  could  not  be  of  much  use  in  the  present  manufactories  of  the  Black 
Forest.  It  is  nevertheless  necessary  for  him  to  know  the  system  of  the  division 
of  labor,  and  the  use  of  the  more  expensive  and  more  perfect  machines,  so  as  to 
be  able  to  take  advantage  of  them  whenever  an  opportunity  occurs. 

The  instruction  is  divided  into:  1.  The  general  elementary  teaching  com- 
mon to  all  the  pupils ;  2.  The  general  improvement  of  the  pupil  in  all  the 
branches,  but  with  a  more  particular  study  of  that  for  which  the  pupil  is 
best  fitted. 


The  pupil  has  to  acquire  :  Dexterity  in  filing,  drillinc:,  turninj? ;  the  knowl- 
edge of  materials,  and  manner  of  treating  them  ;  the  making  of  the  dificrent 
tools;  instruction  in  the  use  of  the  various  machines  required  in  the  manufacture 
of  clocks ;  the  knowledge  of  the  constituent  parts  of  a  clock,  their  purpose,  and 
execution.  The  concluding  instruction  consists  in  teaching  how  to  make  the 
cases,  harrels,  and  wheels;  the  moving  powers;  the  conditions  indispensal)le  for 
good  working  of  the  wheels ;  the  making  of  ordinary  movements  ;  striking  and 
repeating  clocks  ;  finishing  with  pieces  in  the  rough.  As  there  are  always  in  the 
workshops  pupils  of  various  degrees  of  proficiency,  this  last  course  can  not  he 
divided  into  sections.     The  instruction  is  given  hy  a  professor. 

The  Furtwangcn  school  has  in  all  six  professors,  one  of  whom  is  director ; 
there  arc  also  two  workmen  and  one  man  servant. 

During  the  last  ycai'  there  were  80  pupils : 

In  the  industrial  school  of  the  first  year,         -  -  -      29 

"  "         second  year,  -  -.  11 

"  "        third  vear,       -  -  -        9 

T      1  11  (for  Avatches, 

In  the  workshops  |  ^^^  ^^^^^^^ 

Fifty-four  hoys,  from  8  to  14  years  of  age,  and  18  girls,  from  8  to  13,  have 
attended  the  school  for  free-hand  drawing.  The  yearly  sum  allowed  for  the 
school  by  the  government  is  at  present  10,0(X)  florins. 

Another  of  the  staple  industries  of  the  Black  Forest  is  straw-plaiting,  and  this 
also  has  been  encouraged  by  the  opening  of  schools.  In  1851  a  school  for  girls 
was  established  at  Furtwangen  under  an  able  mistress,  and  in  this  school  skilful 
workers  were  trained  who  have  since  themselves  become  mistresses.  Numerous 
other  schools  for  straw-plaiting  have  been  opened  in  the  Black  Forest. 


There  is  a  school  of  agriculture  at  Hochburg,  with  21  pupils ;  of  arboriculture 
at  Carlsruhe,  for  only  eight  or  ten  weeks,  with  10  pupils ;  of  horticulture  at 
Carisruhe,  with  13  pupils ;  of  grazing  and  meadow  culture  at  Carlsruhc,  with 
16  pupils. 

The  agricultural  school  at  Hochburg  was  founded  in  1848,  on  the  national 
domain.  Its  course  of  instruction  is  ample,  with  12  lessons  a  week  in  wintorj 
and  17  in  summer,  and  extends  throiigh  three  years.  The  practical  instruction 
in  the  first  year  is  devoted  to  ordinary  farm  labor ;  in  the  second,  to  the  care 
of  animals  generally;  and  the  third  year  in  particular  to  horses.  Instruction  is 
gratuitous.  Each  pupil  receives  a  gratuity  of  $16,  and  regular  wages  for  his 
work,  amounting  the  first  year  to  $28  ;  the  second,  to  $37  ;  and  the  third,  to  $46. 
The  cost  of  boird  is  alx)ut  $70  dollars  a  year. 

The  knovrlcdge  of  agriculture  is  also  propagated  in  the  primary  schools,  the 
masters  of  Avhich  are  bound  to  give  lectures  on  the  subject  beyond  the  limits  of 
elementary  teaching,  properly  so  called,  especially  to  the  improvement  and  even- 
ing classes.  The  central  commission  of  agriculture  sends  competent  persons  to 
see  that  this  instruction  is  properly  given,  and  awards  prizes  to  the  masters  who 
perform  this  part  of  their  duty  with  distinguished  ability. 

For  the  diffusion  of  knowledge  concerning  agriculture  there  is,  under  the 
direction  of  the  central  commission  of  the  Grand  Duchy,  an  agricultural  society 


-Nvliich  extends  its  action  over  the  whole  country.  At  the  end  of  1862  this  society- 
numbered  11,934  members,  and  it  publishes  a  weekly  journal  of  agriculture 
which  has  a  circulation  of  9,000  copies. 


In  1820,  the  Grand  Duke  Louis  founded  the  School  of  Cadets  for  the  educa- 
tion of  young  officers;  but  its  existing  organization  dates  only  from  1851. 
Youths  are  admitted  to  this  school  from  15  to  18  years  of  age,  after  being  recog- 
nized as  fit  for  the  military  service,  and  having  proved  that  they  possess  the 
requisite  instruction,  which  comprises  all  that  is  taught  in  the  gymnasia  of  the 
Grand  Duchy  as  far  as  the  fourth  class  inclusively. 

Tlie  studies  last  three  years,  and  embrace  : 

Tlieoretical  Course. — German  and  French  mathematics,  the  military  code,  tac- 
tics, the  military  art,  fortification,  history,  geography,  land-surveying. 

Practical  Courses. — Infantry  and  artillery  exercises,  manoeuvres,  and  the  use 
of  arms,  fortification,  surveying,  and  reconnoitering. 

Gi/mnastics. — Fencing  and  sword  exercise;  gymnastics,  riding,  swimming. 

The  number  of  cadets,  in  1867,  was  60. 

There  is  likewise  at  Carlsruhe  an  improving  school  for  superior  officers. 


At  Carlsruhe  there  is  a  central  school  of  gymnastics  partly  supported  by  the 
government,  the  object  of  which  is  to  train  all  those  who  intend  to  teach  this 
branch  of  education.  Those  candidates  who  are  already  employed  in  teaching 
gymnastics  in  various  degrees  complete  their  training  in  this  establishment ;  such 
persons  as  are  employed  in  assisting  the  actual  professors  of  gymnastics  are  also 
admitted.     In  case  of  need,  assistance  is  granted  to  these  candidates. 

This  institution  is  also  in  connection  -with  the  establishments  of  public  instruc- 
tion at  Carlsruhe,  and  especially  with  the  lyceum.  The  pupils  of  the  last-named 
schools  receive  their  gymnastic  lessons  there,  and  a  part  at  least  of  the  pupils 
of  other  public  schools  may  also  be  admitted. 

The  experience  of  Baden  in  reference  to  Trade  schools  is,  that  the  attendance 
of  pupils  should  not  be  obligatory,  and  that  every  pupil  should  be  required  to 
pay  a  small  fee.  If  the  instruction  is  good  and  cheap,  those  likely  to  be  improved 
will  attend,  and  if  only  a  moderate  tuition  is  required  and  paid  in  advance,  they 
will  attend  more  promptly,  regularly,  and  diligently. 



The  Kingdom  of  Bavaria,  on  an  area  o.  29,617  English  square 
miles  in  1864,  had  4,807,440  inhabitants,  of  whom  679  out  of  every 
1000  were  engaged  in  agriculture,  and  227  in  mechanical  arts  and 
commerce,  and  the  balance  in  other  occupations. 

The  total  annual  expenditure  of  the  government  of  Bavaria,  in 
1864,  amounted  to  46,720,597  florins,  of  which  902,507  florins  were 
expended  for  general  instruction  and  138,578  for  technical,  making 
a  total  of  1,041,085  by  the  two  departments  for  educational  pur- 
poses. This  amount  was  independent  of  all  local  expenditure, 
which  raised  the  sum  to  about  4,000,000  florins. 

The  institutions  of  public  instruction  are  administered  by  two 
ofiBces ;  those  of  general  education  by  the  Minister  of  Education 
and  Ecclesiastical  Affairs,  and  those  of  a  special  character  by  the 
Minister  of  Commerce  and  Public  Works. 

1.  Primary  or  Common  Schools,  ( Volksschule.n.) — Of  these  there 
were  in  1863,  7,113  schools  with  8,937  teachers  and  946,275  pupils. 
Besides  the  primary-schools  there  are  1,550  Sunday  and  holiday- 
schools,  {^Sonn-und  I^eiertagsschulen,)  open  one  or  two  hours  on  cer- 
tain evenings  and  on  Sundays,  completing  and  extending  the  course 
pursued  in  the  primary-schools,  with  129,128  pupils.  So  general  is 
the  attendance  on  elementary-schools,  public  and  private,  that  all 
but  eight  per  cent,  of  the  recruits  who  joined  the  army  in  1864  read 
and  wrote  well.  Besides  the  regular  primary  schools,  there  are  91 
infant  schools,  with  6,796  pupils,  and  143  private  schools,  with  6,853 
pupils,  most  of  whom  are  in  elementary  studies.  Taking  the  whole 
of  the  kingdoyi,  there  is  one  primary-school  for  every  530  inhab- 

2.  Secondary  Schools. — 95  Latin  schools  or  preparatory  gymna- 
siums, with  8,205  pupils;  28  classical  gymnasiums,  with  3,800 
pupils  ;  6  real  or  scientific  gymnasiums,  with  1,200  pupils;  30  pub- 
lic high-schools  for  girls,  with  1,200,  and  143  boarding-schools  for 
girls,  with  6,853  pupils. 


3.  Superior  Schools. — 10  lyceums,  with  university  studies,  at- 
tended by  700  scholars,  (mostly  Catholic,  preparing  for  the  priest- 
hood;) 3  universities,  (Munich,  Wiirzburg,  Erlangen,)  each  with 
four  faculties,  and  a  total  of  2,959  students  in  1867;  1  academy  of 
science,  with  cabinet  of  natural  history,  royal  library  of  800,000 
volumes,  chemical  laboratory,  (under  Baron  de  Liebig,)  which  are 
made  subservient  to  the  university  at  Munich.  The  conservatorium 
of  scientific  collections,  and  laboratories  embraces  12  sections,  and 
has  an  income  of  48,000  florins  from  the  government. 

4.  Special  and  Professional  Schools. — Bavaria  is  well  supplied 
with  institutions  adapted  to  special  occupations  and  classes,  viz. : 

10  Normal  schools  for  primary  school  teachers,  with  18  teachers  and  518 

3  Seminary  courses  for  secondary  school  teachers,  (one  in  each  university, 

with  96  seminarists. 

4  Superior  agricultural  schools,  with  29  agricultural  sections  in  the  trade 

schools;  with  an  aggregate  of  2,114  pupils. 
1  School  of  forestry,  with  40  pupils. 
1  School  of  horticulture,  with  30  pupils. 

1  School  of  veterinary  surgery,  with  18  teachers  and  140  pupils. 

2  Commercial  schools,  with  18  commercial  divisions  in  the  trade  schools,  and 

an  aggregate  of  2,000  pupils. 
29  Trade  schools,  with  an  agricultural,  commercial,  and  mechanical  section. 

3  Polytechnic  schools — now  existing  as  1  Central  Polytechnic  at  Munich,  1 

School  of  Arts  at  Nuremberg,  and  the  School  of  Machinery  at  Augsburg. 
1  Academy  of  painting  and  sculpture,  with  1  director,  13  professors,  and  231 

1  School  of  architecture,  with  9  teachers,  and  143  pupils. 
261  Schools  of  drawing,  of  which  121  are  independent,  and  140  are  united 
with  other  institutions — with  9,973  pupils. 
1  Conservatorium  of  music,  with  1  director,  14  teachers,  and  94pup0s. 
10  Schools  of  music.  *  • 

1  Central  and  9  provincial  institutions  for  the  deaf  and  dumb,  with  a  total 

of  23  teachers  and  256  pupils. 
1  Institution  for  the  blind,  with  3  teachers,  13  assistants,  and  16  pupils. 
1  Institution  for  idiotic  children,  with  3  teachers  and  23  pupils. 
3  Schools  of  midwifery,  with  14  teachers  and  132  students. 
35  Orphan  institutes,  with  1,400  children;  and  75  rescue  homes  for  neglected 

and  vicious  children,  witli  2,250  inmates. 
Besides  the  royal  library  of  800,000  volumes,  the  University  of  Munich  has  a 
library  of  150,000  ;  that  of  Wurzburg,  100,000  volumes;    of  Erlangen,  140,000 
volumes ;  and  24  public  libraries,  with  ap  aggregate  of  2,000,000  volumes. 

The  logical  arrangements  of  the  schools  of  science  and  literature 
in  the  system  of  Public  and  Special  Instruction  in  Bavaria  impressed 
the  French  Commissioners  so  favorably,  that  they  have  represented 
them  in  the  accompanying  diagram. 








1    '  1 













Bavaria  was  one  of  the  first  states  in  Germany  to  found  a  school 
of  art,  in  its  highest  sense,  and  one  of  the  earUest  to  apply  instruc- 
tion in  science  to  the  development  of  mechanical  industry,  and  to 
bring  its  young  artisans  and  workmen  of  every  kind  into  systematic 
courses  of  technical  instruction.* 

The  Academy  of  Art  in  Nuremberg  was  founded  by  Sandrart  in 
1662,  and  after  being  long  conducted  by  him,  gained  new  distinction 
under  Preissler,  and  no  school  of  art  out  of  Munich  has  done  so 
much  in  our  day  to  develop  taste  and  skill  in  artisans  and  artists  as 
the  Royal  School  of  Art,  and  several  private  schools  of  drawing  now 
in  successful  operation  in  that  quaint  old  town. 

The  first  Technical  School,  so  called,  in  Germany,  was  opened  in 
Nuremberg  in  1823,  under  the  lead  of  Scharrer,  afterwards  mayor 
of  the  city,  who  gave  the  impulse,  by  providing  instruction  one 
hour  on  Sunday,  and  two  evenings  in  the  week,  in  drawing  (free- 
hand and  architectural)  and  mathematics.  He  was  assisted  by  Hei- 
deloff,  architect,  and  Hermann,  afterwards  professor  in  the  Poly- 
technic and  counselor  of  state.  The  school  was  adopted  by  the 
municipal  authorities,  and  as  the  instruction  was  of  the  best  kind, 
it  was  completely  successful,  and  by  the  expansion  of  its  studies  and 
length  of  term,  grew  into  a  Trade  School,  under  the  law  of  1834, 
till  1836,  when  it  had  V  teachers,  with  490  pupils  (one-fourth  of 
them  journeymen)  in  11  divisions,  receiving  instruction  in  mathe- 
matics, drawing,  modeling,  molding  and  casting  metals,  wood-carv- 
ing, &c.  The  pupils  of  this  school,  (called,  in  1836,  Mechanic 
.  School,)  created  a  new  trade  for  this  district  of  Bavaria ;  and  the 
example  of  special  schools  on  Sunday,  evenings,  and  holidays,  was 
followed  by  other  cities,  until  in  several  of  them  the  mechanic 
schools  grew  into  polytechnic  schools — Munich  in  1827,  Nuremberg 
in  1829,  and  Augsburg  in  1833,  none  of  which,  however,  attained 
to  the  highest  scientific  development — the  pupils  not  being  required 
to  go  through  a  thorough  course  of  theoretical  study,  as  in  some 
other  institutions  of  this  class.  In  all,  the  plan  of  instruction  was 
pretty  much  the  same,  but  gradually  Munich  turned  its  force 
towards  construction  and  engineering;  Augsburg  and  Nuremberg 
to  mechanical  handicrafts.  In  1862  the  school  at  Munich  was  di- 
vided into  two  parts,  the  polytechnic  proper,  and  the  school  for  con- 
struction and  engineering. 

♦For  the  details  of  this  system,  see  National  Education,  Part  I,  Gkruam  States,  Bavaria. 



In  1864  the  whole  system  of  real-schools,  trade-schools,  and  poly- 
technic schools,  which  had  grown  up  since  1808,  was  reorganized. 
After  the  law  of  1808,  real-schools  and  real-institutes  were  set  up 
in  the  large  centres  of  population  parallel  with  the  progyranasiums 
and  gymnasiums.  The  real-schools  added  to  the  elementary  course 
the  study  of  French,  drawing,  the  elements  of  natural  history,  and 
algebra.  The  real-institute  added  to  the  real-school  course,  which 
usually  terminated  at  the  fourteenth  year,  the  natural  sciences,  more 
of  mathematics,  history,  general  philosophical  studies,  as  well  as  the 
literature  of  modern  languages.  This  course,  if  carried  out,  occu- 
pied four  years,  and  was  intended  to  prepare  for  higher  academical 
studies  and  for  special  careers,  such  as  financiers,  merchants,  &c. 
The  system  did  not  work  well,  and  was  modified  in  1816 — the  real- 
institutes  being  discontinued,  and  the  real-schools  converted  into 
higher  burgher- schools — which  were  only  the  higher  classes  of  an 
elementary  school.  The  deficiency  of  State  realistic  seminaries  was 
partially  supplied  by  the  municipal  authorities,  associations  and  in- 
individuals,  in  artisan  schools,  further-improvement  or  Sunday- 
schools,  mechanic  schools,  and  polytechnic  institutes,  in  which  the 
arts  of  design  and  drawing  received  particular  attention.  To  give 
this  new  instruction,  which  the  necessities  of  society  had  created, 
thorough  organization  and  symmetry,  the  government,  in  1829  and 
in  1833,  decreed  the  estabhshment  of  technical  schools  in  all  the 
large  cities  of  the  kingdom.  The  law  of  1833  discontinued  the 
higher  burgher-schools  and  laid  down  the  outlme  of  a  course  of  in- 
struction for  the  technical  schools,  which  was  perfected  by  the 
law  of  1836.  The  object  of  the  technical  schools,  in  the  language 
of  the  law,  is  "  to  carry  the  sciences  into  industry,  and  to  put  indus- 
trial pursuits  themselves  upon  a  footing  corresponding  to  the  prog- 
ress of  technical  art  and  the  competition  of  foreign  industry."  With 
this  aim  the  technical  schools  had  their  central  point  in  the  exact 
sciences,  and  were  preparatory  for,  1,  the  artist's  vocation  proper; 
2,  the  technical  branches  of  the  public  service,  especially  architec- 
ture, mining,  salt  works,  and  forests  ;  3,  for  technical  departments 
of  civil  life  ;  4,  for  strictly  civic  vocations,  particularly  for  carrying 
on  improvements  in  manufacturing,  agricultural,  and  mechanical 

In  the  development  of  this  system  there  sprung  up,  and  existed 
in  1863,  the  following  institutions: 

1.  Schools  of  arts  and  trades,  or  technical  gymnasiums,  with  an 
agricultural,  commercial,  and  mechanic  arts  division.  Of  these 
there  were  twenty-nine,  in  as  many  centres  of  population  and  in- 


dustry.  They  received  pupils  at  twelve  years  of  age,  and  dismissed 
them  at  the  end  of  three  years.  With  several  were  connected  pre- 
paratory schools,  and  with  all,  a  Sunday  and  holiday  or  feast-day 
school  for  apprentices  and  journeymen. 

2.  Polytechnic  schools  or  technical  lyceums.  Of  these  there  were 
three,  located  at  Munich,  Nuremberg,  and  Augsburg.  They  received 
their  pupils  at  the  completion  of  their  fifteenth  year,  and  with  a 
preparation  equal  to  the  attainments  of  the  graduates  of  the  tech- 
nical gymnasium. 

3.  Special  courses,  or  schools  for  the  completion  of  technical  in- 
struction: (1,)  engineering  in  the  polytechnic  school  at  Munich; 
(2,)  mining,  foundries,  and  salt  works  in  the  department  of  public 
economy  in  the  University  of  Munich  ;  (3,)  higher  forestry  service 
in  the  Royal  Forestry  School  at  Aschaffenburg,  and  one  year  in  the 
University ;  (4,)  higher  agricultural  training,  in  the  Central  School 
of  Agriculture  at  Weihenstephan,  near  Freising ;  (5,)  for  the  fine 
arts,  including  architecture  and  ornamentation  of  an  artistic  character, 
the  Royal  Academy  of  Arts  in  Munich,  and  (6,)  for  higher  chemical 
analysis,  the  laboratories  of  the  Academy  of  Science,  the  Conserva- 
tQi-ium,  and  the  University. 

This  system,  although  it  developed  a  prodigious  amount  of  scien- 
tific and  artistic  talent,  and  in  several  directions,  of  improved  indus- 
trial fabrics,  did  not  satisfy  all  the  wants  of  different  classes  and 
different  industries.  In  consequence  of  "  urgent  pressure  from  the 
Department  of  Commerce  and  Public  Instruction,"  the  king  promul- 
gated in  1864  a  new  law  respecting  technical  institutions,  according 
to  which  they  are  now  classified  and  administered. 


.  The  system  of  technical  instruction,  as  organized  under  the  law 
of  1864,  and  in  force  after  1868,  when  the  classes  under  the  former 
system  will  have  completed  their  curriculum,  and  the  new  classes 
will  be  in  full  operation,  consists  of — 

I.  The  trade-school,  [gewerbschulen — twenty-nine  in  all,  located 
in  the  principal  centres  of  population  and  industries,)  designed  to 
impart  a  fitting  general  education,  and  the  theoretical  knowledge 
preparatory  to  different  occupations,  and  the  professions  in  which 
science  forms  the  basis  of  the  highest  success.  The  instruction  be- 
gins where  the  common  school  leaves  off,  and  while  it  is  passably 
complete  in  itself,  it  is  the  systematic  preparation  for  a  more  ex- 
tended course  in  commercial  and  agricultural  studies  which  can  be 


organized  in  the  institution  with  the  sanction  of  the  highest  author- 
ities, or  pursued  in  the  special  institutions  of  a  higher  grade. 

Eight  of  these  institutions,  one  in  the  chief  town  of  each  of  the 
eight  districts  or  circles  into  which  the  kingdom  for  administrative 
purposes  is  divided,  are  designated  in  the  law  as  district  or  higher 

II.  The  real-gymnasium — this  class  of  schools,  of  which  there  are 
six,  one  in  the  chief  town  of  each  of  the  six  provinces,  is  of  a  higher 
grade  than  the  trade-school,  and  includes,  in  a  four  years'  course, 
the  study  of  Latin  and  one  or  more  modern  foreign  languages.  It 
presupposes  the  attainments  of  the  primary -school  and  of  the  first 
year  of  the  classical  gymnasium,  with  which  its  first  year  is  par- 
allel. The  final  examination  and  certificate  entitles  to  admission 
into  the  polytechnic  school  at  Munich,  and  into  the  university,  for 
participation  in  such  studies  as  do  not  fall  within  the  special  limits 
of  the  three  faculties  of  theology,  jurisprudence,  and  medicine,  and 
if  found  qualified  after  special  examination,  into  the  higher  special 
schools  of  forestry,  agriculture,  veterinary  science,  or  separate 
branches  of  the  public  service. 

III.  The  polytechnic  school  at  Munich,  in  which  the  different 
professional  studies  of  engineering,  architecture,  technical  chem- 
istry, trade  and  commerce,  are  treated  independently  of  each  other, 
in  courses  of  two  years  each,  on  the  basis  of  a  common  scientific 
instruction  in  mathematics  and  the  natural  sciences,  and  the  art  of 
drawing,  pursued  to  the  extent  deemed  necessary  for  each  profes- 
sional course. 

The  Royal  School  of  Machinery  at  Augsburg,  and  the  Royal 
School  of  Art  at  Nuremberg,  both  of  which  were  polytechnic 
schools  up  to  1865,  are  not  yet  permanently  organized  as  part  of 
the  system.  Their  present  course  of  instruction  exceeds  the  course 
of  the  district  trade-schools,  and  falls  short  of  the  Central  Poly- 
technic School. 

With  each  of  these  institutions  or  their  teachers  are  associated, 
more  or  less  directly,  supplementary  schools  and  classes,  designed 
to  impart  instruction  in  subjects  of  immediate  utility  to  apprentices 
and  workmen  in  various  crafts  and  occupations ;  and  above  them 
all  in  the  lectures,  collections,  libraries  and  laboratories  of  the  uni- 
versities, and  in  the  higher  special  schools  of  agriculture,  forestry, 
and  art,  the  student  can  carry  his  artistic,  artisan,  or  purely  scien- 
tific studies  to  the  highest  point. 

'  We  append  the  substance  of  the  regulations  recently  issued  for 
the  government  of  these  schools : 



The  trades  schools  of  Bavaria  were  originally  known  by  the  name  of  agricul- 
tural and  industrial  schools,  but  received  their  present  name  in  the  decree  of 
1864.  They  are  generally  government  institutions,  but  the  municipalities  or  as- 
sociations contribute  more  or  less  to  the  support  of  some  of  them,  the  teachers 
being  appointed  by  the  power  that  supports  them,  although  all  the  appoint- 
ments must  be  confirmed  by  government. 

The  qualifications  for  admission  are  that  the  candidate  shall  be  between  the 
ages  of  twelve  and  fourteen ;  shall  be  able  to  read,  write  and  compose  without 
gross  blunders  in  spelling  or  language ;  shall  be  master  of  the  first  lour  rules  of 
arithmetic,  and  possess  a  proper  knowledge  of  religion. 

The  plan  of  studies  occupies  three  years,  and  is  as  follows : 

Hours  per  week.  Course  I.         Course  II.        Course  IIL 

Eeligion, 2  2  2 

German, 5  4  3 

Geography, 2  2  2 

History, 2  2  2 

Arithmetic, 5  0  0 

Algebra, 0  2  4 

Natural  History, 4  4  0 

Physics, 0  4  0 

Drawing, 8  8  4 

Modeling  and  embossing, 0  2  6 

French,   .2  2  2 

Plane  geometry, ; 0  4  0 

Descriptive  "        : 0  0  2 

Solid  geometry  and  plane  trigonometry, . .  0  0  2 

Chemistry, .'.  . .  0  0  4 

Popular  mechanics, 0  0  4 

Making  thirty  hours  a  week  for  each  class. 

In  some  places  part  of  the  scholars  pursue  a  commercial  or  agricultural  course 
of  study,  varying  in  some  particulars  from  the  above.  Those  in  the  commercial 
section  omit  drawing  and  embossing,  algebra,  geometry,  trigonometry,  and  me- 
chanics, devoting  three  hours  more  a  week  to  French  during  the  whole  course, 
and  studying  calligraphy,  arithmetic,  the  science,  geograpliy  and  history  of 
commerce,  and  in  the  last  class,  English. 

Those  in  the  agricultural  section  omit  natural  history,  physics,  algebra,  de- 
scriptive geometry  and  plane  geometry,  mechanics,  and  French,  and  have 
only  two  hours  a  week  in  drawing.  They  add  to  the  course  the  study  of  hus- 
bandry and  rural  economy,  with  practical  labor  on  the  farm,  nine  hours  in  the 
first  class,  six  in  the  second  and  third. 

Sunday,  Holiday,  and  Evening  Trades  Schools. 

Connected  with  the  district  trade-schools  there  is  a  higher  class  of  supple- 
mentary schools  whose  object  is  to  impart  a  free  education  to  those  apprentices 
or  workmen  whose  education  has  been  neglected,  and  to  offer  the  means  of  far- 
ther advance  to  those  who  have  finished  the  course  of  the  trade  schools,  in  the 
buildings  of  which  they  are  generally  held,  although  in  some  cases  they  form 
separate  institutions.  The  only  requirement  for  admission  is  having  attended 
the  primary-schools  during  the  six  years  required  by  law.  The  instructors  are 
generally  the  teachers  of  the  trade-schools,  but  practical  workmen  are  engaged 
to  teach  particular  handicrafts.  The  schools  are  held  on  Sundays,  holidays,  and 
two  evenings  in  the  week.    The  course  is  divided  into  two  sections,  the  ele- 


mentary,  which  is  a  continuation  of  the  course  pursued  at  the  primary-schools, 
and  the  special  section,  dealing  with  matters  of  trade  and  commerce,  and  with 
practical  trades  or  handicrafts. 

In  the  elementary  section  are  taught  religion,  German,  arithmetic,  and  draw- 
ing.    Under  German  are  included  composition,  commercial  style,  &c. 

In  the  special  section  are  taught  drawing,  embossing,  modeling,  arithmetic  in 
its  applications  to  trade  and  commerce,  geometry,  natural  history,  the  history 
of  staples,  me!  cantile  book-keeping,  and  practical  exercises  in  different  trades 
and  handicrafts.  There  are  fourteen  of  these  institutions,  attended  by  560 
scholars.     They  are  supported  by  the  communes  or  from  other  local  sources. 


The  real-gymnasiums  of  Bavaria,  sometimes  called  technical  gymnasiums, 
have  for  their  aim  to  give  "the  requisite  preparation  for  entering  upon  the  study 
of  a  profession  which  demands  an  intimate  acquaintance  with  the  exact  sci- 
ences."   They  are  at  once  literary  and  scientific.    There  are  six  of  these  schools. 

They  are  all  government  institutions,  and  the  teachers,  who  must  have  been 
graduates  of  a  Latin-school,  a  polytechnic  school,  and  have  spent  at  least  one 
vear  at  a  university  in  their  special  study,  are  considered  government  employes. 

Pupils  are  admitted  between  the  ages  of  thirteen  and  sixteen,  after  having 
completed  the  course  at  a  Latin-school,  or  passing  an  examination  upon  the 
studies  there  pursued.  Hospitants  are  received  only  exceptionally.  The  aca- 
demical year  begins  October  1st  and  ends  August  15th,  with  a  fortnight's  holi- 
day at  Easter.     The  courses  are  all  obligatory  and  as  follows : 

Course  I. — Religion,  2  hours  per  week  ;  Algebra,  4 ;  Plane  geometry,  3 
German,  4;  Latin,  4;  French,  4;  Geography,  3;  Drawing,  6. — Total,  30  hours, 

Course  II. — Religion,  2  hours  per  week ;  Algebra,  3  ;  Plane  geometry,  2 
Natural  history,  (zoology  and  botany,)  4;  German,  3;  Latin,  4;  French,  4 
Geography,  2 ;  Drawing,  6. — Total,  30  hours. 

Course  III. — Rehgion,  2  hours  per  week ;  ■  Solid  geometry,  2 ;  Algebra  and 
trigonometry,  4 ;  Physics,  5 ;  Descriptive  geometry,  2  ;  German,  2  ;  Latin,  3  ; 
French,  3;  Histor}^,  2;  Drawing  and  embossing,  6. — Total,  31  hours. 

Course  IV. — Religion,  2  hours  per  week  ;  Elements  of  higher  analysis,  2 ; 
Analytical  geometry,  2 ;  Descriptive  geometry,  3 ;  Mineralogy  and  chemistry, 
5  ;  Latin,  3  ;  French,  2  ;  English,  4 ;  History,  2 ;  Drawing  and  modeling,  6. — 
Total,  31  hours. 

Annual  written  and  oral  examinations  take  place,  and  the  pupil  who  fails 
two  years  in  succession  in  one  of  the  lower  classes  is  excluded  from  the  school. 
At  the  close  of  the  course  a  pupil  may  demand  to  be  specially  examined  for  an 
absolutorium,  which  is  in  writing,  and  extends  over  three  days,  as  follows: 

First  day. — 1.  A  religious  theme  to  be  completed  in  one  hour;  2.  A  histor- 
ical essay  in  German  on  some  given  subject,  three  hours ;  3.  A  problem  in 
descriptive  geometry,  two  hours ;  4.  Two  themes,  one  in  zoology,  one  in  bot- 
any, one  hour. 

Second  day. — 1.  Solution  of  two  problems  in  the  lower  and  one  in  the  higher 
analysis,  two  hours ;  2.  Solution  of  two  problems,  one  in  elementary  and  one 
in  analytical  geometry,  two  hours;  3.  Two  themes  in  physics,  one  hour;  4.  A 
French  composition,  two  hours. 

Third  day. — 1.  Solution  of  two  problems  in  trigonometry,  two  hours;  2.  Two 
themes  in  chemistry,  one  to  have  reference  to  mineralogy,  one  hour;  3.  A  Latin 
CQmposition,  two  hours;  4.  An  English  composition,  two  hours. 

Every  scholar  pays  20  florins  annually;  hospitants  only  half  this  sum  if  they 
attend  but  one  course.    The  whole  may  be  remitted  to  poor  and  capable  students. 



In  the  organic  system  of  the  technical  institutions,  the  polj^technic  school 
stands  in  immediate  connection  with  the  real  gymnasium,  and  forms  the  apex 
of  the  system  of  technical  instruction. 

In  place  of  three,  the  lav/  designs  to  place  at  least  one  school  on  the  basis  of  a 
broad  and  thorough  scientific  preparation,  and  then  to  provide  for  at  least  four 
leading  interests  by  a  complete  course  in  each. 

It  is  divided  into — 

A.  A  general  class,  and 

B.  Special  classes  for  individual  branches  of  technical  business. 

The  general  class  or  division  comprises  a  course  of  two  years,  and  its  object 
is  to  impart  instruction  in  the  mathenaatical  and  natural  sciences,  and  the  art 
of  drawing  to  the  extent  required  to  make  them  a  general  foundation  for  the 
commencement  of  separate  branches  of  technical  studies,  and  at  the  same  time 
to  constitute  a  course  of  general  scientific  culture. 

The  special'  classes  are  to  impart  knowledge  of  and  skill  in  the  particular 
sciences  required  in  individual  branches  of  technical  business,  and  these  studies, 
in  organic  connection  with  the  studies  of  the  general  class,  are  to  complete  the 
technical  professional  education. 

The  polytechnic  school  comprises  four  special  classes  or  divisions : — 

A.     For  architecture,  the  course  extending  over  two  years. 
"^  B.     For  mechanical  engineering,  the  course  extending  over  two  years. 

C.  For  technical  chemistry,  the  course  extending  over  two  years. 

D.  For  trade  and  commerce,  the  course  extending  over  one  year. 

The  principal  object  of  the  potytechnic  school  is'  to  treat  the  different  profes- 
sional studies  independently  of  each  other. 

The  preliminary  studies  lead  up  to  these,  and  must  therefore  precede  these  in 
the  degree  prescribed  and  deemed  necessary. 

In  order  that  the  regular  gradations  which  are  considered  absolutely 
necessary  may  be  observed,  the  students  must  strictly  follow  the  course  of 
instruction  laid  down. 



Lessons.                                         Hours  in  the  Week.     Semester  I.  11. 

Analytical  geometry , 3  3 

Differential   and   integral  calculus 4  4 

Analytical  mechanics 5  5 

Mathematical  physics 6  0 

Applied  physics  with  practical  exercises 0  6 

Elements  of  architectural  construction 6  6 

Elements  of  machine  construction 6  6 

Free   drawing 6  6 

Elementary  mechanics 5  5 

Zoology 5  0 

Botany 0  5 

Political  ecomony 4  0 

French  language 3  3 

Italian  language 3  3 

History  of  German  literature 2  2 



Lessons.                                         Hours  in  the  "Week.     Semester  I.  II. 

Applied  mechanics 5  5 

Application  of  descriptive  geometry  to  perspective, 

shading  and  stone-cutting 3  3 

General  chemistry   4  0 

Special  chemistry 0  4 

Oryctognosy .■ .  4  0 

Geology 0  4 

Architectural  designing  (construction  and  architectural 

forms) '.....  6  6 

Machine  designing  (elements  of  construction) 6  6 

General  knowledge  of  machinery 6  6 

Constitutional  and  administrative  law 4  0 

French  language 3  3 

English  language 3  3 

Italian  language 3  3 



On  entering  this  class  the  pupil  is  supposed  to  be  in  possession  of  such 
knowledge  of  the  subjoined  subjects  as  is  taught  in  the  two  courses  of  the 
general  division. 

Analytical  geometry,  differential  and  integral  calculus,  analytical  and  applied 
mechanics,  maihematical  and  applied  physics,  general  and  special  chemistry, 
applied  descriptive  geometry,  oryctognosy,  geology,  architectural  and  mechani- 

cal  designing,  drawing,  (the  latter  studied  during  two  hours  a  week,)  and 
political  economy. 


a.     For  architects  and  huilding  engineers  in  common. 

Lessons.                                         Hours  in  the  week.     Semester  I.  .  IT. 

General  civil  engineering * 2  2 

Knowledge   of  building   materials,    and   of .  sanitary 

matters  connected  with  building 0  4 

Estimates  of  cost,  and  conditions  of  contract. 4  0 

Plan  drawing  {Situations  zeichnen) 4  4 ' 

(&.)     Separate  instruction  for  architects. 

Architectural  styles  and  history  of  architecture 4  4 

Plans  of  elevation  (Rochbanten) 14  14 

Figure  and  landscape  drawing 4  4 

Separate  instruction  for  building  engineers. 

Bridge  building 4  4 

Plans  of  bridges 8  8 

Geodesy  and  hygrometry 6  6 

The  construction  of  machinery 4  4 


(a.)    For  architects  and  building  engineers  in  common. 

Plans  of  architectural  buildings 6  6 

Plans  of  engineering  works  of  construction 6  6 

Stone  cutting  and  modeling 0  4 

Constitutional  and  administrative  law 4  0 


(b.)     Separate  instrttction  for  architects. 

History  of  architecture 2  2 

Elements   of  the   science   of  road   building,    bridge 

building,  and  the  construction  of  water  works 2  2 

Measurement. 0  4 

Plans  of  architectural  buildings 12  8 

Separate  instruction  for  engineers. 

Science  of  road  making  and  of  constructing  water  works.  6         6 

Historj'-  of  engineering 2         2 

Plans  of  engineering  works 8         8 

II.      Mechanical    Enoineerino. 

On  entering  this  division  the  pupil  is  supposed  to  be  in  possession  of  such 
knowledge  of  the  subjoined  subjects  as  is  imparted  in  the  two  courses  of  the 
general  division: 

Differential  and  integral  calculus,  analytical  geometry,  the  apphcation  of 
descriptive  geometry,  mathematical  and  applied  physics,  designing  (architectu- 
ral and  mechanical,)  general  knowledge  of  machinery,  analytical  and  applied 
mechanics,  general  and  special  chemistry,  geology. 


Lessons.                                        Hours  of  the  week.     Semester  I.  11. 

Theory  of  machinery  (Maschinenlehre) 4  4 

Construction  of  machinery 4  *  4 

Exercises  in  designing 8  8 

Railway,  canal,  &c.,  engineering 3  0 

Leveling  and  measurements 0  4 

Manufacturing  engineering   (Fahrikbau) 0  3 

Metallurgy 5  0 

Technology  (of   manufactures,    building  trades,  and 

implement  making) 0  0 

Excursions:  practical  work  in  the  mechanical  work- 
shops . . .' 0  0 

III.       Technical    Chemistry. 

On  entering  this  division  the  pupil  is  supposed  to  be  in  possession  of  such 
knowledge  of  the  subjoined  subjects  as  is  imparted  in  the  two  courses  of  the 
general  division : 

Zoology,  botany,  oryctognosy,  geology,  mathematical  and  applied  physics, 
general  and  special  chemistry,  architectural  drawing. 


Lessons.  Hours  in  the  week.     Semester  L  IL 

Elementary  mechanics 5  5 

Technical  ph3^sics  (pyrotechnics) 4  0 

Technical  chemistry 5  5 

Elements  of  mechanical  designing 6  6 

Knowledge  of  building  materials 0  4 

Political  economy 4  0 

Work  in  the  laboratory 0  0 




Lessons.  Hours  of  the  week.        Semester  I.  II. 

General  theory  of  machinery 6  6 

General  civil  engineering 2  2 

Metallurgy,  including  smelting  and  casting 5  0 

Physical  chemistry 5  0 

Technology 5  5 

Work  in  ihe  laboratory 0  0 

IV,      Trade    and    Commerce 


Lessons.  Hours  of  the  week.     Semester  I.  II, 

Theory   of  coraraerce,   including  the  sciences  of  the 

counting-house ,.,,...,,,,  6  6 

Commercial  geography  and  commercial  statistics 2  2 

History  of  commerce 0  2 

Laws  relating  to  commerce  and  bills  of  exchange 0  3 

Political  arithmetic 0  3 

Commercial  arithmetic 3  0 

Knowledge  of  goods 3  3 

Mechanics  i  as  applied  to  the  means  of  transport) 0  2 

Political  economy 4  0 

Constitutional  and  administrative  law 4  0 

French  language 3  3 

English 3  3 

Italian. 3  3 

Mercantile  correspondence  in  French  and  English 0  3 

Previous  to  the  commencement  of  a  term  of  studies,  the  directors  of  the 
establishment  must  determine,  with  the  aid  of  the  masters  of  the  various 
divisions,  the  programme  of  studies,  and  this  must  then  be  published. 

The  institution  is  managed  by  a  board  of  directors. 

Admission  to  the  special  divisions  or  schools  is  based  on  a  thorough  mastery 
of  the  two  preparatory  courses,  and  to  their  equivalent  in  mental  discipline  and 
knowledge  obtained  in  a  real  gymnasium. 

On  entering  the  Polytechnic  School,  regular  pupils  and  hospitants,  must  pay 
an  admission  fee  of  five  florins. 

The  school  honorarium  is  twenty  florins  per  semester.  Hospitants  pay  four 
or  six  florins,  according  to  the  number  of  lessons  they  take  weekly. 

For  participation  in  the  work  of  the  laboratory'-,  pupils  pay  fifteen  florins,  and 
hospitants  twenty  fiorins. 

Individuals  giving  proof  of  special  worth  and  abilities,  and  at  the  same  time 
of  incapacity  to  pay,  may  be  absolved  from  payment  of  the  above  fees. 

An  absolutorial  examination  is  held  at  the  close  of  each  school-year,  the 
subject  of  examination  being  fixed  by  the  professors  in  council. 

Such  are  the  principal  provisions  of  the  new  regulations  for  the  government 
of  the  Central  Polytechnic  School  at  Munich, 

Up  to  the  reorganization  of  technical  instruction  in  1864,  the  three  schools 
at  Munich,  Nuremberg  and  Augsburg,  had  the  same  general  characteristics. 
Under  the  present  plan,  much  higher  scientific  culture  will  be  attainable  at 
Munich,  while  a  very  thorough  special  course  in  construction  and  manufactures 
will  be  given,  the  first  at  Augsburg,  and  the  last  at  Nuremberg. 



Out  of  the  many  excellent  institutions  and  classes  for  teelinical  training  in 

the  arts  of  construction,  ornamentation,  and  industrial  production  generally,  of 

which  we  have  received  recent  programmes  or  find  described  in  the  Reports  of 

the  French  and  English  Commissions,  we  will  present  specimens  of  each  grade. 


The  Sunday-school  in  Germany  is  not,  in  its  aim  and  instruction,  identical 
with  the  institution  known  by  that  name  in  England  and  the  Uuited  States,  the 
great  leading  object  and  characteristic  of  the  latter  being  almost  ignored  in  the 
former — we  mean  religious  instruction.  The  name  is  sometimes  applied  to 
schools  taught  in  the  evening  of  other  days,  or  in  the  morning  for  one  or  two 
hours  before  nine  o'clock,  in  harvest  time  and  on  church  holidays,  although 
generally  these  last  are  called  by  the  name  of  the  day  on  which  they  are  held. 
All  of  these  schools,  however  called,  are  in  the  first  place  review  or  repetition 
schools,  for  those  who  have  left  at  the  age  of  twelve  or  fourteen  the  in- 
struction given  in  the  regular  primary-school,  or  they  continue  elementary 
instruction  in  the  direction  of  the  special  occupation  in  wliich  the  pupils  are 
already  engaged,  or  for  which  they  are  destined.  In  the  latter  condition,  they 
are  frequently  known  as  trade  improvement-schools,  commercial  improvement- 
schools,  or  agricultural  improvement-schools.  In  this  view  of  their  aim  and 
i&ethods,  they  constitute  a  highly  valuable  part  at  once  of  the  system  of  pop- 
ular and  of  technical  instruction.  Infrequent  and  sliort  as  the  sessions  are,  they 
fix  a  large  amount  of  valuable  knowledge  in  the  memorj'  by  timely  repetition, 
and  add  to  the  stock  just  tliat  kind  of  knowledge  which  in  his  daily  avocations 
the  pupil  feels  to  be  necessary  and  useful,  and  which  thus  passes  as  it  were  into 
the  substance  of  the  mind — his  daily  thinking  and  practice.  Such  educators  as 
Niemeyer,  with  a  full  knowledge  of  the  operation  of  these  schools,  expresses 
himself  very  favorable  to  this  class  of  schools.  "It  would  be  a  great  gain  in 
every  place,  large  or  small,  city  or  village,  if  young  persons,  servants,  appren- 
tices, clerks,  could  have,  every  week,  even  one  or  two  hours  of  regular  instruc- 
tion and  mental  exercise,  under  the  care  of  a  well-qualified  teacher."  Although 
the  practice  has  been  opposed,  on  account  of  its  violating  the  usual  observance 
of  Sunday,  and  its  interfering  with  the  engagements  of  teachers  as  organists, 
and  adding  to  their  already  heavily-taxed  services,  as  well  as  on  account  of  the 
very  restricted  range  of  instruction — the  system  continues;  and  Far tJier  Ln- 
provement  Schools,  under  some  name,  and  on  several  hours  of  the  week,  con- 
stitute an  important  part  of  the  elementary  and  technical  education  of  the 
working  classes  of  Germany. 

Sunday-schools  have  existed  in  'Wurtemberg  since  1695,  (for  children  not  yet 
confirmed,  and  to  prepare  them  for  confirmation,)  in  Baden  since  1154,  in  Prus- 
sia since  1763,  and  in  Bavaria  since  1803.  They  are  estabhshed  by  law  in 
Austria,  Bavaria,  Coburg-Gotha,  Nassau,  and  other  States,  while  in  Saxony 
and  Hesse  their  institution  depends  on  the  action  of  the  separate  communities. 
When  they  exist  bylaw,  the  same  studies  are  pursued  as  in  the  regular  common 
or  primarj'-school,  and  always  attended  by  those  whose  opportunities  of  school- 
attendance  on  week-day  schools  have  been  abridged.     There  is,  however,  in 


these  States  frequently  a  class  of  pupils  who  have  completed  the  regular  course 
at  fourteen  years  of  age,  and  devoted  two  years  more  to  additional  instruction. 
With  these  pupils,  and  in  schools  in  large  commercial,  mechanical,  and  other 
centres,  the  instruction  is  generally  technical,  and  is  given  by  experts,  and  is, 
not  unfrequeutly,  of  the  highest  value. 


The  technical  school  founded  in  1823,  when  on  Sunday  mornings  the  architect 
Heideloflf  gave  instruction  in  free-hand  and  architectural  drawing ;  Hermann, 
professor  in  the  gymnasium,  taught  mathematics ;  and  Keippler,  the  mechan- 
ician, taught  machine-drawing — has  continued  to  the  present  time,  with  a  con- 
stantly-widening range  of  studies  in  additional  classes,  which  were  provided 
for  in  two  evenings  of  each  week.  The  average  attendance  from  1837  to  1853 
was  700 ;  in  1854  it  was  1,200,  and  in  1856,  it  amounted  to  1,600. 

The  establishment  combines  the  teaching  of  drawing,  modeling,  sculpture, 
and  engraving,  with  elementary  instruction  in  geometry,  arithmetic,  physics, 
and  chemistry.  The  first  and  most  important  part  of  the  curriculum  is  con- 
nected with  the  arts  of  design.  The  first  and  second  courses,  graduated  ac- 
cording to  the  ciapabilities  of  the  pupils,  are  devoted  to  free-hand  drawing, 
ornaments,  architectural  drawing,  with  or  without  shading,  figure-drawing, 
geometrical  drawing,  and  tinting  in  Indian  ink.  The  third  course  has  four 
divisions,  according  to  the  special  destination  of  the  pupils :  the  first  division 
comprises  every  thing  connected  with  buQdings,  from  tlie  first  details  of  masons' 
and  carpenters'  work  to  the  types  and  styles  of  architecture;  the  second  is 
devoted  to  jomers'  work ;  the  third  to  turners  in  wood  or  metal ;  the  fourth  to 
divers  trades. 

The  second  part  of  the  curriculum  teaches  modeling  in  wax,  clay,  or  plaster, 
engraving,  and  sculpture.  The  third  is  devoted  to  arithmetic  and  geometry 
applied  to  mensuration  of  superficies,  solids,  and  to  plotting.  The  fourth  im- 
parts the  rudiments  of  physics  and  mechanics,  so  far  as  applicable  to  local 
industries.  The  fifth  and  last  treats  of  industrial  chemistry.  These  courses 
were  attended,  in  1864,  by  228  pupUs  for  drawing,  and  1,354  hearers  for  the 
other  courses. 


As  a  specimen  of  the  city  Sunday  and  holiday  schools,  we  give  an  account 
of  the  large  central  institutions  of  this  class  in  Munich,  from  the  annual  report 
of  the  committee  for  1866-67  : 

Every  ordinary  parish-school  has  attached  to  it  a  holiday  school,  which  is, 
therefore,  called  a  parish  holiday  school,  and  which  consists  of  three  classes 
designated  by  the  numbers  I,  II,  and  III. 

There  is.  in  addition  to  this,  a  central  holiday  educational  institution,  which 
embraces  the  whole  city,  and  which  has  also  three  subdivisions,  viz  : 

(a.)  The  Central  Holiday  School,  an  elementary  school  with  three  morning 
and  three  afternoon  classes,  designated  by  the  numbers  lY,  V,  YI. 

This  central  holiday  school  is  not.  however,  supplementary  to,  or  a  continua- 
tion of  the  parish  holiday  schools  in  so  far  that  scholars  must  necessarily  pass 
into  it  from  these  latter.  It  obtains  its  scholars  from  among  such  as  have  (1) 
passed  through  course  lY,  (2)  who  having  performed  their  duty  in  the  week- 
day schools,  have  left  these  with  certificate  No.  1,  and  (3)  who  leaving  a  higher 
educational  institution,  after  the  probationary  months,  have  returned  to  the 


Tvorkshop.  Such  pupils  must  not  be  admitted  into  the  parish  holiday  schools, 
but  must  be  sent  to  the  central  holiday  school. 

(6.)  The  Journeymen's  School. — This  embraces  four  classes,  and  imparts,  dur- 
ing one  hour  of  the  morning,  elementary  instruction  to  journeymen,  who  are 
eitlier  still  within  the  age  fixed  for  attendance  at  school,  or  who,  feeling  the 
deficiencies  of  the  school  instruction  they  have  previously  received,  voluntarily 
enter  their  names  in  this  institution.  This  being  once  done,  they  are,  like  the 
othL'r  scholars,  bound  to  attend  during  the  whole  year. 

(c.)  The  Holiday  S-hool  for  Handicrafts,  in  which  instruction  is  given  in — 1. 
Geometry  and  arithmetic;  2.  Physics;  3.  Technical  chemistry;  4.  Descriptive 
geometrj^,  theorj^  of  machinery,  and  mechanical  designing ;  5.  Practical  me- 
chanics; 6.  Free-hand,  geometrical,  and  architectural  drawing. 

The  last  branch  of  instruction  is  divided  into  five  regularly-organized  classes, 
four  of  which  have  of  late  years  had  to  be  subdivided  into  eight  parallel 
classes,  on  account  of  the  great  number  of  students  attending  them. 

The  uniformity  of  the  instruction  given,  and  its  regularly  progressive  char- 
acter is  insured  by  the  supervision  of  a  technical  director,  under  whom  rank 
also  the  holiday  drawing-schools  in  the  suburbs  of  Au,  Haidhausen,  and  Giesing, 
which  form  branches  of  the  central  drawing-school. 

This  central  school  is  so  regulated  as  to  be  in  strict  harmony  with  the  system 
of  drawing-instruction  introduced  into  all  the  week-day  schools. 

Sole  Course.  Hours  in  the  week.     Semester  I.  II. 

Theory  of  commerce,  including  the  sciences  of  the  counting-house, . .  6  6 

Commercial  geography  and  commercial  statistics, 2  2 

History  of  commerce, 0  2 

Laws  relating  to  commerce  and  bills  of  exchange, 0 

Political  arithmetic, 0  3 

Commercial  arithmetic, 3  0 

'Knowledge  of  goods, 3  3 

Mechanics,  (as  applied  to  the  means  of  transport,) 0  2 

Political  economy, 4  0 

Constitutional  and  administrative  law, 4  0 

French  language, 3  3 

English, 3  3 

Italian, 3  3 

Mercantile  correspondence  in  French  and  English, 0  3 

Previous  to  the  commencement  of  a  term  of  studies,  the  directors  of  the  es- 
tablishment must  determine,  with  the  aid  of  the  masters  of  the  various  divis- 
ions, the  programme  of  studies,  and  this  must  then  be  published. 

It  must  be  observed  that  in  the  instruction  given  in  this  institution  each 
handicraft  is  taken  into  due  account,  so  that  each  pupil  may  obtain  the  knowl- 
edge specially  required  for  his  trade. 

With  the  holiday  school  for  handicrafts  is  connected  a  lithographic  establish- 
ment, which  supplies  the  drawing-schools  with  systematically-arranged  models, 
and  thus  maintains  the  regularly  progressive  character  of  these. 

The  schools  enumerated  under  a,  i,  and  c,  constitute  together  one  great 
whole,  under  the  superintendence  of  a  special  inspector.  The  guidance  of  it  is, 
however,  beset  by  great  difficulties,  and  demands  an  amount  of  tact  and  en- 
ergy which  will  be  easily  appreciated  by  those  who  know,  by  actual  intercourse 
with  them,  the  character  of  our  apprentice  boys.  It  is,  therefore,  the  more  to 
be  admired  that  among  so  large  a  number  of  scholars  brought  into  such  close 
contact  with  each  other,  so  few  aberrations  should  hnve  taken  place. 

The  female  holiday  schools  are,  like  the  male  schools,  divided  into: — 

a.  A  central  holiday  school ;  and 

b.  Parish  holiday  schools. 

The  first  mentioned  consists  of  three  classes,  which,  to  distinguish  them  from 
the  lower  holiday  schools,  are  designated  by  the  numbers  IV,  Y,  and  VI.  No. 
IV  is,  on  account  of  the  great  number  of  scholars,  subdivided  into  three  classes, 
viz.,  A,  B,  and  C ;  and  instruction  is  given  both  in  the  morning  and  in  the 
afternoon,  in  order  to  render  it  more  easy  for  the  girls  to  attend. 



"With  this  school  is  connected  a  so-called  preliminary  division,  in  which  girls 
who  have  been  unfavorabl)--  situated  with  regard  to  the  attainment  of  education 
are  enabled  to  obtain  proper  instruction.  This  division  has  been  incorporated 
with  the  central  holiday  school,  because,  as  in  its  object  and  its  methods  of 
teaching  it  holds  an  exceptional  position,  it  would  otherwise  be  q\iite  isolated ; 
and  because,  were  the  pupils  who  frequent  it  to  be  distributed  among  the  parish 
schools,  they  would  fail  to  obtain  the  special  attention  which  their  case  requires. 

In  connection  with  this  school  there  is  also  a  class  for  instruction  in  partial 
work,  which  is  open  to  girls  who  have  already  gone  to  service,  as  well  as  to 

The  elementary  instruction,  which  increases  in  0ach  class,  and  which  in 
classes  V  and  VI  extends  to  practical  life,  was,  during  the  last  year,  attended 
by  504  girls,  and  the  working  class  by  125  girls. 

In  all  its  features,  both  as  regards  the  teachers  and  the  greater  number  of  the 
scholars,  in  their  efforts  to  impart  and  to  attain  culture  and  dignity,  this  school 
offers  a  most  attractive  picture  of  what  hoUday  schools  may  be. 

Holiday  Schools  for  Girls. 

h.  The  parish  holiday  schools  for  girls,  of  which  there  were,  during  the  year, 
11,  with  27  classes,  also  effect  much  that  is  good  and  useful,  yet  it  can  not  be 
denied  that  their  effectiveness  might  be  far  greater.  The  chief  obstacle  to  their 
activity  is  not  only  the  lukewarmness  of  the  scholars  themselves,  but  more  es- 
pecially the  contempt  in  which  the  schools  are  held  by  many  parents  and 

Prizes,  mostly  consisting  of  money,  are  annually  distributed  in  all  these 
schools,  and  the  names  of  the  scholars  who  have  distinguished  themselves  by 
steady  industry  are  published  in  the  yearly  reports. 

During  the  school-year  1866-67,  the  number  of  pupils  attending  these  various 
schools  and  classes  has  been  as  follows: — The  Sunday  and  Holiday  School  for 
Handicrafts: — Religious  classes,  208;  arithmetic  and  geometry,  65;  physics, 
64;  technical  chemistry,  99;  descriptive  geometry,  62;  theory  of  machinery, 
79;  designing,  63 ;  practical  mechanics,  50;  embossing,  77;  chasing,  22 ;  arch- 
itectural drawing,  88  ;  linear,  299  ;  more  advanced  ornamental  drawing,  367  ; 
free-hand  drawing  and  elements  of  ornamentation,  296.  T/ie  Journeyman's 
School,  167.  The  Central  Holiday  School  for  Boys,  341.  The  Parish  Holiday 
Schools  for  Boys,  1,467.  The  Central  Holiday  School  for  Girls,  644.  The  Parish 
Holiday  Schools  for  Girls,  1,303. 


The  district  trade-school  at  Nuremberg  will  serve  as  an  example  of  the  high- 
est grade  of  these  schools:  1.  The  district  trade-school;  2.  The  Sunday-school 
for  artisans;  3.  The  elementary  drawing-school. 

1.  The  district  trade-school  affords  instruction  to  persons  who  require  for 
the  intelhgent  pursuit  of  their  several  callings  a  knowledge  of  mathematics,  of 
natural  philosophy,  and  facility  in  drawing  and  modehng,  or  to  such  as  wish  to 
devote  themselves  to  the  technical  service  of  the  State.  It  also  serves  as 
preparatory  to  the  Polytechnic  School.  The  instruction  embraces  in  a  course 
of  three  j^ears: — 

Religion,  German  and  French  languages,  history,  geograpliy.  elementary 
mathematics,  phj^sics,  thoretical  and  practical  chemistry,  mechanics,  technology, 
geometry,  plane  and  solid,  trigonometry,  natural  history,  free-hand  and  linear 
drawing,  modeling  in  clay  and  wax. 

After  the  first  year,  pupils  who  take  a  commercial  career  devote  more  time 
to  the  French  and  English  languages,  arithmetical  calculations,  and  geography 
in  reference  to  the  natural  resources  and  industries  of  nations,  and  to  commer- 
cial forms.  Those  whose  destination  is  agriculture,  pursue  chemistry  in  refer- 
ence to  soils,  and  the  implements  and  processes  of  husbandly. 

The  first  instruction  in  drawing  is  according  to  "Wolff's  principles  of  rational 
instruction  in   drawing,  the   more  advanced  from   large  drawings  and  solid 


objects.     In  all  the  classes  there  are  from  seven  to  eight  hours  for  drawing 

2.  The  Sunday-school  for  artisans  gives  instruction  to  apprentices  and 
journeymen  in  drawing,  modeling,  engraving,  arithmetic,  geometry,  physics, 
anil  chemistry.  The  instruction  in  drawing,  in  throe  courses,  begins  with  free- 
hand drawing  according  to  Welti's  system;  then  follows  the  drawing  of  orna- 
ments, vases,  &c.,  in  outline,  witli  reference  to  the  trade  of  the  pupil,  geometric 
drawing,  drawing  from  bas-reliefs;  finally,  in  the  last  course,  special  drawing. 
This  is  divided  into  four  sections: — a.  For  builders;  b.  For  joiners;  c.  For 
turners ;  d.  For  workers  at  various  trades. 

3.  The  ebvii/iiary  draw in-j -school  is  for  those  boys  who  are  still  attending  the 
popular  school,  and  who  wish  later  to  engage  in  a  trade,  after  which  they  entei 
into  the  trade-school.  In  two  courses  drawing  and  modeling  alone  are 

AH  these  schools  in  Nuremberg  have  a  large  number  of  pupils.  In  1867  the 
first  had  212,  the  second  1,876,  and  the  last  228  pupils.  The  school-fees  in  the 
trade-school  and  the  elementary  school  amount,  at  the  most,  to  two  florins  an- 
nually ;  on  the  other  hand,  there  is  for  apprentices  and  journeymen  under 
eighteen  years  of  age,  a  strict  compulsory  school  attendance. 

The  annual  income  of  the  above  schools  from  the  town  and  the  State  amounts, 
exclusive  of  premises  rent  free,  to  16,000  florins,  to  which  add  the  amount  of 
school-fees  received,  1,800  florins,  and  we  get  the  total  cost  at  17,800  florins. 
The  establishments  in  Nuremberg  possess  a  library,  out  of  which  works  of  gen- 
eral utility  and  belles-lettres  are  lent  to  diligent  pupils.  It  thus  gives  an  oppor- 
tunity of  rewarding  good  behavior,  and  is  also  calculated  to  impart  much  in- 
formation which  the  school  does  not  teach.  A  bad  choice  of  books  is  also  in 
this  way  prevented. 


The  trade-school  at  Passau  is  organized  with  two  divisions ;  with  57  pupils 
in  1867  in  the  commercial  and  44  in  the  industrial  or  mechanical  division — both 
under  a  rector,  assisted  by  14  teachers. 

The  special  subjects  included  in  the  commercial  division,  besides  the  French 
and  English  languages,  are  thus  drawn  out  in  the  programme : 

Course  II. —  Commercial  Arithmetic. — Calculation  of  profits  by  multiplication 
and  division.  Compound  rule  of  three.  Simple  and  complex  partnership  ac- 
counts. Compound  calculations  and  calculation  of  per  centage.  Calculation 
of  interest,  and  discount.  Lessons  in  the  knowledge  of  coins,  measures,  and 
weights.  Bankers'  accounts.  Direct  and  indirect  reduction  of  bills  of  exchange. 
Bills  of  lading  and  invoices. 

Mercantile  Science. — The  most  essential  parts  of  the  theory  of  banking,  with 
explanation  of  the  most  common  terms  used  in  banking.  Making  out  of  various 
forms  of  bills  of  exchange.  Invoices  and  calculations.  Simple  book-keeping. 
Elaboration  of  a  course  of  business,  making  the  necessary  entries  connected 
with  it  in  the  proper  books,  and  then  making  up  the  latter.  Composition  of 
the  most  important  letters  for  simple  book-keeping.  Opening  and  closing  of 
accounts  current  according  to  various  rates  of  interest. 

Course  III. — Mercantile  Science. — Arbitration.  Banking  commissions.  Pub- 
lic .stocks.  Customs  and  trade  regulations.  Commercial  associations  and  mer- 
cantile systems.  Book-keeping  by  double-entry ;  composition  of  most  import- 
ant letters  for  this. 

Commercial  Geography  and  Commercial  Hisiory. — The  various  States  of  Eu- 
rope, with  reference  to  their  commercial  productions,  the  principal  seats  of  their 
commerce  and  industry,  their  lines  of  traffic,  their  customs,  laws,  &c. 

Tite  Nature  of  Colonies. — Synoptic  history  of  commerce  during  the  middle 
ages,  more  particularly  of  German  commerce.  Influence  of  geographical  dis- 
coveries, and  especially  of  the  discovery  of  America,  and  of  the  ocean  road  to 
India,  on  the  intercourse  of  nations.  Commercial  history  of  the  European  mar- 
itime powers  in  modern  times. 


The  higher  improvement-school  at  Paasau,  opened  in  1866,  provides  for  in- 
struction on  Sunday  mornings  and  week-day  evenings,  and  has  been  well  at- 
tended, mostly  by  adult  apprentices  and  assistants;  several  master-workmen 
also  have  attended.  It  a  rector  and  four  teachers  (masters,)  and  the 
branches  taught  are  book-keeping,  commercial  science,  geometry,  natural  phi- 
losophy, chemistry,  technology,  and  drawing.  Its  pupils  number  one  or  two 

Weaving-school. — Connected  with  the  higher  trade-school  at  Passau  is  a 
weaving-school,  teaching  the  whole  art,  including  the  history  and  preparation 
of  the  materials,  hemp  and  flax.  This  is  also  a  week-day  and  Sunday-school. 
There  are  thirty-three  pupils. 

Regular  conferences  of  weavers  are  held  in  connection  with  these  schools. 


The  weaving-school  at  Miindeberg  is  intended  to  impart  thorough  theoretical 
and  practical  instruction  in  weaving  in  all  its  branches,  and  to  give  instruction 
not  only  to  pupils,  but  to  give  whatever  information  may  be  demanded  by  any 
body  already  in  the  business.  It  is  open  to  young  men  from  fourteen  to  twenty- 
two  years  of  age,  from  the  whole  province  of  Yoigtland,  preference  being 
given  to  natives  of  Miindeberg.  It  is  a  boarding-school,  and  is  provided  with 
two  salaried  masters  and  one  pupil-teacher. 

The  course  embraces  two  years,  during  both  of  which  are  taught  German, 
arithmetic,  geography,  drawing,  and  rehgion.  During  the  first,  pupils  are 
taught  the  sim.pler  processes  connected  with  weaving,  and  the  weaving  of  plain 
fabrics  ;  during  the  second,  theoretical  and  practical  instruction  is  given  in  the 
more  advanced  processes.  Certain  manufacturers  in  the  neighborhood  furnish 
the  raw  materials  and  buy  the  woven  fabrics  at  the  usual  rates.  There  are  six- 
teen pupils.  Bavarians  pay  150  florins,  natives  of  other  countries  200  florins 
annually  for  board,  lodging,  and  instruction,  in  addition  to  which  the  school  re- 
ceives their  earnings. 

Connected  with  the  school  is  a  gratuitous  Sunday-school,  open  from  1  to  3 
P.  M.,  of  two  classes,  the  first  of  which  is  open  to  all  persons  engaged  in  in- 
dustry without  exception,  teaching  German,  compositions  being  written- on  sub- 
jects relating  to  trade,  arithmetic,  linear  and  free-hand  drawing.  The  second 
class  imparts  theoretical  and  practical  instruction  in  their  trade  to  weavers 


At  Berchtesgaden,  in  the  Salzburg  district,  a  technical-school  has  been  insti- 
tuted by  the  government,  in  aid  of  an  industry  which  has  long  been  carried  on 
in  that  mountainous  region,  namely,  the  handicraft  of  carving  ornamented  arti- 
cles in  wood  and  bone. 

The  course  embraces  instruction  in  drawing,  modeling,  and  carving,  free  of 
charge  to  all  persons  domiciled  in  the  district,  and  to  strangers  who  pay  a  small 

The  school  is  well  supplied  with  patterns  and  models,  and  there  is  a  reposi- 
tory in  which  the  work  of  the  pupils  is  sold  for  their  benefit.  The  school-hours 
are  from  T  to  11  A.  M.,  and  from  12  to  4  P.  M.  The  pupils  are  arranged  in  two 
classes,  and  can  remain  four  years. 



The  Royal  School  of  Machinery  at  Augsburg  was  formerly  a  Polytechnic 
school,  but  under  the  law  of  1864  it  lias  a  special  organization.  The  conditions 
for  admission  are  a  thorough  knowledge  ot  algebra,  inclusive  of  logarithms  and 
geometry,  and  a  certain  amount  of  practice  in  linear  drawing.  Pupils  must  be 
over  fifteen.  Hospitants  must  give  proof  of  possessing  the  preliminary  knowl- 
edge requisite  to  thoroughly  understand  tke  subject  taught. 

The  curriculum  consists  of  two  courses : — First  course :  Mathematics,  four 
hours  weekly;  designing,  eight  hours  weekly  in  winter  and  ten  in  summer. 
Second  course :  Elementary  mechanics,  differential  and  integral  calculus,  physics, 
mechanical  engineering  and  designing.  There  are  for  botli  courses  two  hours 
of  daily  practice  in  the  workshops,  except  on  Saturdays.  There  are  twenty-five 
pupils,  paj'^ing  each  twenty  florins  annual  school-fee. 

Prof.  Koristka,  in  his  account  of  the  Polytechnic  Schools  of  Bavaria,  takes 
the  following  notice  of  the  workshops  at  Augsburg  : 

Although  in  general  the  establishment  of  machine-shops  at  the  Polytechnic 
schools  has  been  given  up  for  want  of  success,  as  at  Dresden,  Berlin,  Carlsruhe, 
Zurich,  &c.,  we  must  confess  that  these  workshops  have  had  marked  success  at 
Nuremberg  and  Augsburg.  The  instructive  and  beautifully-made  models  of 
Augsburg  are  to  be  found  in  almost  every  collection  of  models  in  Germany, 
and  the  Principal  of  the  Augsburg  workshop  (Prof.  Walter)  has  for  years  de- 
voted all  his  energies  to  this  branch  of  instruction.  To  give  a  little  idea  of  the 
way  in  which  this  instruction  is  given,  we  add  the  plan,  condensed  as  far  as 
possible,  as  it  was  explained  to  us  by  Prof  Walter.  During  the  first  year,  two 
hours  daily  are  spent  in  the  workshops ;  daring  the  second  year,  one  hour  daily ; 
in  the  third  year  three,  and  that  from  4  to  7,  after  the  theoretical  instruction. 
The  most  of  the  scholars  have  never  had  any  practical  experience.  The 
scholar  is  placed  at  a  screw,  a  coarse  file  and  a  piece  of  (smith's)  iron  are  given 
him.  He  is  to  practice  himself  in  filing  first  planes  at  right  angles  and  then 
parallel  to  one  another.  Than  he  is  made  to  do  the  same  with  a  finer  file. 
Nothing  can  ba  done  superticially,  and  no  pupil  is  allowed  to  go  on  until  he  has 
been  thoroughl}'-  saccassful.  Then  the  scholar  is  practiced  in  boring,  in  cutting 
of  screws,  and  in  making  faucets.  Then  comes  the  turning  of  round  surfaces 
and  of  screws,  the  smoothing  off,  &c.,  and  this  is  all  done  with  simple  pieces  of 
iron,  out  of  which  different  articles,  such  as  paper-weights,  &c.,  are  made.  The 
next  tasks  given  are  the  completion  of  correct  rulers,  simple  steel  angles,  turn- 
ers' compasses,  and  so  on,  until  the  pupil  is  able  to  make  a  pair  of  brass  com- 
passes, with  steel  points  soldered  in.  If  the  pupil  can  do  all  this  correctly,  he 
is  capable  of  taking  a  simple  model  of  some  motion  and  working  on  without 
assistance.  He  generally  reaches  this  point  during  tlie  third  course.  This 
instruction  is  not  obligatory,  but  if  a  scholar  has  once  undertaken  it,  he  is  held 
strictly  to  all  its  duties.  Scholars  are  paid  for  the  models  they  complete.  When 
they  have  finished  the  course  they  are  generally  far  enough  advanced  to  be  aljle 
to  support  themselves  by  work  in  any  factory.  The  workshops  at  Augsburg 
have  twenty-one  screws,  with  a  perfect  assortment  of  tools  belonging  to  each, 
five  (foot)  turning-lathes,  and  a  great  lathe  more  than  twenty  feet  long.  Be- 
sides this,  there  are  joiners'  benches,  two  planing  machines,  a  large  and  two 
small  wheel-cutting  engines,  a  boring  machine,  a  smithy,  &c.  Many  of  these 
things  are  made  here,  so  that  it  is  impossible  to  give  the  cost  of  the  whole 
machine-shop.  The  following  prices  may  give  a  faint  idea  of  the  expense :  a 
screw,  with  its  appurtenances,  $52,  a  turning-lathe  and  its  belongings,  $179,  a 
planing-bench,  with  its  tools,  $50,  The  common  tools  used  would  amount  to 
about  $1,960.  The  tools  for  the  blacksmith's  shop  cost  $240.  According  to 
this  we  should  estimate  the  furnishing  of  similar  workshops  at  about  $4,000  or 
$5,000.  Beside  the  scholars,  day-laborers  also  work  in  these  shops,  and  are 
regularly  paid.  In  1860  the  expenses  for  labor,  reparations,  material,  salary 
of  the  overseer,  &c.,  amounted  to  $959,  the  receipts  to  $976.80. 



The  plan  on  which  the  Polytechnic  School  at  Munich  is  now  organized,  and 
the  distribution  of  subjects  in  the  general  division  of  mathematics  and  natural 
sciences,  and  the  four  special  divisions  or  schools  of  architecture,  mechanical 
engineering,  technical  chemistry,  and  of  trade  and  commerce,  lias  been  so  fully 
set  forth  in  the  general  exposition  of  the  system  of  technical  instruction  as 
established  by  the  law  of  1864,  that^ny  further  description  here  is  unnecessary 
except  to  give  a  few  particulars  from  the  last  prospectus. 

The  conditions  of  admission  are,  the  necessary  preliminary  knowledge,  and 
good  moral  conduct. 

The  pupils  of  the  general  division  are  bound  to  take  part  in  the  lessons  on  at 
least  five  subjects  in  each  semester. 

The  pupils  in  the  special  divisions  are  bound  to  take  part  in  all  the  studies 
mentioned  in  the  programme  of  the  division. 

Admission  into  the  Polytechnic  School  is  only  granted  to  those  who  can  pro- 
duce a  certificate  of  having  passed  the  absolutorium  of  a  technical  gymnasium, 
or  who  will  submit  to  examination  in  all  the  subjects  of  study  pursued  in  those 

Admission  to  pupils  or  hospitants,  who  wish  to  attend  only  some  particular 
lessons,  is,  however,  granted  on  less  difficult  conditions. 

On  entering  the  Polytechnic  School,  regular  pupils  and  hospitante  must  pay 
an  admission  fee  of  5  florins. 

The  school  honorarium  is  20  florins  per  semester.  Hospitants  pay  4  or  6 
florins,  according  to  the  number  of  lessons  they  take  weekly. 

For  participation  in  the  work  of  the  laboratory,  pupils  pay  15  florins,  and 
hospitants  20  florins. 

Individuals  giving  proof  of  special  worth  and  abilities,  and  at  the  same  time 
of  incapacity  to  pay,  may  be  absolved  from  payment  of  the  above  fees. 

An  absolutorial  examination  is  held  at  the  close  of  each  school-year,  the  sub- 
ject of  examination  being  fixed  by  tlie  professors  in  council. 

The  premises  heretofore  occupied  are  spacious,  and  the  equipment  every  way 
suitable;  the  lecture  and  class-rooms  are  large  and  well  lighted,  and  the  labora- 
tories for  the  chemical  students  afford  eveiy  convenience  for  manipulations. 
The  rooms  for  drawing  are  well  provided  with  models,  and  the  collections  of 
all  kinds  for  iUustrations  in  architecture,  mechanics,  and  engineering,  are  large, 
and  of  the  most  recent  construction. 

To  these  facilities  for  instruction  within  its  own  premises,  this  great  technical 
school  can  hold  out  to  the  student  the  splendid  galleries  of  art.  the  vast  collec- 
tions in  natural  history,  the  well-equipped  and  officered  laboratories  of  the-Con- 
servatorium,  and  the  great  industrial  establishments  generally  of  Munich,  which 
are  now  commanding  a  patronage  fairly  won  by  the  scientific  and  artistic  train- 
ing which  the  foremen  and  workmen  generally  have  received. 

The  General  Conservatory  of  Scientific  Collections  at  Munich  embraces  twelve 
distinct  collections,  viz. :  the  cabinet  of  coins ;  the  antiquarium ;  the  observa- 
tory and  meteorological  institutes ;  the  chemical  laboratory ;  the  mineralogical, 
geological,  zoological,  and  paleontological  collections ;  a  botanical  garden,  and 
an  anatomical  institution.    The  Conservatorium  has  an  income  of  50,000  florins. 

The  Academy  of  Sciences,  originally  founded  by  the  Elector  Maximilian  III, 
but  reorganized  by  King  Louis  and  placed  in  immediate  connection  with  the 
University;  the  Royal  Library,  with  over  800.000  volumes,  and  the  University 
Library  of  160,000  volumes;  the  School  of  Mines,  the  Cameralistic  studies,  or 
science  of  flnance  and  public  economy ;  the  general  artistic  and  scientific  pur- 
suits of  Munich — make  it  desirable  as  a  place  of  higher  scientific  study. 



"Within  a  very  recent  period,  Bavaria  has  become  one  of  the  great  art  centres 
of  Europe,  and  its  capital,  wliich  has  increased  in  popuUition  from  20,000  in 
1805  to  155,000  in  1868,  not  only  possesses  in  its  galleries  and  collections  valu- 
able remains  of  ancient  art,  and  the  modern  productions  of  other  countries,  but 
is  rich  in  specimens  of  architecture,  painting,  statuary,  castings,  and  frescoes, 
executed  by  her  own  artists  trained  in  her  own  schools  and  ateliers.  The  late 
King  Louis  expended  on  buildings  and  works  of  art  in  Bavaria  over  $80,000,- 
000.  This  expenditure  was  not  confined  to  the  fine  arts,  in  the  construction,  orna- 
ment, and  equipment  of  public  buildings,  and  galleries  for  the  possession  and 
enjoyment  of  the  few,  but  was  intended  and  felt  in  its  beneficence  throughout , 
all  the  mechanical  industries,  and  by  every  class  of  the  kingdom. 


For  the  youth  who  has  determined  to  embrace  the  career  of  an  artist,  the 
Royal  Academy  of  the  Fine  Arts  offers  the  requisite  means  of  completing  his 
education.  This  institution  has  its  origin  in  the  drawing-school  founded  by  the 
Elector  Maximilian  III,  in  1770,  and  reestablished  by  King  Maximilian  the 
First,  in  1808;  but  its  present  flourishing  condition  is  the  work  of  King  Louis, 
who  gave  it  a  new  constitution  in  1846.  It  is  at  once  a  society  of  artists  and 
a  school  of  art. 

The  instruction  given  in  the  academy  is  both  practical  and  theoretical.  The 
former  embraces  historical  painting,  sculpture,  architecture,  and  copper-engra- 
ving ;  the  latter,  the  history  of  art,  anatomy,  perspective,  descriptive  geometry, 
and  shading.  The  common  basis  of  artistical  studies  is  considered  to  be  draw- 
ing after  the  antique ;  but  especial  attention  is  also  directed  to  the  drawing, 
modeling,  and  painting  after  nature.  The  instruction  in  historical  painting  is 
given  in  four  separate  schools,  each  under  the  direction  of  a  distinct  professor. 
There  are  also  separate  schools  of  sculpture,  architecture,  and  engraving.  Lec- 
tures are  delivered  regularly  on  the  history  of  art,  ancient  and  Christian,  as 
well  as  on  anatomy,  and  on  the  other  branches  of  theoretical  knowledge. 

The  admission  to  the  academy  is  free  both  to  natives  and  foreigners,  provided 
they  are  qualified  by  the  possession  of  adequate  elementary  knowledge  and 
facility  in  the  higher  branches  of  drawing,  with  a  proper  scholastic  ediication, 
and  a  good  moral  character.  The  pupils  destined  for  architecture  must,  if  na- 
tives, have  passed  through  the  polytechnic  school ;  and  if  foreigners,  produce 
certificates  of  their  mathematical  attainments.  The  candidates  execute  an  ex- 
perimental performance,  upon  the  result  of  which  their  admission  depends;  and 
they  must,  further,  remain  a  half-year  on  probation  before  they  are  definitively 
enrolled  as  pupils.  The  maximum  period  of  study  in  the  academy  is  six  years, 
but  pupils  may  leave  it  earlier  if  qualified.  Diligent  and  talented  pupils,  who 
are  natives  of  Bavaria,  and  poor,  may  obtain  small  stipends,  besides  being  fur- 
nished gratuitously  with  models  for  the  cartoons,  pictures  or  statues  which  they 
may  execute  within  the  academy. 

A  general  exhibition  of  modern  works  of  art  takes  place  about  every  three 
years,  under  the  direction  of  the  academy. 

*  Abridged  from  Report  of  J.  Ward,  Secretary  of  the  English  Legation  at  Munich. 


The  academy  has  also  the  execution  or  direction  of  all  public  works  within 
the  sphere  of  painting  or  sculpture.  It  forms  a  kind  of  council  to  the  Eang  in 
all  matters  of  art. 

The  staff  of  the  academy  consists  of  a  director,  (for  many  years  the  celebrated 
Kaulbach,)  five  professors  respectively  of  painting,  sculpture,  architecture,  en- 
graving, tlie  history  of  art,  and  the  technics  of  painting,  with  teachers  of  anat- 
omy and  of  perspective,  descriptive  geometry,  and  shading,  and  a  corrector  of 
the  pupils'  performances,  a  teaching  force  of  fourteen  persons.  It  has  a  secre- 
tary, an  inspector,  and  proper  attendants. 

The  usual  number  of  pupils  is  230,  among  whom  are  several  foreigners. 

The  annual  expenses  of  the  academy  itself  amount,  in  the  whole,  to  22,816 
•  florins,  or  £2,281  sterling — a  very  moderate  sum,  considering  the  efficiency  of 
the  institution  and  the  merits  of  the  professors.  The  budget  of  the  academy, 
however,  in  the  government  estimates,  comprises  the  annual  charge  of  the 
public  galleries,  &c.,  and  stands  thus  for  1864: — 1.  The  Academy  of  the  Fine 
Arts,  22,816  florins;  2.  Galleries  of  Art,  the  property  of  the  State,  (viz.,  the 
Glyptothek,  Pinacothek,  New  Pinacothek,  &c.,)  20,501  ;  3.  Working  artists, 
1,800;  4.  Allowances  and  pensions  to  artists,  6,721;  5.  Cashier's  department, 
500  ;  6.  General  Reserve  Fund,  357.  Total,  52,745  florins,  equivalent  to  about 

There  are  other  institutions  in  Munich  which  the  inhabitants  themselves  have 
formed  for  the  furtherance  of  the  same  objects,  such  as  the  Art  Union,  the 
Trades'  Union,  and  the  like.  The  Society  for  the  Improvement  of  Manufactures 
has,  in  particular,  had  a  very  useful  tendency,  by  the  constant  communications 
which  it  keeps  up  between  the  class  of  artists  and  that  of  mechanics.  It  was 
founded  in  1850,  and  the  chairman  is  the  eminent  architect  De  Yoit.  The  so- 
ciety gives  to  its  members  drawings  and  models  for  all  articles  to  be  worked  or 
manufactured  in  the  department  of  industry,  arranges  occasional  exhibitions, 
and  publishes  a  journal.  Whilst  the  artist  furnishes  the  drawings  or  designs, 
the  artisan  is  often  able  to  give  useful  suggestions  with  respect  to  the  materials 
best  suited  for  the  work ;  and  so  both  the  one  and  the  other  is  mutually  im- 
proved. The  progress  which  has  been  made  in  casting,  and  other  branches  of 
metallic  work — of  which  the  late  Paris  Industrial  Exhibition  has  furnished 
evidence — is  considered  as  in  some  measure  attributable  to  this  society,  which 
aims  at  raising  the  character  of  manufacturers,  by  brtngmg  them  more  closely 
into  contact  with  the  fine  arts. 

The  number  of  artists  constantly  residing  in  Munich  is  very  large,  and  is- 
stated  to  be  about  eight  hundred.  They  are  chiefly  Germans,  but  artists  from 
foreign  countries  are  also  continually  visiting  the  Bavarian  capital.  The  daily 
'association  of  these  persons  with  each  other  can  not  fail  to  be  attended  with 
beneficial  results.  Not  only  is  the  principle  of  emulation  called  into  action,  but 
ideas  are  exchanged  in  a  social  hitercourse  which  often  lead  to  the  realization 
of  important  works.  Munich  offers,  in  this  respect,  on  a  small  scale,  the  same 
advantages  that  Rome  does  on  a  larger.  Nor  are  the  artists  by  any  means  con- 
fined to  their  own  set.  They  mix  pretty  freely  with  other  classes  of  society — 
with  learned  men,  tradesmen,  mechanics,  and  artisans ;  and  hence  their  ten- 
dency has  become  more  scientific  than  formerly ;  they  have  become  more  dis- 
posed to  avail  themselves  of  practical  science  in  the  execution  of  artistic  works. 
Tliis  improvement  is  partly  attributable  to  the  influence  of  the  polytechnic 


As  a  school  of  pure  art,  there  is  no  pliace  out  of  Italy  which  holda  out  so 
many  attractions  to  the  student.  He  finds  in  the  Glyptothek,  the  Pinacothek, 
and  the  other  Royal  collections,  the  best  opportunities  of  copying  from  the 
antique,  and  of  forming  his  knowledge  of  the  painting  and  sculpture  of  more 
modern  times.  He  sees  around  him  magnificent  public  buildings,  and  churches 
whose  architecture  is  only  surpassed  by  the  beauty  of  their  internal  decorations. 


The  Ro3'al  School  of  Arts  applied  to  Trades  {Kunstgewerlschule)  at  Nuremberg 
aims  not  only  to  promote  art,  but  to  improve  the  artistic  character  of  industrial 
products.     It  receive  pupils  above  sixteen.     The  curriculum  is  as  follows : 

Division  ij  (12  hours  a  week  to  each  study.) — 1.  Drawing  from  ornamental 
models;  2.  Practice  in  architectural  drawing,  with  theoretical  lectures;  3. 
Drawing  from  antique  models;  4.  Modeling  and  drawing  ornaments  and  figures. 

Division  II. — 1.  Painting,  drawing,  and  modehng  from  Hfe,  for  artists ;  2. 
Plastic  studies  for  artists ;  3.  Exercises  in  composing  and  executing  subjects  in 
figures  and  of  an  ornamental  character ;  4.  Embossing  and  sculpture;  5.  Wood- 
carving,  exercises  in  carving  ornaments  and  figures,  and  execution  of  objects 
of  industrial  art ;  6.  Brass-founding — exercises  in  forming,  founding,  and  en- 

Supplemental  classes,  (2  hours  weekly  to  each  branch.) — 1.  Perspective  and 
shadows;  2.  Anatomy. 

The  practical  branches,  such  as  architecture,  sculpture,  and  ornamentation, 
are'^made  the  chief  subjects  of  instruction,  and  are  taught  with  special  reference 
to  the  present  requirements  of  industry. 

The  general  opinion  of  the  persons  who  have  made  a  study  of  questions  con- 
nected with  teaching,  not  only  in  Bavaria,  but  also  in  other  parts  of  Germany, 
is  that  the  Nuremberg  school  has  contributed  more  than  any  other  to  the  prog- 
ress of  the  national  industry.  This  progress  is  especially  manifest  in  the  very 
decided  improvement  in  the  manufacture  of  children's  toys,  which  are  one  of 
the  staple  productions  of  the  country.  For  some  years  past,  the  improvement 
in  the  forms  of  the  articles,  whether  molded  in  clay  or  sculptured  in  wood,  with 
which  the  Nuremberg  manufacturers  supply  the  shops  of  Paris,  has  shown  us 
that  great  progress  must  have  been  made  in  the  teaching  of  drawing,  and 
ample  confirmation  of  this  opinion  may  be  obtained  on  visiting  the  higher 
drawing-school  of  this  town.  The  Parisian  manufacturers,  though  superior  in 
other  matters  dependent  on  the  arts  of  design,  are,  with  regard  to  children's 
toys,  very  inferior  to  the  Nuremberg  artisans. 


In  this  town,  so  noted  for  its  various  manufactures,  there  are  several  draw- 
ing-schools of  different  degrees,  according  to  the  trade  the  pupils  intend  to 
follow.  The  first  and  most  important  is  the  higher  school  of  industrial  drawing 
conducted  by  M.  Kroling.  It  is  justly  regarded  in  Germany  as  the  one  which 
has  rendered  most  services  to  industry.  In  order  that  the  pupils  may,  in  a  few 
years,  acquire  some  real  skill,  none  are  admitted  but  those  who  have  already 
attained  considerable  proficiency.  The  principle  adopted  by  the  professor  of 
this  school  is  that,  in  order  to  form  good  industrial  draughtsmen,  the  pupils 
must  pass  through  all  the  degrees  of  artistic  drawing,  so  that  they  may  be  able, 


in  the  very  varied  and  different  combinations  required  by  manufacturersj  to 
blend  judiciously  and  harmoniously  all  the  various  kinds,  without  there  being 
any  necessity,  as  often  happens,  for  having  recourse  to  one  artist  for  the  archi- 
tectural part,  to  another  for  the  figures,  and  to  a  third  for  the  ornaments,  &c. 

As  for  the  method  of  teaching,  it  is  exclusively  based  on  drawing  from 
models  in  reliefj  graduated  according  to  the  proficiency  of  the  learners,  and  ad- 
vancing from  the  simplest  models  to  the  finest  left  by  ancient  art,  and  then  to 
nature.  The  talented  director  expresses  his  antipathy  to  copying  from  litho- 
graphs, which  he  regards  as  calligraphy,  not  drawing.  In  accordance  with 
these  principles,  he  has  formed  for  his  pupils  very  fine  and  very  complete  col- 
lections of  models.  The  teaching  is  distributed  in  three  divisions : — 1,  drawing 
of  ornament;  2,  drawing  from  the  antique;  3,  drawing  from  nature.  After 
attaining  proficiency  in  drawing,  the  pupils  pass  on  to  modeling  and  sculpture 
in  wood  and  stone ;  then,  as  soon  as  they  have  attained  a  certain  degree  of 
skill,  they  have  to  compose  designs,  and  to  model  and  carve  them. 

As  a  preparation  for  the  higher  drawing-school,  there  is  an  elementary  school 
with  courses  occupying  two  years.  The  first,  of  eight  hours'  lessons  per  week, 
is  entirely  devoted  to  free-hand  drawing,  beginning  with  exercises  on  straight 
lines  and  curves,  on  plane  surfaces,  on  symmetrical  and  regular  bodies,  and  on 
simple  and  complex  ornaments,  finishing  with  compositions.  The  second 
course,  of  six  hours  per  week,  is  devoted  to  drawing  ornaments,  to  drawing 
from  the  round,  from  the  antique,  and  also  to  drawing  furniture. 


The  instructions  drawn  up  in  the  Department  of  Commerce  and  Public  Works,' 
for  the  government  of  the  newlj^-organized  technical  schools,  mark  out  a  detailed 
course  for  drawing  founded  on  the  long  experience  of  the  famous  schools  of 
Nuremberg  and  Munich. 


Course  I. — First  half-year. — Exercise  of  eye  and  hand  in  drawing  lines  and 
geometrical  figures ;  delineation  of  objects  of  suitable  size,  and  with  plane  sur- 
faces; explanations  of  the  nature  of  vision,  and  with  this  the  first  elements  of 
perspective;  linear  drawing  without  instruments  should  be  combined  with  free 
drawing,  [Freihandzeichnung.) 

Second  half-year — Continuation  of  the  free  drawing ;  delineation  of  simple 
ornaments  from  cartoons,  or  from  plaster  models,  in  slight  relief  or  perforated ; 
linear  drawing,  with  the  aid  of  compasses  and  mathematical  instruments;  draw- 
ing, division  and  measurement  of  straight  lines,  right  angles,  and  figures ;  con* 
struction  of  scales,  measurement,  &c. 

Course  II. — Free  drawing  of  more  elaborate  ornaments  from  plastic  models; 
the  proportions  of  the  human  head  and  its  various  parts,  from  simple  outlines; 
exercises  in  the  construction  of  regular  curved  lines,  architectural  members, 
projection  of  simple  surfaces,  and  of  regular  equilateral  figures;  embossing 
from  simple  plastic  models  in  diflferent  sizes. 

Course  III. — Continuation  of  exercises  in  free  drawing  from  the  round;  de- 
lineation of  animals  and  plants,  in  as  far  as  these  may  be  applicable  to  orna- 
mentation, with  slight  indication  of  shades,  so  as  to  make  the  form  distinct ; 
explanation  of  style ;  delineation  of  tlie  human  body,  and  its  proportions,  in 
outline;  linear  drawing;  continuation  of  exercises  in  designing  simple  ma- 
chines and  models;  the  five  orders  of  architecture ;  industrial  tools;  profiles, 
&c.,  as  fin-  as  possible  in  natural  size,  from  models;  sketching  from  nature;  ex- 
ercises in  drawing  with  Indian  ink  ;  sliglit  coloring  of  profiles,  &c. ;  embossing 
from  drawings  of  simple  classical  artistic  forms. 


Modifications  for  (he  Agricultural  Division. 

Course  I. — First  half-year. — [Substantially  the  same  as  in  the  trade  course,] 

Stcoiid  half-year. — Linear  drawing,  with  help  of  compasses  and  nuiLlicmatical 
instruments;  drawing,  dividing,  and  measuring  straight  lines,  plane  angles  and 
figures,  and  construction  of  scales  of  measurement;  exercises  in  drawing  plans 
and  elevations  of  simple  geometrical  bodies,  in  various  positions,  and  in  the 
rules  of  the  theory  of  proportions. 

Course  II. — Plxercises  in  drawing  plans  and  elevations  of  separate  architec- 
tural parts,  more  especially  of  the  stationary  arrangements  of  farm-buildings, 
from  models,  and  also  from  nature ;  delineation  of  simple  agricultural  imple- 
ments ;  first  rules  of  plan-drawing. 

Course  III. — Exercises  in  drawing  entire  buildings  from  models  on  a  differ- 
ent scale  of  measurement;  delineation  of  ground-plans,  elevations,  and  sec- 
tions; delineation  of  more  complete  agricultural  tools  and  machines  without 


Course  I. — Free  drawing ;  exercises  in  drawing  straight  lines  and  geomet- 
rical figures  formed  by  them ;  delineation  of  bodies  with  plane  surfaces,  with 
explanations  of  the  nature  of  vision,  and  of  the  most  simple  phenomena  of  per- 
spective, illustrated  by  single  objects,  or  groups  of  objects,  of  suitable  size; 
exercises  in  drawing  curved  lines  and  simple  ornaments  formed  of  these;  out- 
line delineation  of  symmetrical  ornaments  and  vessels  from  cartoons  and  plaster 
casts  in  slight  relief,  of  simple  antique  artistic  forms. 

i)ouRSE  II. — Free  drawing ;  division  and  proportion  of  the  separate  parts  of 
the  human  frame  drawn  from  cartoons  ;  foreshortening  of  the  several  parts  in 
different  positions,  then  of  the  whole  body,  using  the  geometrical  lay  figure  as 
a  model ;  more  elaborate  ornaments  in  outline  from  embossed  and  plane-models ; 
ex&rcises  in  the  use  of  rules,  compasses,  and  other  instruments,  by  delineation 
and  division  of  plane  figures;  explanation  of  the  planes  of  projection;  exer- 
cises in  the  delineation  of  simple  bodies  by  means  of  their  projections,  with  use 
of  the  prismatic  compass  when  copying  from  cartoons ;  measurement  and  pro- 
jection of  solid  models  in  different  positions,  and  according  to  different  scales 
of  reduction. 

Course  III. — Simple  exercises  in  shading,  at  first  from  models  of  plane  orna- 
ments, afterwards  from  ornaments  in  rehef ;  drawing  of  heads,  hands,  and  feet 
indifferent  positions,  from  slightly-executed  models;  ornaments  belonging  to 
various  periods  of  art,  as  much  as  possible  in  connection  with  architectural  fea- 
tures; measurement  of  complex  solid  models  with  plane  surfaces,  and  projec- 
tion of  the  same  according  to  the  rules  of  descriptive  geometry,  and  to  a  given 
scale  of  reduction,  and  in  a  prescribed  position ;  modeling  of  ornaments  in  re- 
lief, first  from  solid  models,  and  then  from  plane  patterns,  and  on  a  different 

Course  IY. — Delineation  of  animal  and  vegetable  forms,  if  possible,  from 
models  in  relief,  and  with  strict  attention  to  foreshortening  and  bends;  elucida- 
tion of  styles  and  exercises  therein ;  delineation  of  figures  from  simple  plane 
models;  ornaments  in  combination  with  human  and  animal  forms,  from  the 
plane  and  from  the  round;  projection  of  solids  with  curved  surfaces  and  their 
intersections  (Durchdringungen ;)  delineation  of  the  different  orders  of  columns 
from  cartoons  ;  exercises  in  linear  perspective  and  shading. 


Drawing  is  made  obligatory  in  all  the  higher  classes  of  the  popular  or  com- 
mon school,  but  it  is  more  systematically  attended  to  in  the. Further  Improve- 
ment School,  and  in  the  special  drawing-schools,  of  which  there  are  now  261, 
in  which  are  employed  270  well- trained  teachers,  with  an  aggregate  attendance 
of  over  7,000  pupils.  Of  these  institutions,  219  are  public,  and  121  inde- 
pendent; 140  united  with  other  institutions.  There  is  in  Munich  a  special 
drawing-school  for  women. 



Great  attention  is  paid  to  musical  culture,  not  only  in  the  capital,  and  chief 
cities,  but  throughout  the  kingdom.  It  is  made  obligatory  in  all  common 
schools,  and  ability  and  success  in  its  instruction  is  secured  by  ample  provision 
in  the  training  of  teachers,  and  in  a  rigorous  examination  on  this  point  of  all 
candidates.  Mr.  Juhus  Eichberg,  director  of  musical  instruction  in  the  Girls' 
High  and  Normal  School  in  Boston,  in  a  recent  (1868)  communication  addressed 
to  Dr.  Upham,  Chairman  of  the  Committee  on  Music  in  the  Boston  Public 
Schools,  respecting  the  manner  and  extent  of  popular  musical  instruction  in 
certain  European  cities,  remarks:  "In  no  part  of  Germany  does  music  receive 
more  attention  than  in  Bavaria  and  in  Bavarian  schools." 


By  royal  decree,  dated  September  29,  1866,  concerning  the  education  of 
school  teachers,  their  musical  studies,  which  are  continued  through  the  three 
years  of  the  seminary  course,  are  fixed  as  follows : 

1.  Primaj-y  School  Teachers. 
First  Course. — (A)  Singing. — General  rules  for  the  cultivation  of  the  voice, 
breathing,  position  of  mouth  and  body.     Practice  of  major  and  minor  scales, 
general  musical  theory,  practice  of  intervals  and  singing  of  short  songs  within 
the  diatonic  scale. 

(B)  Piano. — Knowledge  of  the  key-board,  notes  and  measures,  five  notes 
finger  exercises,  easy  major  and  minor  scales. 

Books  to  be  used: — Piano  Method,  by  Wohlfahrt,  Part  I;  finger  exercises  by 
A.  Schmidt;  one  hundred  exercises  by  Czerny,  and  Enkhausen's  first  Beginning. 

(C)  Violin  Playing. — Position  of  the  body.     Practice  of  scales  and  intervals. 
Book  used: — Hohmann's  Yiolin  School,  Part  I. 

Second  Course. — (A)  Singing. — Practice  of  more  diflScult  intervals.  Use  of 
accidents.  Singing  of  two-part  songs,  for  soprano  and  alto.  Attention  to  be 
given  to  correct  breathing. 

(B)  Piano. — More  difficult  scales  in  two  octaves,  continuation  of  Czerny's 
one  hundred  exercises  and  Wohlfahrt's  Piano  method.  Senates  by  Mozart  and 

(C)  Violin. — All  the  scales  in  Hohmann  II. 

(D)  Harmony. — Intervals.  Theory  of  consonances  and  dissonances.  Major 
and  minor  triads  and  connection  of  the  same.  Playing  the  perfect  cadences  by 
heart,  in  every  way. 

Third  Course.— (A)  Singing. — The  preceding  exercises  have  enabled  the 
pupils  (unless  hindered  by  mutation  of  voice)  to  assist  in  the  church  choirs. 

For  Catholic  institutions  the  practice  of  easy  Latin  or  German  masses  is  re- 
quired ;  for  Protestant  institutions  the  practice  of  easy  motets  by  Rink  or  Dro- 
bisch,  as  also  the  chorals  of  moderate  difficulty  from  the  Bavarian  Church 
Melody  Book,  by  Zahn. 

(B)  Piano. — Practice  of  Bertini  op.  29,  running  passages  by  Czerny,  sonatas 
by  Haydn,  Clementi,  and  Mozart.     Four-hand  exercises  by  Bertini. 

(C)  Organ. — Explanation  of  the  pedals  and  the  various  stops.  Practice  of 
simple  cadences. 

Book  used : — Rink's  first  three  months  on  the  organ. 

(D)  Violin. — Progressive  practice  of  exercises  and  duets.  Hohmann's  Book 
III.  Practice  of  violin — parts  from  works  by  Michael  Haydn,  Mozart,  and 

(E)  Harmony. — Inversion  of  triads  and  their  connection  with  triads.  Chords 
of  Seventh.  Book  used,  Forster's  Examples  I.  The  conducting  of  church 
music  being  among  the  duties  of  school  teachers,  pupils  of  the  preparing  school 
should  now  get  acquainted  with  the  use  and  nature  of  the  several  stringed  and 



wind  instruments,  as  afterwards,  when  in  the  seminary,  but  little  time  can  be 
given  for  this  purpose.  Nevertheless,  the  study  of  these  instruments  is  not 
obligatory  on  the  pupils. 

2.  Plan  of  lessons  for  the  Preparing  School. 

Courses  I  AND  II. — Religious  instruction,  3  hours  per  week;  German  lan- 
guage, 6 ;  arithmetic.  4  ;  geography,  2  ;  history,  2  ;  natural  history,  2 ;  callig- 
raphy, 2  ;  drawing,  2 ;  music,  6.     Total,  29  hours. 

Religious  instruction,  the  study  of  the  German  language,  of  arithmetic,  and 
of  music,  arc  considered  the  principal  branches,  insufficient  progress  in  either 
of  which  entails  with  it  the  repetition  of  the  course.  But  if  insufficiency  in 
music  is  owing  to  lack  of  talent  and  not  of  industry,  no  repetition  of  the  course 
is  necessary. 

3.  Seminaries  for  Teachers. 

Course  I. — (A)  Singing,  (a)  Catholic  Seminaries. — Theory  of  choral  singing. 
Practice  of  psalm  melodies,  antiphonies,  and  other  Church  songs.  Practice  of 
one-part  chorals,  with  the  organ  accompaniment  played  by  the  student. 

(b)  Proteatant  Seminaries. — Learning  by  heart  of  chorals,  from  the  Bavarian 
Choral  Book  for  the  Protestant  Church.  Zahn's  harmonization  of  chorals,  for 
male  voices ;  also,  the  four-part  songs,  by  J.  Rietz. 

(B)  Piano. — School  of  velocity,  by  Czerny.  Organ  lessons  to  be  prepared  on 
the  piano. 

(C)  Organ. — Review  of  the  lessons  from  the  preparing  school.  Use  of  ped- 
als. Preludes,  by  Rink  and  others.  Protestants  to  practice  the  whole  of  the 
Bavarian  Melody-Book,  as  also  preludes  by  Herzog  and  Ett. 

(D)  Violin. — Hohmann,  Book  IV.  Review  of  previous  studies.  Practice  in 

(E)  Harmony. — Theory  of  connected  chords  of  the  seventh  and  their  inver- 
sions. Prolongations,  their  inversions.  Organ-point.  Playing  of  figured 
basses.     Forster's  Examples  B,  IJ  and  III. 

Course  II. — (A)  Singing. — Protestant  Seminaries. — Church  Songs  of  the  16th  _ 
and  17tli  centuries,  by  Zahn.  Yolks-Klaenge,  for  male  voices,  by  Erk.  Sacred  ' 
choruses,  for  male  voices,  by  W.  Greef. 

(B)  Piano. — To  be  considered  as  a  preparatory  study  for  the  organ.  The 
more  advanced  students  to  practice  sonatas,  by  Beethoven,  and  Clementi's 
Gradus  ad  Parnassum. 

(C)  Organ. — Protestant  Seminaries. — J.  S.  Bach's  chorals,  for  four  mixed 
parts,  as  preparation  for  the  more  difficult  preludes.  Study  of  the  longer  pre- 
ludes and  chorals,  by  Herzog  and  Ett.  Extemporaneous  preludes.  System  of 
ancient  tonalities. 

(D)  Violin. — Hohmann,  Part  Y.  By  dihgent  practice  the  student  ought  to 
acquire  the  capability  of  playing  the  first  violin  part  of  orchestral  works,  by 
Haydn  and  Mozart,  correctly. 

(E)  Harmony. — Theory  of  modulations,  demonstrated  by  the  student,  both  in 
writing  and  at  the  piano.  Four-part  harmonization  of  chorals,  or  other  given 
subjects.  The  study  of  the  other  instruments,  without  being  obhgatory,  is  ad- 
visable. The  most  advanced  students  are  to  practice  orchestra-playing  once  a 
week.     The  practice  of  so-called  brass  music  is  forbidden. 

Religious  instruction,  German  language,  arithmetic,  mathematics,  theory  of 
teaching  and  music,  are  to  be  considered  the  principal  branches ;  the  other 
branches  secondary. 

The  following  is  the  division  of  hours  in  the  Royal  Bavarian  Seminaries  for 
Teachers,  both  courses  being  equal : — Religious  instruction.  3  hours  per  week ; 
German  language,  4 ;  arithmetic  and  mathematics,  3 ;  geograpliy,  1 ;  history, 
2 ;  natural  history,  2  ;  science  of  teaching,  5  ;  natural  philosophy,  2  ;  drawing, 
2 ;  music,  6.     Total,  30  hours  per  week. 

The  following  is  a  schedule,  to  be  filled  up  at  the  annual  examinations : 

Jifatiiral  Disposition. 

Moral  Conduct. 



I.  Very  great. 

Very  prniseworthy. 

Very  great. 

Very  great. 

11.  Grent. 




III.  Sufficient. 




IV.  Little. 

Not  free  from  blame. 




According  to  section  75,  students  applying  for  situations  as  school  teachers, 
must  have  received  at  least  No.  Ill,  for  their  musical  qualifications. 


In  all  the  Bavarian  cities  where  school  seminaries  are  established,  there  exist, 
as  branch  establishments,  public  music-schools,  where  the  seminarists  receive 
their  musical  instruction.  These  music-schools  are,  like  the  seminaries,  under 
the  supervision  of  the  Minister  of  Public  Instruction  in  Munich,  and  an  annual 
sum  is  provided  by  the  budget  for  their  maintenance.  The  Eoyal  Music  School 
inT\"urzburg  is  the  oldest  of  these  institutions,  having  been,  founded  on  the  18th 
of  April,  1804,  since  which  date  it  has  given  a  sound  musical  instruction  to 
countless  school-teachers,  and  in  consequence  has  vastly  advanced  the  cause  of 
music  in  Bavaria.  Although  designed  at  first  as  a  branch  to  the  Wiirzburg 
Seminary,  it  has  long  since  outgrown  these  limits,  and  has  become  one  of  the 
most  prominent  of  German  musical  high-schools,  from  which  numbers  of  emi- 
nent men  have  graduated  in  succession.  The  founder  and  first  Du'ector  was 
the  celebrated  Dr.  Joseph  Frohlich,  professor  of  aesthetics  at  the  "Wiirzburg 
University,  one  of  the  profoundest  musical  theorists  of  the  century.  After  his 
death,  in  1862,  he  was  succeeded  by  the  present  Director,  Mr.  T.  G.  Bratsch,  to 
whose  kindness  I  owe  a  host  of  interesting  facts  concerning  the  good  work  that 
is  being  done  in  the  Bavarian  schools. 

In  these  schools  singing  is  not  merely  tolerated,  but  forms  a  principal  part  in 
the  common-school  education.  Pupils  are  not  permitted  to  show  a  listless,  in- 
different manner  at  their  music  lessons,  but  are  made  to  understand  that  this 
branch  of  education  is  considered  by  the  school  authorities  as  equally  important 
with  the  '  three  R's,'  as  we  call  them.  Select  voices  from  the  public  schools 
are  occasionally  allowed  to  join  the  seminarists  in  the  performance  of  some  im- 
portant musical  work,  such  as  cantatas  and  oratorios ;  and  I  have  before  me 
the  programmes  of  Pierson's  oratorio,  'Jerusalem,'  and  Spohr's  oratorio,  ' Our 
Saviour's  Last  Moments,'  performed  solely  by  the  seminarists  and  select  pupils 
of  the  public  schools,  including  solo  parts,  choruses,  and  the  full  orchestra. 

I  was  present,  by  invitation,  at  the  musical  exammation  of  aspirants  to  the 
seminary,  and  when  it  is  taken  into  consideration  that  it  comprised  singing, 
organ-playing,  vioHn,  and  piano,  some  shortcomings  in  any  of  these  branches 
will  not  be  wondered  at.  The  choral  and  orchestral  forces  of  the  music-schools 
(composed,  as  above  stated,  of  seminarists  and  pupils  of  the  public  schools,) 
meet,  assisted  by  the  music-teachers,  twice  a  week  for  the  practice  of  oratorios 
and  symphonies.  The  public  are  admitted  to  these  exercises  without  charge  or 
any  formality  whatsoever.  The  exercises  are  conducted  alternately  by  the 
most  advanced  students,  under  the  supervision  of  Mr.  Bratsch. 

No  musical  text-books  are  in  use  in  Bavarian  schools,  but  the  teacher  uses 
the  blackboard  for  the  theoretical  instruction,  and  for  choral  practice  in  addition 
to  the  publications  ■  of  L.  Erk  and  Greef,  selections  from  cantatas,  motets  or 
masses  within  their  reach. 


'  The  Royal  Conservatorium  of  Music  at  Munich  has  a  director  and  14  teach- 
ers, with  an  average  of  over  100  pupils,  and  receives  aid  from  the  government 
to  the  amount  of  8,000  florins. 


The  establishments  for  instruction  in  agriculture  consisted  till  1864  of  three 
central  schools  of  agriculture,  forestry,  and  veterinary  science,  and  an  agricultu- 
ral course  or  special  divisions  in  the  trade  schools.  Of  thes.'  last  there  were 
thirty  in  1864.  Since  then  several  of  them  have  been  discontinued,  and  the 
whole  system  has  been  reorganized  as  follows : 


The  Agricultural  Institute  was  established  in  1835,  in  the  ro^-^al  domain  of 
Weihensteplian,  in  the  old  town  of  Feising,  twenty  miles  north  of  Munich. 

The  grounds  include  nine  hundred  and  thirty-eight  acres  of  arable  and 
pasture  land,  as  well  as  of  forest,  with  an  immense  building,  standing  on  a 
gentle  elevation  which  overlooks  a  wide  extent  of  beautiful  country.  The 
building  forms  a  series  of  parallelograms,  inclosing  a  great  grassy  court,  and 
providing  for  the  laboratory,  colleciions  and  cabinets  of  various  kinds,  halls  of 
study,  dormitories,  &c.  Around  a  second  court  are  the  cattle  barns,  and  other 

The  live  stock  comprises  all  kinds  of  domestic  animals,  and  there  are  also: — 
Experimental  fields  for  various  cultures.  A  brewery  and  distillery.  A 
nursery.  A  hop  ground.  A  cheese  dairy.  Technological  collections.  A 
chemical  laboratory.  A  collection  of  various  seeds.  A  collection  of  the  pro- 
ductions of  the  Bavarian  soil.  A  cabinet  of  instruments  for  experimental 
physics.  A  collection  of  agricultural  implements  and  models.  A  library.  A 
plantation  of  mulberry  trees  for  the  study  of  silkworms.  An  anatomical  col- 
lection for  veterinary  studies.  The  neighboring  forests  ofter  opportunities  for 
the  study  of  resinous  trees. 

The  instruction  is  distributed  as  follows : — 

First  Tear.  Wiyiter  Term. — Agricultural  implements.  Experimental 
chemistry.  Arithmetic.  Elements  of  construction.  Drawing  of  plans  and 
farm  implements.  Physiology  of  plants,  agronomy,  agriculture.  Forest 
science.     Anatomy,  physiology,  and  dietetics  of  domestic  animals. 

Summer  Tirm. — Practical  farming.  P^xperiinental  chemistry.  Construction. 
Drawing  of  plans,  surveying.  Breeding  of  cattle,  races,  diseases.  Physiology 
of  plants      Agronomy.     Agriculture.     Forest  management. 

Second  Year.  Winter  Term. — Organization  of  rural  economy  and  manage- 
ment. Agricultural  chemistry.  Roads.  Drawing  of  plans  and  form  imple- 
menta  Breeding  of  cattle.  Veterinary  police,  warranty  of  cattle  sold. 
Ph3'-sical  geography.     Meteorology.     Climatology. 

Summer  Term. — Valuation  of  farm  property,  and  book-keeping.  Agricul- 
tural chemistry.  Farm  buildings,  meadows,  and  draining.  Agricultural 
technology.  Breeding  and  rearing  of  cattle.  Veterinary  police,  warranty  of 
cattle  sold.     Physical  geography.     Meteorology.     Climatology. 

The  studies  last  two  years,  and  the  instruction  is  given  by  nine  professors 
and  two  assistant  professors.  The  youths  who  attend  this  school  are  divided 
into  two  classes,  ordinary  pupils  and  free  auditors.  There  are  about  twenty  of 
the  former  and  forty  of  the  latter.  To  be  admitted,  the  candidate  must  have 
attained  sixteen  years  of  age,  have  followed  the  studies  of  an  agricultural 
school  {Landwirthschaft  Sclmle)  or  of  a  trade  school;  he  must  also  know 
enough  Latin  to  understand  the  value  of  the  terms  borrowed  from  that 
language,  and  be  able  to  undergo  an  examination  on  the  subjects  taught  in 
those  schools. 


Owing  to  local  circumstances  the  pupils  are,  contrary  to  the  general  usage  in 
Germany,  received  as  boarders ;  Bavarian  subjects  for  one  hundred  and  twenty- 
five  florins  per  half  year,  and  foreigners  for  one  hundred  and  fifty  florins. 
This  charge  includes  teaching,  board,  and  lodging;  books  and  school  neces- 
saries tlie  pupils  find  themselves.  They  also  have  to  pay  two  florins  per  half 
year  for  the  reading  room.  The  free  pupils  pay  thirty-five  florins  per  half 
year  for  each  course  they  follow,  and  may  obtain  a  certificate  relative  thereto. 
The  courses  begin  on  the  1st  of  October  and  end  on  the  last  day  of  August, 
with  a  fortnight's  vacation  at  Easter.  At  the  'end  of  the  year,  examinations 
are  held,  and  the  deserving  pupils  receive  certificates  of  aptitude. 

Mr.  C.  L.  Flint,  secretary  of  the  Massachusetts  board  of  agriculture,  in  a 
report  of  his  visits  to  several  agricultural  institutions  abroad  m  1863,  thus 
speaks  of  AVeihenstephan : 

I  arrived  there  from  Ratisbon  on  a  bright  summer  morning,  introduced 
myself  to  the  first  man  I  met,  told  him  my  object,  and  learned  at  what  hours 
the  various  lectures  took  place,  attended  two  or  three  of  them  and  became 
acquainted  with  the  professors,  visited  and  examined  the  collections,  the 
stables,  the  brewery,  the  farm  and  experimental  field,  the  sheep,  &c. 

The  estate  lying  in  connection  with  tliis  institute  comprises,  I  believe,  about 
six  hundred  and  fifty  acres,  of  which  there  are  usually  about  eighty  in  wheat, 
over  forty  in  rape  and  root  crops,  about  thirty-five  in  oats,  twelve  to  fifteen  in 
potatoes,  fifteen  to  twenty  in  rye,  eighteen  to  twenty  in  barley,  eight  to  ten  in 
beans,  five  in  hopvS,  about  one  hundred  and  thirty  in  fodder  crops,  such  as 
lucerne,  clover,  vetches,  &c.,  while  about  one  hundred  and  fifl;y  are  in  mowing 
fields  and  so  on.     The  land  is  of  excellent  quality. 

The  stock  consists  of  twelve  horses,  twenty-two  pairs  of  oxen,  fifty-nine 
milch  cows,  seven  young  cattle,  thirty  swine,  and  five  hundred  and  seventy 
sheep.  The  cows  are  mostly  of  the  AUgauer  and  Miirzthaler  breeds,  w^hich  are 
considered  best  for  milk  after  the  Dutch.  The  cross  with  the  Allgauer  and 
Swiss,  they  say,  makes  fine  working  oxen. 

The  buildings  form  a  series  of  parallelograms,  inclosing  a  great  grassy  court, 
around  which  are  arranged  the  various  departments,  as  the  chemical  laboratory, 
the  rooms  for  study,  &c.  Around  a  second  court  are  the  cattle  barns,  the  dairy 
and  stables,  the  granary,  the  brewery,  the  plough  manufactory,  &c.  There 
are  also  various  other  establishments,  a  distillery,  a  flour  mill,  &c. 

The  number  of  students  is  about  seventy.  The  course  of  instruction  does 
not  materially  differ  from  that  at  Hohenheim. 

During  the  summer  term,  for  instance,  there  were  lectures  by  the  Director, 
on  soils,  their  origin,  the  different  kinds  of  soil,  weathering,  irrigation, 
drainage,  division  and  natural  classification ;  the  comparative  value  of  soils  for 
the  production  of  plants;  circumstances  which  modify  this  value;  the  soil 
differs  according  to  the  coarseness  of  its  particles  and  its  tenacity ;  sand,  loam, 
clay,  marl  and  humus;  subdivisions  of  soils;  taxation  of  mowing  lands, 
pastures,  gardens,  vineyards,  swale  lands,  fisheries,  &c.;  double-entry  book- 
keeping as  a  check  upon  farming  operations. 

Dr.  Riederer  lectured  upon  the  following  topics : 

1.  Introduction  to  agricultural  practice,  idea  and  object  in  general  and  the 
systems  of  Thaer,  Thiinen  and  Liebig. 

2.  The  positive  and  negative  means  of  a  good  farm  management,  as  the 
judicious  division  of  land,  proper  number  of  laborers,  education  of  the  farmer, 
necessary  capital,  &c. 

3.  Advantages  and  disadvantages  of  large  and  small  estates.  Influence  of 
a  judicious  regulation  of  the  corn  trade,  at  home  and  abroad,  on  the  profits  of 
farming.  &c. 

4.  The  most  important  directions  in  regard  to  keeping  animals  and  the 
proper  estimation  of  their  products. 

Text-books  are  used  in  connection  with  the  lectures. 


Professor  Knobloch  lectured  three  hours  a  week  upon — 

1.  Aurricultural  Chemistry. — Chemistry  of  fermentation,  decomposition, 
formation  of  humus.  The  chemical  contents  of  manure,  excrements  of  birds, 
sohd  and  liquid  excrements  of  man  and  animals,  strawy  materials,  disinfection. 
Tiie  chemical  principles  of  the  preparation  of  composts.  Bone  manuring, 
phosphorites,  and  koprolites,  gypsum,  wood  and  peat  ashes.  Manuring  with 
oil-cakes,  ammonia,  and  nitric  acid  salts.  Fish  guano.  The  formation  of  soil 
through  the  culture  of  agricultural  phmts.  The  chemical  principles  of  fallowing 
and  rotation.  Drainage.  Chemical  analysis  of  soils  and  kinds  of  manure,  the 
ashes  of  plants,  of  spring  and  running  water,  and  of  different  agricultural 
products.  On  Liebig ;  chemistry  in  its  application  to  agriculture  and  physi- 
ology, &c. 

In  connection  with  these  lectures,  the  chemical  laboratory  was  open  daily 
during  the  term,  and  the  students  worked  industriously  in  it,  in  making 
analyses  of  soils,  manures  and  aslies,  milk,  potatoes,  feeding  materials  and 
cereals,  sulphuric  acid  and  phosphoric  acid  determinations,  &c. 

2.  Agricultural  Teclmologj'-. — Four  hours  weekly.  Fermentative  processes 
of  the  beer  brewery,  the  brandy  distillery  and  vinegar  manufactory  in  its  whole 
range.  Making  of  butter  and  cheese,  making  of  starch,  and  the  application  of 
the  latter  to  the  production  of  sago.     Lime  and  brick  burning.     Turf  cutting. 

Technological  Practice^  four  half-days  a  week  in  the  winter  term,  and  one. 
half-day  in  the  summer  term.  Manufacture  of  Bavarian  normal  and  strong 
beer,  potato,  grain  and  maize  brandy,  vinegar,  starch,  &c.  Demonstrations  in 
the  brand}'-  distillery,  the  cheese  dairy,  the  brickyard,  at  the  limekiln,  and  on 
the  turf  or  peat  meadows.  Investigation  of  various  raw  materials  and  fabrics. 
Agricultural  technological  mechanics.  Excursions  to  farming  estates  in  the 

Professor  May  gave  lectures  in  the  winter  term,  five  hours  weekly,  upon — 

1.  The  anatomy  of  the  horse,  the  sheep  and  the  swine,  with  demonstrations 
by  skeletons  and  preparations. 

2.  Piiysiology  of  domestic  animals,  in  connection  with  the  feeding  proper 
for  them. 

3.  The  races  of  the  larger  farm  animals.  Study  of  the  different  races, 
breeds  and  families  of  improved  domestic  animals,  their  form,  characteristics 
and  useful  qualities. 

4.  General  principles  of  the  production  of  animals.  Methods  and  principles 
of  breeding.  Green,  dry,  root,  bulb  and  corn  fodder.  Wastes  of  the  farm. 
Loss  and  injury  from  particular  feeding  materials.  Comparative  composition  of 
different  materials,  and  their  nutritive  value.  Preservation,  economy  and 
production  of  fodder. 

Summer  Term,  four  hours  a  week — 1.  Swine-breeding.  Choice  of  animals. 
Pregnancy  and  care  of  the  litter.  Parturition.  Treatment  of  the  dam  and 
pigs.     Close  confinement.     Keeping  at  pasture.     Fattening. 

2.  Horse-breeding.  Study  of  the  subject  from  an  agricultural  and  a 
national  economical  point  of  view.  Choice  of  draught  horses.  Pairing. 
Treatment  of  the  mare  in  foal.  Handling  of  colts  during  the  first,  second, 
third  and  fourth  years.     Checks  in  the  development. 

3.  Knowledge  of  wool.     Its  normal  and  abnormal  conditions. 

4.  Importance  of  a  knowledge  of  veterinary  science  in  the  treatment  of 
domestic  animals. 

Secontd  Course.  Winter  Term,  four  hours  a  loeek. — 1.  On  wool  (continu- 
ation.) Wool  staple.  The  wool  fleece.  Evenness  of  wool.  Cloth  and  comb- 
wools.     Working  of  wool. 

2.  Sheep-breeding.  Choice  of  animals.  Numbering  and  classification  of 
slieep.  Treatment  of  ewes  in  lamb.  Time  of  lambing.  Management  of  the 
young.  Pasturing  sheep.  Washing  and  shearing.  Sorting  of  wool.  Treat- 
ment and  sale  of  wool.  Fattening.  Valuation  of  the  fodder  used  in  sheep 

3.  Cattle-breeding.  Choice  and  selections  of  animals  for  breeding.  Devia- 
tions from  the  normal  presentation.  Suckling  and  artificial  raising  of  calves, 
General  management  in  all  cases. 



4.  External  diseases  of  the  larger  useful  farm  animals. 

5.  Shoeing.     Treatment  of  the  ordinary  brealvs  and  diseases  of  the  hoof. 
Summer   Term.,  five  hours  a  week. — 1.  Cattle-breeding    (continued.)       Stall 

and  pasture  treatment.     Use  of  cattle — milk,  fattening  and  draught.     Valuation 
of  fodder  to  be  used. 

2.  Knowledge  of  the  exterior  of  the  horse. 

3.  Knowledge  of  the  exterior  of  cattle. 

4.  Internal  diseases  of  domestic  animals.  Contagious  diseases  and  their 

Practical  exercises  of  judging  correctly  of  animals,  on  the  part  of  the 
students,  also  of  wool ;  the  true  modes  of  breeding  and  the  diseases  of  stock 
are  constantly  enforced. 

Prof.  Lidl  lectures  in  the  winter  term,  on — 

1.  Cursory  view  of  the  geognostical  relations  of  Bavaria. 

2.  Agronomy.  Mold  and  subsoil,  humus,  sand,  clay,  lime,  gravel  and 
alluvial  soils..    Local  aspects  and  their  influence  on  vegetation. 

3.  Agriculture.  Cultivation — working  of  the  soil  by  cultivation,  by  different 
implements.     Improvement  of  soils. 

4.  Anatomy  and  physiology  of  plants.  Cells  and  vessels  of  plants.  Dif- 
ference in  them.  Contents  of  cells.  Plant-cells  in  their  various  relations. 
Intercellular  tissue.  Nourishment  of  plants.  Motion  of  the  sap.  Production 
by  seeds  and  spores.     Diseases  of  vegetation. 

5.  Morphology.     Root,  stem  and  leaf  organs,  flowers,  fruits  and  seeds. 
Summer  Ter7n. — 1.     Special  plant  culture — grain  fodder  and  root-plants. 
2.  Economical  botany.     The  most  important  weeds  and  poisonous  plants. 
Second  Course.     Winter  Term. — 1.  Eruit  culture. 

2.  Cultivation  of  special  plants,  root,  commercial  and  coloring  plants. 
Summer   Term.. — 1.  Culture  of  special  plants,   grains,  pulse  and  oil  fruits. 
Fodder  plants  and  tubers. 

2.  "VViiie  growing. 

3.  Continuation  of  lectures  on  botany. 

Two  botanical  excursions  are  made  each  week  in  connection  with  this 

Prof.  Dohlemann  lectures  in  the  winter  term,  on — 

.  1.  Applied  mathematics.  Recapitulation  of  the  most  necessary  principles 
of  algebra,  geometry  and  stereometry;  calculation,  division  and  alteration  of 
surfaces;  calculation  of  the  cubic  contents  of  different  bodies. 

2.  General  architecture.  Earth  and  foundation  work.  Construction  of  ore 
pits.  Restoration .  of  hewn  stone  and  brick  wall  work.  Stone  -binding  for 
pillars.     Gliimney  flues,  &c. 

3.  Practice  in  drawing.  Drawing  of  situations.  Copying  and  .sketching 
of  simple  agricultural  buildings  and  parts  of  buildings.  Drawing  of  agricultu- 
ral implements  and  machines. 

Summer  Term.. — 4.  Continuation  of  general  architecture.  Construction  of 
different  kinds  of  vaults;  ornamental  works;  carpenter's  work;  joiner's  and 
locksmith's  work. 

5.  Surveying,  with  exercises  in  the  field.  Explanation  of  the  most  useful 
instruments  for  length  and  angle  measuring.  Solution  of  difi'erent  problems  of 
practical  geometry,  on  the  field  and  in  practice. 

Second  Course.  Winter  Term. — Agricultural  architecture.  Laying  out 
and  construction  of  houses  and  stables.  Buildings  for  the  preservation  of 
agricultural  crops,-  &c. 

2.  Meadow  management,  with  practical  exercises.  Theory  and  use  of 
different  leveling  instruments.  Water  measuring.  Improvements  of  fields  in 
general.     Drainage.     Irrigation.     Practice  in  leveling  and  water  measuring. 

Professor  Meister  lectured  in  the  winter  terra,  three  hours  a  week,  on 

Physical  geography,  the  atmosphere  and  climatology.  The  barometer, 
thermometer,  hygrometer,  and  psych rometer.  Effect  of  clearing  oft'  of  forests. 
Relations  of  temperature  to  the  atmosphere  and  the  earth,  and  the  consequent 


distribution  of  plants.  Peculiarities  of  land  and  sea  climate,  and  their  causes. 
Winds.  Warmth  and  moisture.  Amount  of  rain,  dew,  number  of  rainy  days, 
storms,  fall  of  hail,  and  their  distribution  over  tlie  year,  and  the  consequent 
physical  characteristics  of  the  soil.  Explanation  of  the  century  calendar,  and 
of  the  so-called  rules  for  determining  the  weather.  Temperature  of  the  soil. 
Observations  at  different  depths.  Barometrical  and  thermometrical  measure- 
ment of  heights.     Construction  of  sun-dials. 

Judge  Schleisinger  lectures  in  the  second  course  twice  a  week,  in  both  terms, 
on  the  general  German  agricultural  law  in  regard  to  the  more  important  private 
rights  and  later  laws  in  regard  to  cultivation. 

This  course  was  comprehensive,  embracing  the  general  principles  of  rights, 
persons  and  things,  and  the  laws  affecting  property,  real  and  personal. 

The  royal  master  of  forests,  Bierdimpfel,  lectured  in  the  winter  term  on  the 
introduction  to  the  management  of  forests,  the  structure  of  woods,  plants,  and 
their  relation  to  the  air,  climate  and  soil,  and  on  the  definition  of  the  technical 
forest  expressions. 

Summer  Term. — On  forest  cultivation,  protection  of  forests.  These  courses 
wer^  illustrated  by  excursions  into  the  neighboring  forests. 

In  addition  to  the  short  and  frequent  botanical  and  other  excursions  in  the 
neighborhood,  long  excursions  are  made,  from  time  to  time,  to  various  parts  of 
the  kingdom,  the  students  being  accompanied  on  them  by  one  or  more  profes- 
sors. Special  subjects  are  assigned  to  some  one  or  more  of  the  class  on  which 
to  write  out  a  detailed  report.  As  an  example,  the  last  great  excursion  which 
took  place  previous  to  my  visit  was  made  to  Northern  Bavaria^  to  Niirnberg, 
and"%o  round  to  Augsburg,  to  visit  the  wool  market  in  that  city.  In  the  former 
city,  there  was  at  that  time  a  great  meeting  of  Bavarian  farmers,  for  the  dis- 
cussion of  agricultural  topics;  an  agricultural  convention,  in  other  words. 
That  was  taken  into  the  trip.  That  part  of  the  kingdom,  as  well  as  Franconia, 
through  which  the  direction  lay,  is  largely  devoted  to  the  culture  of  hop?. 
Now  two  of  the  students  were  appointed  to  write  out  an  account  of  the 
journey  in  general ;  three  to  write  on  the  culture  of  the  hop ;  two  on  fruit 
culture,  as  seen  in  the  excursion;  another  on  irrigation;  another  on  garlic- 
land  ;  another  on  the  art  of  manuring ;  four  others  on  cattle ;  two  others  on  the 
visit  to  Lichtenhof  Agricultural  School;  another  on  bees;  two  others  on  the 
wool  market,  &c.  A  full  report  of  the  excursion,  mostly  written  by  the  students 
themselves,  is  printed  in  connection  with  the  annual  report  of  the  school. 

The  nurseries  on  the  farm  are  extensive  and  the  sales  from  them  profitable ; 
but  probably  the  brewery  is  the  most  profitable  branch  of  the  establishment. 
Here  are  used  more  than  ten  thousand  bushels  of  malt  a  year.  In  the  year 
ending  with  July  1st,  1863,  it  used  3,668  Bavarian  schefifel,  or  about  11,000 
bushels.  In  the  same  year  over  a  thousand  bushels  of  potatoes  were  used  in 
the  distillery.     There  were  sold  from  the  nursery,  8,520  trees. 

Just  before  I  was  there  a  terribly  destructive  hailstorm  had  occurred,  and  I 
never  saw  such  magnificent  fields  of  wheat  and  other  grain  so  completely 
riddled  and  ruined.  It  was  painful  to  look  upon.  It  had  given  promise  of  an 
extraordinary  yield  up  to  the  time  of  the  hail,  but  it  was  very  nearly  a  dead 
loss  when  I  saw  it.  A  committee  of  appraisers  from  the  insurance  company 
for  crops  was  on  to  estimate  the  damages.  The  wide-spread  system  of 
insurance,  of  which  the  institute  had  fortunately  availed  itself,  saved  it  from 
very  great  loss,  which  otherwise  would  have  fallen  very  heavily  upon  it. 



I  should  add  that  much  instruction  is  given  in  the  field  and  the  nurseries,  in 
the  barn  and  other  parts  of  the  establishment,  by  practical  demonstrations. 
There  is  a  reading-room,  a  library,  and  extensive  collections  and  other  appliances. 


At  Lichtenhof,  in  the  neighborhood  of  Nuremberg,  there  is  a  school  of 
agriculture,  established  by  Dr.  Weidenkeller,  in  1832,  as  a  trade-school  with 
two  sections,  the  other  section  being  devoted  to  the  mechanical  arts,  with  a 
preparatory  course  common  to  both. 

The  school  of  agriculture  comprises : — 1.  A  preparatory  school.  2.  A  school 
of  husbandry.     3.  A  school  of  agricultural  science. 

1.  The  preparatory  school  is  intended  to  receive  lads  whose  education  hag 
been  neglected,  and  in  it  they  are  taught  the  following  subjects: — Religion, 
two  hours  per  week;  principles  of  theoretical  agriculture,  two;  practical 
agriculture,  four ;  arithmetic,  four ;  reading,  one ;  calhgraphy,  four ;  German  lan- 
guage, 'four ;  geography,  two ;  natural  history,  two ;  drawing,  eight.     Total,  33. 

2.  The  school  of  husbandry  is  intended  to  educate  farmers,  -bailiffs,  and 
managers.  The  instruction  occupies  a  year,  and  embraces  the  following 
subjects: — Religion,  two  hours  per  week;  German  language,  four;  chemistry, 
two;  arithmetic,  four;  geography,  two;  drawing;  three;  calligraphy,  four; 
theoretical  agriculture,  six;  practical  agriculture,  four.     Total,  31  hours. 

3.  The  school  of  agricultural  science  is  intended  to  render  young  men 
capable: — 1,  of  managing  and  cultivating  farms  of  moderate  size;  2,  of  being 
admitted  into  a  central  school  of  agriculture,  or  into  the  Munich  Veterinary 
School.  The  instruction  occupies  three  years,  and  there  were  in  1862-63, 
thirty-nine  pupils  of  the  first,  eighteen  of  the  second,  and  fifteen  of  the  third 
year;  in  all  seventy-two  pupils. 

These  numbers  show  that  less  than  one-half  of  the  pupils  go  through  the 
whole  course  of  studies.  The  school  of  husbandry  had  only  two  pupils,  the 
preparatory  school  eight,  which  makes  a  total  of  eighty-two  pupils,  for  whom 
there  are  tliirteen  professors  and  three  masters. 

The  programme  of  the  school  of  agricultural  science  is  as  follows: — 



Theory  of  agriculture, ...  ^ 

Practical  agriculture,. . 


General  and  special  botany, 

Pure   mineralogy, 

Applied  mineralogy, 





German  language, 


Free  hand  and  linear  drawing, 

Calligraphy, ,, 

Anatomy  and  treatment  of  domestic  animals. 

Hours  per  week. 

1st  year. 

3d  year. 

2d  year. 



.  2 



4    * 

12  to  30 

12  to  20 

12  to  30 




•      4 










Mr.  0.  L.  Flint  thus  speaks  of  his  visit  to  this  school: — 

This  institute  is  about  a  mile  from  Niirnberg  towards  the  south.  It  was. 
founded  in  1832,  by  Dr.  "Weidenkeller.  The  farm,  originally  composed  of  sand 
and  gravel,  almost  barren,  was  gradually  changed  into  a  good  soil,  now 
apparently  fertile  and  productive,  by  the  students. 


The  stately  buildings  of  the  institute  stand  at  the  right  of  the  entrance,  and 
on  the  left  the  botanic  garden.  The  buildings  are  in  a  modern  style,  contrast- 
ing strangely  with  the  antique  structures  in  the  neighborhood.  The  dwelling 
of  the  inspector  is  within  the  college  inclosure,  as  also  that  of  Mrs.  Weidenkel- 
ler,  and  just  beyond,  the  dormitories  for  eighty  students,  the  lecture-rooms,  the 
laboratory,  a  spacious  eating-saloon,  which  serves  also  as  a  work-room,  a 
library  and  wash-room. 

The  botanical  garden  contains  all,  or  nearly  all,  the  agricultural  plants, 
arranged  in  the  Linntean  order,  besides  many  of  the  more  common  forest  trees. 
The  garden  of  the  institute  for  the  growth  of  vegetables  and  fruits  also  joins 
the  botanical  gard  n.  Among  the  fruit  trees  stands  the  monument  to  Dr. 
Weidenkeller,  the  founder.  A  httle  way  beyond  lies  the  experimental  field. 
The  improved  grounds  near  by  contain  a  good  nurserj'-  of  trees.  In  a  little 
grove  on  a  knoll,  a  monument  is  erected  to  his  majesty,  King  Max.  A  broad 
space  is  devoted  to  prnamental  plants  and  farm  crops.  The  experimental  held 
is  about  two  acres  in  extent.  There  is  also  a  hop-garden  on  a  piece  of 
reclaimed  swamp.     This  piece  was  improved  by  the  pupils  without  much  cost. 

Near  the  main  building  stands  a  second,  which  contains  the  collections. 
Tliey  consist  of  skeletons  and  anatomical  preparations,  a  crocodile,  birds, 
domestic  game  and  some  malformations,  several  models  of  systems  of  irrigation, 
collections  of  insects,  minerals,  &c. 

The  stocks  of  bees  were  presented  by  Dzierzon,  and  are  therefore  of  special 
interest.  The  mode  of  operation  is  easily  seen  from  the  arrangement  of  the 

The  farm  buildings  consist  of  cow  and  horse  stalls,  shed  and  coach-house. 
There  were  about  thirty  cows,  consisting  of  Allgiiuers  and  Simraenthalers,  a 
iew  Ansbachers  and  Ellingers.  The  roof  of  the  cow-house  is  built  of  wood, 
the  sides  of  stone. 

The  instruction  at  this  institute  is  not  strictly  agricultural.  Much  of  it,  in 
fact,  has  no  more  bearing  on  agricultural  than  on  any  other  calling.  Religion, 
the  German  language,  geography,  arithmetic,  zoology  and  drawing  are 
prescribed  studies  in  the  first  year.  Agriculture  and  practical  agricultural 
exercises  come  in  for  a  share  of  attention,  but  they  don't  seem  to  be  especially 
prominent  in  the  programme. 

The  second  year  is  a  continuation  of  the  first,  with  a  little  botany,  geometry, 
mineralogy  and  history  added,  while  in  the  third  year,  agricultural  chemistry, 
farm  accounts,  rural  architecture,  machinery,  the  anatomy  and  physiology  of 
animals,  veterinary  medicine,  drawing,  riding,  fencing,  and  other  practical 
exercises,  come  in  and  add  variety. 

This  institute  ranks  as  intermediate  in  the  list  of  Bavarian  agricultural 


The  school  of  practical  farming  at  Schleissheim  was  founded  in  1822  as  an 
institute  for  theoretical  as  well  as  practical  agriculture,  after  the  model  of 
Hohenheim,  but  the  plan  was  more  fully  carried  out  at  Weihenstephan,  and 
this  institution  has  been  carried  on  apparently  to  illustrate  the  pursuit  of 
agriculture  under  difficulties. 

Mr.  Flint  thus  describes  his  visit  in  1863  : — 

The  estate  consists  of  about  six  thousand  five  hundred  acres,  and  like  many 
Other  establishments  of  the  kind,  it  possesses  a  fine  old  royal  residence  or 
chateau  tlie  whole  lying  in  an  immense,  but  not  very  fertile  valley.  I  have 
seen  it  intimated  that  the  lands  were  so  decidedly  inferior  and  unproductive 
that  the  intention  of  the  government  in  giving  it  over  to  the  school  to  be 
managed  by  scientific  men  was  to  put  the  value  of  scientific  principles  in  agri- 
culture to  the  severest  possible  test.  I  believe,  if  such  was  the  case,  that  there 
has  been  little  reason  to  exult  in  the  triumphs  gained  over  such  powerful 
natural  obstacles  as  a  poor  soil  and  an  ungenial  climate,  aq^  I  think  it  may  be 
taken  to  be  as  great  a  mistake  to  select  land  for  a  model  farm,  or  an  agricultu- 
ral college  farm,  that  is   much  below  the  average  of  natural  fertility,  aa  it 


would  be  to  select  one  very  much  above  it.  In  the  first  case  even  scientific 
management  can  hardly  be  charged  with  the  responsibility  of  a  failure  to 
produce  high  crops,  and  in  the  latter,  it  would  not  get  the  credit  of  whatever  it 
did  produce.  Neither  would  be  a  fair  test  of  the  skill  and  science  applied 
to  it. 

The  character  of  the  soil  led  to  the  early  adoption  of  a  twenty  years  rotation, 
in  which  wheat  came  in  but  once,  oats  five  times,  rye  and  barley  one  year 
each,  grass  occupying  six  years,  and  one  year  being  given  over  to  an  idle 

The  buildings  are  old  and  immense  in  extent,  arraiiged  in  the  form  of  paral- 
lelograms, with  broad  open  courts  or  yards  between.  The  whole  has  an  air  of 
majestic  desolation.  I  do  not  think  palaces  especiallj-  well  adapted  for  the 
purposes  of  agricultural  schools.  The  endless  stables  were  partially  occupied 
by  horses  belonging  to  the  Bavarian  cavalry. 

The  course  of  instruction  is  more  practical  than  theoretical,  that  is,  of  the 
time  devoted  to  study  and  training,  two-thirds  is  given  to  practical  work  and 
one-tliird  to  theoretical. 

The  theoretical  instruction,  which  comes  mostly  in  winter  and  on  rainy  days 
in  summer,  when  it  becomes  impracticable  to  work  out  doors,  embraces — 

1.  Rehgion.     A  brief  survey  of  the  history  of  religion  and   biblical  history. 

2.  Elementary  studies,  arithmetic,  orthography.  In  arithmetic,  the  funda- 
mental rules  and  fractions,  exercises  in  reducing  common  currencies,  weights 
and  measures,  and  measurements  of  sj)ace.  It  is  especially  mathematics 
applied  to  agriculture.     As  large  a  proportion  as  possible  is  mental. 

About  an  hour  a  week  is  devoted  to  orthography,  to  teach  correct  writing 
and  language,  and  to  develop  facilitj'  in  writing.  It  includes  examples  of 
receipts,  bills,  notices,  &c. 

3.  Agriculture.  On  climate,  atmosphere,  knowledge  and  estimation  of 
kinds  of  soil  and  their  cultivation  or  working.  On  maclnnes  and  implements, 
their  manufacture  and  repair,  the  parts  of  which  they  are  composed  and  their 
use,  the  handling  and  management  of  sowing,  threshing  and  cutting  machines, 
to  guard  against  accidents.  On  the  formation  of  manure  heaps  and  the 
manufacture  of  manure,  the  application  of  different  sorts  of  manure.  On  the 
knowledge  of  seeds,  and  the  different  methods  of  sowing  and  planting.  The 
treatment  of  plants  during  the  period  of  growth.  The  reduction  of  different 
feeding  substances  to  the  hay  value.  Estimation  of  the  necei^sary  requirements 
of  manure.  On  the  various  methods  of  harvesting,  threshing,  preservation  and 
drying.  On  the  valuation  of  fruits.  On  the  arrangement  and  keeping  of  simple 
farm  registers.     Plan  and  model  drawing  from  measurement. 

Technical  Employments. — On  milk  and  the  products  of  milk.  On  the 
erection  and  management  of  brandy  distilleries,  and  the  suitable  materials  to 

Culture  of  Mowing  Lands. — Preliminary  instruction.  1.  Leveling  by  the 
application  of  the  level  and  other  instrument.'^.  2.  Measuring  of  level  surfaces, 
lines,  angles,  and  figures ;  triangles,  quadrangles,  right  angles,  the  circle,  prac- 
tical exercises  in  these  operations.  3.  Laying  out  trenches  and  dams  for 
water  or  irrigated  meadows,  calculation  of  bodies  of  water,  and  the  require- 
ments of  water  for  irrigated  meadows.     4.  Tools  for  field  culture 

The  practical  management  of  meadows.  Study  of  meadow  or  field  plants. 
Requirements  of  seed  and  time  of  sowing.  Seed  raising.  Manuring  mowings 
with  barn  and  compost  manures,  with  hquid  and  artificial  manures ;  the  hay 
harvast  and  its  yield.  Preparation  of  brown  hay ;  care  and  improvement  of 
meadows  other  than  irrigation. 

Drainage. — When  and  how  to  be  applied.  The  work  preparatory  to 

C.A.TTLE  Breeding. — Application  of  anatomy  to  horse,  cattle,  sheep,  and 
swine  breeding.  The  various  breeds  and  their  characteristics.  Explanation  of 
particular  methods  of  improving  the  breeds  of  cattle,  through  the  introduction 
of  foreign  males,  and  through  in  and  in  breeding,  &c. 

1.  Explanation  of  characteristics  according  to  the  kind  of  use  required, 
feeding  for  beef,  milk  and  draught. 

2.  Choice  of  animals  for  breeding,  according  to  age,  use,  special  points. 


■3,  Treatment  of  the  breeding  animal,  feeding  and  care. 

4.  Parturition.     Treatment  immediately  after. 

5.  Maiwgenient  of  the  calf  Methods  of  raising.  Quantity  and  quality  of 
milk  for  its  nourishment. 

6.  Feeding,  management  and  care  of  the  young  animal  up  to  the  period  of 

7.  The  same  of  the  full-grown  animal.  Quantity  and  quality  of  food  for 
milking,  fattening,  and  working  animals.  Housing  of  sheep,  product  of  wool, 
and  the  cleansing  of  it. 

8.  Adaptation  to  work. 

9.  Purcliase  and  sale  of  animals,  especially  the  horse. 

The  students  are  instructed  in  veterinary  manipulations,  which  as  far  as  pos- 
sible are  applied  to  practice.  Bleeding  at  several  points  in  different  animals. 
Treatment  of  wounds,  &c.     Shoeing  of  horses  and  oxen. 

The  proper  management  of  forests  in  all  its  branches,  also  forms  a  part  of  the 
instruction,  as  well  as  that  of  fruit  trees. 

Excursions  are  also  made  to  neighboring  estates  for  the  purposes  of  observa- 
tion, the  results  of  which  are  written  out  by  the  pupils.  Money  is  sometimes 
appropriated  by  the  government  to  defray  the  expenses  of  long  excursions. 

Experiments  are  conducted  in  the  making  of  implements,  the  application 
of  manures,  and  the  cultivation  of  plants. 

There  is  a  collection  of  models,  a  herbarium,  a  library,  and  tools  and  work- 
shops for  repairing  the  smaller  agricultural  implements,  and  the  preparation  of 
models.  The  students  are  held  to  a  pretty  strict  line  of  conduct;  neatness, 
order  and  industry  are  inculcated  and  required.  An  examination  takes  place 
at  the  close  of  the  course,  and  prizes  are  awarded  according  to  merit. 

The  number  of  cows  kept  is  ninety;  the  number  of  yokes  of  oxen,  thirty- 
six.  They  make  cheese  and  butter.  The  age  of  the  students  varies  from 
sixteen  to  twenty.  The  tuition,  board,  &c.,  amounts  to  about  eighty  florins,  or 
about  thirty-three  dollars.  Each  student  costs  the  government  about  one 
hundred  and  twenty-five  florins,  but  the  balance  is  made  up  from  the  public 

The  young  men  are  certainly  not  liable  to  acquire  luxurious  habits  here.  I 
visited  them,  by  invitation  of  Professor  Anselm,  teacher  of  agriculture,  while 
they  were  at  supper,  and  had  various  opportunities  for  conversation  with 
several  of  them.  Their  fare  appeared  to  be  what,  in  our  reformatory  and 
correctional  institutions,  would  be  called  "  very  hard,"  and  yet  they  seemed  to 
be  quite  contented  and  happy. 

I  should  think  the  institution  well  calculated  to  send  out  a  hardy,  frugal, 
intelligent,  industrious  class  of  young  men,  who  might  testify  with  regard  to 
their  training  as  Socrates  did  with  regard  to  Xantippe,  "  being  firmly  convinced 
that  in  case  I  should  be  able  to  endure  her,  I  should  be  able  to  endure  all 

There  is  nothing  imposing  in  the  buildings  or  their  arrangement.  They  are 
substantial!}^  built  of  stone,  in  low,  long  ranges  surrounding  a  large  yard  or 
open  space.  There  is  a  blacksmith's  and  a  wheelwright's  shop  in  a  part  of  the 
range,  and  many  agricultural  implements  are  turned  out  here  by  the  slow 
processes  of  hand  labor,  some  of  them  excellent,  but  all  rather  more  remark- 
able for  strength  than  elegance. 


1.  In  addition  to  the  instruction  given  in  the  agricultural  section  of  the  real 
gymnasium  and  the  trade  schools,  there  are  arranged  courses  of  lectures  in  the 
university  at  Munich,  and  another  special  course  of  two  years  in  the  royal 
forestry  school  at  Aschaffenberg. 

2.  The  lectures  on  botany  and  vegetable  physiology  in  the  university,  the 
practical  work  of  the  botanical  garden,  and  the  plantations  of  the  pubhc  parks 
and  grounds,  afford  rare  opportunity  for  horticultural  study  as  well  as  land- 
scape gardening. 



Besides  the  numerous  schools  of  the  usual  grades  for  girls  and  young  ladies 
in  Munich,  there  are  several  institutions  of  a  pecuhar  character  to  prepare  them 
for  profitable  occupations.  Under  the  lead  of  several  noble  women,  among 
whom  are  Mrs.  Maria  Von  Weber,  Eugenia  Dollman,  daughter  of  the  celebrated 
architect  Klentze,  Mrs.  Maria  Volk,  daughter  of  Kolbach,  Caroline  Hay,  and 
others,  an  Art  School  for  Young  Women  has  been  instituted— one  of  the  first 
of  its  kind  in  Germany.  Beginning  in  a  smaU  hired  apartment,  they  bought 
models,  procured  the  services  of  an  experienced  teacher  of  drawing — a  pupil  of 
Leutze  before  he  came  to  this  country,  and  opened  the  school ;  and  before  the 
close  of  the  first  year  numbered  twenty-four  eager  pupils.  The  second  year 
opened  with  a  class  in  painting,  under  the  instruction  of  an  eminent  artist — 
and  during  the  following  winter,  lectures  were  delivered  to  the  school  on  Es- 
thetics and  the  History  of  Art,  by  a  Professor  of  the  Royal  Academy  of  Arts — 
the  object  of  the  school  being  to  train  its  pupils  to  become  themselves  teachers 
of  drawing  and  painting,  and  designers  of  patterns  for  various  textile  fabrics, 
household  furniture  and  ornamentation. 

There  is  also  another  institution  for  training  girls  between  the  ages  of  thir- 
teen and  sixteen  for  commercial  business.  It  has  been  supported  for  several 
years  at  the  expense  of  Mr.  Adolph  Remenschmied,  a  philanthropic  merchant 
of  Munich.  The  branches  taught  are  such  as  are  usually  required  in  Schools  of 
Commerce  for  Young  Men,  and  are  designed  to  fit  young  women  to  judge  of 
the  quality  of  goods,  efiect  sales,  keep  accounts  for  others,  and  for  independent 
business  for  themselves,  if  they  should  have  the  talent  and  opportunity. 

Graduates  of  this  school  are  already  in  responsible  situations  as  book-keepers 
and  managers  of  business  for  themselves  and  others. 

The  success  of  the  school  has  led  to  the  establishment  of  similar  institutions 
in  other  commercial  cities  of  Germany. 



The  Durhy  of  Brunswick,  on  an  area  of  1,526  square  miles,  com- 
prised in  two  portions  widely  separated,  had  in  1861,  282,400  inhab- 

The  governmental  supervision  of  public  schools  belongs  to  a  divis- 
ion in  the  department  of  the  Interior,  in  which  the  consistory  of  the 
Lutheran  church  is  largely  represented.  The  system*  and  statistics 
of  public  schools  and  education  in  1867,  were  as  follows: 

1.  Elementary  Schools :  579  parish  schools  in  rural  districts,  with 
406  teachers  and  33,700  pupils ;  41  village  and  city  public  schools, 
with  255  teachers  and  12,000  pupils. 

2.  S*econdary  Schools :  5  Classical  Gymnasium,  (including  1  real 
school  and  1  progymnasium,)  with  67  teachers,  871  pupils,  besides 
2i  latin  classes  in  other  schools. 

3.  Superior  School:  Collegium  Carolinum,  with  a  classical,  tech- 
nical, and  commercial  department,  with  25  professors  and  180  pupils, 
including  the  technical  division,  which  has  an  independent  course. 

4.  Special  and  Professional  Schools :  The  technical  department  of 
the  Collegium  Carolinum  with  eight  special  schools ;  1  carpenters 
school ;  1  agricultural  school ;  3  secondary  and  every-trade  schools  ; 
1  theological  seminary ;  2  normal  schools  for  common  school  teachers ; 
5  young  ladies'  seminaries ;  1  institute  for  deaf  mutes ;  1  scliool  for 
the  blind ;  5  orphan  asylums  ;  2  rescue  and  reform  schools  ;  5  infant 
gardens  and  schools  ;  3  parish  schools  for  Catholic  children ;  1  Jewish 
institution  with  an  endowment  of  $100,000. 


The  Collegium  Carolinum,  in  the  city  of  Brunswick,  prepares 
young  men  by  a  scientific  and  technical  education,  for  the  special 
careers  of — mechanicians,  civil  engineers,  architects,  metallurgists 
for  mining  and  salt  works,  manufacturing  or  dispensing  chemists, 
forest  engineers,  agriculturists,  officers  for  raUway-s  and  roads,  and 

*For  an  account  of  the  system  of  Public  Instruction  in  Duchy  of  Brunswick,  see  Special  Re- 
port on  National  Education,  Part  I,  German  States. 

tThe  details  of  the  Technical  College  are  taken  from  the  report  of  the  French  Commission, 
and  the  Programmes  of  the  Iiutitutiou. 


From  the  comprehensive  curriculum,  each  pupil  chooses  the  sub- 
jects required  for  his  future  destination.  But  when  the  pupil  has 
entered  his  name  for  a  particular  line  of  studies,  and  he  wishes  to 
obtain  irom  the  College  a  certificate  of  proficiency,  he  is  obliged  to 
follow  all  the  courses  taught  in  that  technical  branch. 

Besides  these  special  studies  there  are  college  courses  of  litera- 
ture, living  languages,  history,  general  ^ and  political  geogra]  hy,  sta- 
tistics, political  economy,  which  the  pupils  are  encouraged  to  follow 
as  useful  adjuncts  to  the  scientific  teaching. 

The  duration  of  the  complete  studies  of  the  nine  technical  divis- 
ions is  fixed  as  follows : 

1.  Construction  of  machines,  -  -  -  -            3  years. 

2.  Civil  engineering,  construction  and  architecture,  -  -      4  " 

3.  Metal  works  and  salt  mines,  -  -  -  -            3  " 

4.  Manufacturing  chemistry,           -  -  -  -  -       3  " 

5.  Dispensing-  chemistry,           -  -  -  -  -             1  " 

6.  Forest  economy,               -            -  -  -  -  -2" 

7.  Agricultural  economy,           -  -  -  •  -            2  " 

8.  Service  of  railways  and  posts,  -  -  -  -       1  " 

9.  Government  survey,              -  -  -  -  -            2  " 

The  teaching  elementary  mathematics,  experimental  physics,  gen- 
eral chemistry,  the  rudiments  of  the  natural  sciences  and  of  free- 
hand drawing,  is  common  to  all  the  divisions.  Proof  of  sufficient 
preparatory  instruction  is  required  for  admission  to  each  division. 

At  the  end  of  every  year's  studies,  the  Director  and  professors 
decide  as  to  the  passing  of  the  pupils  to  the  upper  class  of  their 
division.  Those  whose  proficiency  is  doubtful  have  to  undergo,  on 
their  return  after  the  vacation,  a  special  examination,  after  which  the 
decision  is  given.  A  pupil  who  has  followed  the  complete  courses 
of  his  division  receives  on  leaving  a  certificate  of  proficiency. 

Besides  the  pupils  regularly  matriculated  for  the  technical  divisions, 
free  students  are  admitted  to  certain  courses,  as  well  as  to  the  lessons 
in  drawing,  painting,  and  sculpture  ;  young  men  are  at  all  times 
admitted  to  the  class-rooms  and  studies. 

Numerous  and  well  arranged  collections  and  a  good  library  are 
placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  professors  and  the  use  of  pupils. 

The  following  tables  show  the  number  of  hours  alloted  weekly  to 
each  branch  of  instruction  for  the  special  divisions  for  a  half-year. 

The  pupils  who  do  not  follow  the  plan  of  studies  indicated  for  any 
special  branch,  do  not  receive  the  certificate  relating  thereto. 

.    First    Technical   Division. — Mechanicians,    Constructors,  S^c, 
In  order  to  shorten  the  length  of  the  studies,  the  pupils  begin  to 


attend  the  special  courses  before  their  instruction  in  the  higher 
mathematics  is  completely  terminated.  The  courses  of  coiisti-uction 
of  machines  are  to  follow  simultaneously  and  in  connexion  with  those 
of  mechanics,  the  study  of  machines,  or  projects,  and  exercises  of 

Hours  per  week 
First  Year. — 1st  Term.  

Arithmetic  and  algebra,  -  -  -  -  -  -  5 

Gconietry  and  tri<^ononictry,  -  -  -  -  -  -      5 

Knowledge  of  instruments,       ---.-.  2 

Experimental  pliysies,         -  -  -  --  -  -5 

Inorganic  chemistry,     -------5 

Free-liand  drawing,  -  -  -  -  -  --    — 

2d  Term.  * 

Stereometry  and  spherical  trigonometry,  -  -            -  -            -      5 

Equations,         -             -             -             -             -             -             -  -  2 

Analytical  geometry,          -            -            -  -            -  -            .5 

Practical  geometry*,     -            -            -            -            ...  .  5 

Experimental  chemistry,  second  course,  -            .        •  -            -       5 
Drawing  of  plans*,       --._.___. 

Free-hand  drawing,            -            -            -  -            -  -            -    — 

Second  Year. — 3d  Term. 
Differential  calculus,  1  st  course,     -  -  -  -  -  -      5 

Descriptive  geometry,  1st  course,  -  ...  -  4 

Mineralogy,  -----..-5 

Technical  chemistry,  1st  course,  -  ....  5 

Drawing  of  machines,         -  -  -  -  -,_  -    — 

4th  Term. 

Differential  calculus,  2d  course,                  -  -            -            -            -      5 

Descriptive  geometry,  2d  course,           -            -  -            -            -            4 

Geology,      -            -'           -            -            .  -            -            -            .5 

Mechanics,  1st  course,                --.-._  4 

Elements  of  building  construction,             -  -            -            -            -      4 

Drawing  of  machines,               -            -            .  .            .            .          — 

Second  Technical  Division. —  Construction  of  Buildings, 
The  divisions  for  the  construction  of  buildings,  for  civil  eno-ineer- 
ing,  and  for  architecture  have  nearly  all  the  preparatory  studies  in 
common  ;  they  have  also  several  points  in  common  with  the  special 
studies.  So,  when  the  pupils  have  decided  for  one  or  other  of  the 
eight  subdivisions,  it  is  only  in  the  exercises  of  drawing,  projects  and 
the  applications  relating  thereto,  that  their  teaching  differs  from  that 
of  the  other  two  subdivisions. 

Hours  per  week. 

First  Year. — 1st  Term.  

Arithmetic  and  algebra,      -  -  -  -  -  -  -      5 

Geometry  and  trigonometry,     -  -  -  -  -  -  5 

Knowledge  of  instruments,  -  -  -  -  -  -      2 

*These  courses  are  not  compulsory  ;  but  the  pupils  are  earnestly  recommended  to  follow 
punctually  the  courses  comprised  ia  their  studies,  and  not  to  neglect  those  which  tend  to  the 
general  culture  of  the  mind. 


Hours  per  -weak. 
Experimental  physics,  1st  course,        -----  5 

Inorganic  chemistry,  -  -  -  »  -  -  -5 

Free-haud  dj-awing,  ......  — 

2d  Term. 

Stereometry  and  spherical  trigonometry,  -  -  .  -      5 

Theory  of  equations,     ----.--2 

Analytical  geometry,  -  -  -  -  -  -  -5 

Practical  geometry,       -  -  -  -  -  -  -  5 

Experimental  physics,        -  -  --  -  -  -5 

Drawing  of  plans,         -  -  --  -  -  -  — 

Free-hand  drawing,  -  -  -  -  -  -  -    — 

Second  Year. — 3d  Term. 

Differential  calculus,  1st  course,     -  -  -  -  -  -      5 

Descriptive  geometry,  1st  course,          -  -  -  *  -  4 

Land  surveying*,  -  -  -  -  -  -  -2 

Technical  chemistry,     -  -  -  -  --  -  5 

Mineralogy,  -  -  -  -•-_  .  .5 

History  of  architecture,  1st  course,       -  -  -  _  .  2 

Drawing  of  ornaments,      -  -  -  -  -  -  -    — 

4th  Term. 

Differential  calculus,  2d  course,  -  -  -  -  -       5 

Descriptive  geometry,  2d  course,  -  -  ...  4 

Higher  land  surveying*,     -  -  -  -  -  -  -      3 

Geology,  -  -  -  -  -  -'-  -  5 

Mechanics,  1st  course,         -  -  -  -  -  .-4 

Elements  of  building  construction,  1st  course,  -  -    *        -  1 

Drawing  of  ornaments,      -  -  -  -  -  --    — 

Architectural  drawing,  -  -  -  -  -  -  — 

Third  Year. — 5th  Term. 

Differential  calculus,  3d  course,     -  -  -  -  -  -      2 

Descriptive  geometry,  3d  course,  -  -  -  -  -  4 

Technical  physics,  1st  course,         -  -  -  -  -  -      2 

Mechanics,  2d  course,  -  -  -  -  -  -  5 

Elements  of  building  construction,  2d  course,       -  -  -  -.4 

Architectural  drawing  and  construction,  -  -  -  -  — 

6th  Term. 

Technical  physics,  2d  course,         -  -  -  -  -  -      2 

Mathematical  physics,  2d  course,  .  -  *  -  -  2 

Mechanics,  3d  course,         -  -..--.4 

Elements  of  building  construction,  3d  course,  >  -  .  4 

History  of  architecture,  2d  course,  -  -  -  -  -      4 

Building  materials,        -  -  -  -  -  -  -2 

Architectual  drawing  and  construction,     -  -  -  -  -    — 

Founh  Year.— 7th  Term. 

Analytical  mechanics,         --  -  -  -  -  -4 

Mechanics  of  building,  -  *  -  _  -  -  2 

Roads  and  railways,  -  -  -  -  -  -  -4 

Building  of  Bridges,      -  --  -  -  -  -  4« 

Civil  law,     ---------3 

Drawing  of  buildings,  ••••---  — 

Architectural  projects,    .•  •  •  -.-  -  -    — 

Landscape  drawing,      ••••---         — 


Hours  per  week. 
8th  Term. 

Hydraulic  constructions,     -----..      4 

Study  otinachiucs,         -  -  -  -  -  .  .4 

Law  relating  to  the  erection  of  buildings,  -  -  -  -  -      2 

Drawing-  of  constructions,         ------  — 

Arcriitectiiral  projects,         -  -  -  -  -  -  -     — 

Landscape  drawing,       -----..  — 

Third  Technical  Division — Salt  Mines  and  MetaUur^cal  Works, 
These   two  subdivisions    require   the    same   preparatory  studies. 
For  the  salt-mines  a  sound  knowledge  of  geology  and  fossils  is  re- 
quired, and  for  metallurgical  works  great  proficiency  in   chemistry 
and  mineralogy. 

Hours  per  week 
First  Year. — 1st  Term.  

Arithmetic  and  algebra,     -            -            -            -            -            -  -5 

Geometry  and  ti-igonometry,     ------  5 

Knowledge  of  instruments*,          -'           -            -            -            -  -2 

Experimental  physics,  1st  course,         -            -            -            -            .  5 

Inorganic  chemistry,            ---             ..             .  -5 

Free-hand  drawing,       -------  — 

2d  Term. 

Stereometry  and  spherical  trigonometry,  -            -            -            -  -      5 

Theory  and  equations,  -------  2 

Analytical  geometry,          -            -            -            --            _  -5 

Practical  geometry*,      -------5 

Experimental  physics,  2d  course,           ^     -            -            -            -  -       5 

Drawing  of  plans*,         -------  

Free-hand  drawing,  -  -  -  -  -  -  .    

Second  Year. — 3d  Term. 
Differential  calculus,  1st  course,     -  -  -  -  -  -      5 

Descriptive  geometry,  1st  course,          -----  4 

Technical  physics,  1st  course,         -  -  -  -  -  .2 

Chemical  physics,  -------2 

Mineralogy,  ------.-5 

Drawing  of  machines,  -----_  

Manipulations  in  the  laboratory,  -  -  -  .    

4th  Term. 

Differential  calculus,  2d  course,      -  -  -  .  -  -      5 

Descriptive  geometri',  2d  course,  -  -  -  -  .  4 

Technical  physics,  2d  course,         -  -  -  -  -  -      2 

Geology, 5 

Mechanics,  1st  course,         -  -  -  -  -  -  -4 

Elements  of  construction,         ------»  4 

Drawing  of  machines  and  constructions ;  manipulations,  -  -    

Third  Year. — 5th  Term. 

Mechanics,  2d  course,         -            -            -            -            -            -  -5 

Mineralogical  exercises,             .-.-..  2 

Elements  of  construction,  2d  course,          -            -            -            -  -      4 

Projects  of  metallurgical  works,            -----  — 

Manipulations  in  the  laboratory,    -            -            -            -            -  -    — 

6th  Term. 
Mechanics,  3d  course,  -  -  -  -  -  -4  or  5 

Metallurgy,  -  •  -  -  -  ;  ,  2  or  3 



Geological  exercises,   - 
Elements  of  construction,  3d  course, 
Projects  of  metallurgical  works, 
Manipulations  in  the  laboratory, 

Hours  per  week. 
-        4 

Fourth   Technical  Division. —  Technical  Chemistry. 

Besides  a  profound  acquaintance  with  chemistry,  the  pupils  of  this 
division  must  know  something  about  the  construction  of  machines  and 
buildings.  An  acquaintance  with  descriptive  geometry  is  consequent- 
ly necessary  for  them. 

lu  the  third  year  they  are  almost  exclusively  occupied  with  manip« 
ulatious  in  the  laboratorj^ 

Hours  per  week. 
First  Year. — 1st  Term.  

Arithmetic  and  algebra,      -  -  -  - 

Geometry  and  trigonometry,     -  •         -  - 

Experimental  physics,  1st  course,  -  - 

Inorganic  chemistry,      ----- 
Free-hand  di'awing,  -  - 

2d  Term.  — 

Stereometry  and  trigonometry ;  physics,  -  -            -            -  .         «      5 

Experimental  physics,  2d  course,          -            -  -            •            -            5 

Organic  chemistry,               -            -            -  --            -            -5 

Botany,               -            -            -            -            -  -            -            -5 

Free-hand  drawing,  -  - 

Second  Year. — 3d  Term. 
Dccriptive  geometry,  1st  course,    -  -  -  .  -  -4 

Chemical  phyS'ics,  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  2 

Technical  chemistry,  1st  course,     -  -  -  -  -  -      5 

Technical  physics,  1st  course,  -  -  -  -  -2 

Mineralogy,  ..... 

Drawing  of  machines  and  laboratory  manipulations, 

4th  Term. 

Descriptive  geometry,  2d  course,                -            -  -            -           -      4 

Technical  chemistry,  2d  course,            -            -            -  -            -            5 

Technical  physics,  "2d  course,          -            -            •  -            -            -3 

Geology,            -            -            ...            .            .  .            .            5 

Drawing  of  machines  and  laboratory  manipulations. 

Third  Year. — .5th  Term. 
Elements  of  machinery,     -----.-4 

Statistics,  ....  ....  3 

Projects  of  manufactories  and  working  in  the  laboratory, 

6th  Term. 
Political  economy,        '       - 
Projects  of  manufactories  atid  working  in  the  laboratory,      -  -  — 

Fifth  Technical  Division. — Pharmaceutical  Chemists. 

The  pharmaceutical  studies  must  have  been  preceded  by  a  practical 


Hours  per  week. 

First  Year. — 1st  Term.  

Arithmetic  and  algebra,     --  -  -  -  -  -5 

Geometry  and  trigonometry,     -  -  -  -  -  -  5 

Experimental  physics,  1st  course,  -  -  -  -  -      5 

Inorganic  chemistry,      -  -  -  -  -  -  -  5' 

iVlanipnlation  in  the  laboratory,     -  -  -  -  -  -    — 

2d  Term. 
Experimental  physics,  2d  course,  -  -  -  -  -      5 

(_)rganic  chemistry,         .----.-5 

Boiuny,        .........       f) 

Pharmacy,  .-.--.--5 

Chemical  jurisprudence,  -  -  -  -  -  -       2 

Manipulation  in  the  laboratory,  ....  -  — 

Second  Year. — 3d  Term. 
Mineralogy,  -  -  -  -  --  -  -5 

Zoology,  ..--.-.-5 

Pharmacognosy,      -  ------.4 

Chemical  physics,  .......  2 

Manipulation  in  the  laboratory,      -  -  -  -  -  -    — 

Sixth  Technical  Division. — Forest  Economy. 
The  plan  of  studies  here  sepaiates  the  special  from  the  prepara- 
tory studies.  The  pupils  in  the  forest  service  of  the  country  are 
advised  to  follow  the  first  year  of  this  division  immediately  on  leav- 
ing the  primary  or  other  elementary  schools,  and  then  to  have  a 
year's  practical  apprenticeship  in  the  forests,  before  they  come  to  fol- 
low the  special  course  of  the  second  year. 

Hours  per  week. 
First  Year. — 1st  Term.        •  

Arithmetic  and  algebra,       -  -  --  -  -  -5 

Geometry  and  trigonometry,     ------  5 

Experimental  physics,  1st  course,  -  -  -  -  -       .5 

Inorganic  chemistry,     -------5 

Zoology,       -  --  -  -  -  -  -  -5 

Mineralogy,       -.-.-..-5 

2d  Term. 
Stereometiy  and  spherical  trigonometry,  -  -  -  -5 

Practical  geometry,        ...-..^5 
Experimental  physics,  2d  course,  -  •  -  -  -  -      5 

Organic  chemistry,         ------.5 

Botany,        -  -  -  ...  -  -  -5 

Geology,  -  -  -'-  -  -  -  -  5 

Second  Year, — 3d  Term.  . 

Mathematical  exercises,          --            -            -            -            -  2  to  4 

Climatology  and  knowledge  of  soils,    -----  2 

Physiology  of  forest  plants,             -             -            -             -             -  -       4 

Forest  botany  and  culture  of  forests,                 .             -             -            -  6 
Valuations  of  forests,          --.....3 

Forest  history  and  statistics,     --.---  2 

Civil  Law,  -            -            --            -            -            •            -  -3 

4th  Term. 
Mathematical  exercises,      -  -  -  -  -  -  2  to  4 

Organization  of  labor,  .-..,,  4 



Protection  of  forests. — Forest  insects, 

Forest  economy  and  police, 

Utilization  of  forests, 

Elements  of  the  chase, 

Forest  laws,  .  .  - 

Hours  per  week 

-  4 

-  3 

-  2 

Seventh  Technical  Division. — Rural  Economy. 
The  pupils  are  advised  to  separate  their  studies  in  the  same  man- 

ner as  in  the  preceding  division. 

First  Year  — IsT  Term. 
Aritliraetic  and  algebra,      -  -  -  - 

(Geometry  and  trigonometry,     -  -  - 

Experimental  physics,  1st  course, 

Inorganic  chemistry,      -  -  -  -       . 

Zoology,      -  -  -  -  -  - 

Mineralogy,        -  -  - 

2d  Term. 

Stereometry  and  spherical  trigonometry,  - 
Practical  geometry,       .  -  -  . 

Experimental  physics,  2d  course. 
Organic  chemistry,         -  -  -  - 

Botany,        ------ 


Drawing  of  plans,  .  -  »  - 

Second  Year. — 3d  Term. 

Agricultural  economy,         .            -  -            - 
Anatomy  of  domestic  animals, 

K  earing  of  cattle,                -            -  -            • 

Rearing  of  horses,         -             -  -            - 

Technical  chemistry,           -            -  -            - 
General  knowledge  of  machines*, 

Agricultural  book-keeping,             .  -            - 

4th  Term. 

Theory  of  agriculture  proper, 

Culture  of  plants,  -  -      -      - 

Diseases  of  domestic  animals,         -  -  - 

Elements  of  sxirgery  and  medicine. 

Valuation  of  farm  property,  .  _  - 

Elements  of  agricultural  building  construction, 

Manipulations  in  the  laboratory. 

Third  Year. — 5th  Term. 
Differential  calculus,  3d  course. 
Descriptive  geometry,  3d  course. 
Technical  physics*,  .  -  -  - 

Mechanics,  2d  course,  .  -  - 

Construction  of  machines,  1st  course. 
Elements  of  building  construction,  2d  course, 
Construction  of  machines  (exercises,) 

6th  Term. 

Technical  physics,  2d  course. 
Mathematical  physics,  - 
Mechanics,  3d  course. 

Hours  per  week. 


Hours  per  week. 
Construction  of  machines,  2(1  course,  .  -  -  .  2 

Study  ofniju-hincs,  2d  course ,        -  -  -  -  -  -       4 

Klcmcnts  of  Ijuildinj^  construction,  3d  course,  -  -  -  4 

Construction  of  machines  (exercises,)         -  -  -  -  -    — 

Fourth  Year. — 7th  Term. 

Analytical  mechanics*,       -            -.-  -            -            -            -4 

Mechanics  of  building,               .             -  .             -            -             _             2 

Construction  of  machines,  3d  course,        -  -            -            -            -      2 

Study  of  nuichines,         -             -             -  -             -             -             -             4 

Civil  engineering;*,              -             -             -  -             -             -             -4 

Construction  of  machines  (exercises),  .            .            .            -          — 

Eighth  Technical  Division. — Railways  and  Roads. 
The  knowledge  necessary  for  admission  into  this  division  are  ele- 
mentary mathematics,  geography,  statistics,  the  history  of  modern 
languages  and  literature. 

Hours  per  week. 
First  Year. — 1st  Term.  

Arithmetic  and  algebra,      -  -  -  -  -  -  -5 

Geometry  and  trigonometry,     ------  5 

Experimental  physics,         -  -  -  -  --  -5 

Geography  and  statistics,  -        .    -  -  -  -  -  6 

French  language,    --------6 

EngUsh  language,          -  -  --  -  -  -  6 

2d  Term. 
Stereometry  and  spherical  trigonometry,  -  -  -  -  -      5 

Political  economy,  -------3 

History,  ....-_.  .5 

German  literature,         -------3 

French  language  and  literature,     -  -         '   -  -  -  -      3 

English  language  and  literature,  -----  g 

Second  Year — 3d  Term. 
Mathematical  exercises*,       --  -  -  -  -  2  to  4 

Technical  physics,         .--.-..2 
History,       ---.-----       2 

Gernian  literature,         -------  2 

French  language  and  literature,     -  -  -  -  -  -      2 

English  language  and  literature,  -  ...  -  2 

Civil  law,     ---------2 

Ninth  Technical  Division. —  Officers  of  the  Government  Survey. 
The  young  men  who  intend   to  enter  this   service  must  follow  a 
course  of  two  years  composed  nearly  as  follows  : 

Hours  per  week. 

First  Year. — 1st  Term.  

Arithmetic  and  algebra,      -            -            -            -            -            -  -5 

Geometry  and  trigonometry,     ------  5 

Mathematical  exercises,       -            -            -            -            -            -  4  to  6 

Knowledge  of  instruments,       -            -            -            -            .            -  2 

Experimental  physics,        --           .            ,            .           .  -5 

2d  Term. 

Stereometry  and  spherical  trigonometry,  -  -  -  •  .5 

Theory  of  equations,     -  -  -  -  -  .  •  2 



,  Hours  per  week. 

Analytical  i^eometry,  -.>--..      5 

Practical  jreometry,       -----..5 

Mathematical  exercises,     -  -  -  -  -  --4 

Experimental  phrsic,  .-..-.  5 

Drawing  of  plans,  .  •-  .  .  -  .  _    — 

Second  Year. — 3d  Teem. 
Differential  calculus,  1st  course,     -  -  -  -  -  -      5 

Descriptive  geometry,  1st  course,         -----  4 

Spherical  astronomy,  -  -  -  -  -  -  -      3 

Mathematical  exercises,  -  -  -  -■-  -2  to  4 

Technical  physics,  --------2 

Drawing  of  plans,         -------  — 

4th  Term. 

Differential  calculus,  2d  course,     -  -  -  -  -  -      5 

Dcscri])tive  geometry,    -------4 

Higher  land  surveying,       -  -  --  -  -  -3 

Geology,  ------__5 

Management. — The  direction  is  entrusted  to  a  committee  of  three 
members,  the  oldest  of  whom  is  chairman.  This  committee  is  under 
the  immediate  control  of  the  Minister  of  State.  The  college  or 
council  of  professors  is  consulted  with  regard  to  the  general  interest, 
or  for  any  change  of  the  existing  arrangements.  It  comprises  all 
the  principal  professors,  and  is  convoked  by  the  chairman,  or  at  the 
instance  of  one  of  the  members  of  the  managing  committee.  The 
conference  of  the  professors  is  composed  of  all  the  professors  and 
tutors.     It  is  convoked  to  discuss  the  business  of  the  school. 

School  Fees. — The  young  men  matriculated  as  regular  pupils  pay 
18  thalers  for  the  half-yearly  term,  and  if  they  take  part  in  the  man- 
ipulations an  additional  sum  of  6  thalers.  They  also  give  the  labor- 
atory attendant  20  gros. 

The  young  men  who  do  not  matriculate  for  the  six  months'  term 
pay  three  thalers  for  a  course  of  three  hours  a  week,  six  thalers  for 
one  of  five  hours;  the  maximum  paid  is  18  thalers,  whatever  num- 
ber of  courses  may  be  fol'owed.  For  the  laboratory,  these  pupils 
pay  10  thalers,  and  to  the  a'tendant  20  gros. 

For  daily  pai-ticipation  in  the  lessons  in  arts,  from  eight  in  the 
morning  till  two  in  the  afternoon,  the  fee  is  three  thalers  per  quarter, 
and  half  that  sum  for  three  days  a  week. 

The  matriculation  fee  is  two  thalers,  with  20  gros.  to  the  apparitor 
and  10  gros.  for  the  admission  card. 

Discipline.-  -Through  all  the  pupils  live  outside  the  college,  disci- 
pline is  maintained  in-doo's  and  in  the  classes  by  the  professors,  each 
for  his  own  course,  and  by  tb.e  managing  committee  for  general  order 
and  conduct  out  of  college - 

The  Polytechnic  Institution  of  Brunswick  has  no  less  than  twenty- 
five  professors  for  the  different  branches  of  instruciion  there  given. 


In  the  small  town  of  Holzmiiiden,  there  is  an  establishment  for 
special  insii  uction,  which,  by  a  remarkable  exception  to  the  general 
rule  in  Germany,  receives  boarders.  It  is  devoted  to  the  class  of 
artisans  designated  in  France  under  the  general  term  of  the  build- 
ing trade;  masons,  stone-cutters,  carpenters,  joiners,  smiths,  slaters, 
glaziers,  painters,  cabinet  makers,  &c. 

The  instruction  is  chiefly  given  during  the  winter  half  year,  when 
work  is  generally  suspended ;  but  it  is  continued  during  the  fine 
season  also  for  those  pupils  who  are  disposed  to  attend.  To  be  ad- 
mitted, a  young  man  must  have  already  entered  one  of  the  trades 
connected  with  building,  and  must  supply  the  necessary  information 
as  to  his  age,  his  parents,  his  residence,  the  master  for  whom  he  has 
worked,  and  as  to  his  moral  character ;  he  must  also  submit  to  a 
medical  examination  with  regard  to  his  health.  During  their  stay 
at  the  school,  the  pupils  wear  a  uniform,  which  facilitates  discipline. 
On  entering  ihey  must  bring  linen,  a  few  other  articles,  and  a  case 
of  mathematical  instruments. 

The  establishment  supplies  during  the  usual  term  of  residence, 
which  is  twenty  weeks  for  the  winter  half-year : 

Lodging  and  board  for  the  sum  of         -         -         -         27  thalers. 

Teaching,  firing,  lighting,  necessaries  for  writing  and 
drawing,  the  uniform,  medical  attendance  and  wash- 
ing, for  -------         45  thalerS. 

Total  ------         72  thalers. 

Thus,  during  this  period  of  one  hundred  and  forty  days,  a  young 
man  can  be  boarded,  lodged,  taught,  and  supplied  with  every  neces- 
sary for  less  than  two  francs  per  day. 

The  pupils  are  divided  according  to  their  proficiency,  into  three 
classes.  In  the  two  lower  classes,  the  pupils  are  improved  in  ordin- 
ary and  commercial  arithmetic,  writing,  and  composition.  At  the 
same  time  in  all  the  classes  they  are  taught  free  hand  drawing  details 
of  construction,  of  ornament,  of  line  drawings  relative  to  their  difFe:  ent 
trades,  the  objects  and  models  being  chosen  according  lo  the  capaci- 
ties of  the  pupils. 

The  discipline  is  nearly  the  same  as  in  a  college.  They  rise  at  six 
in  the  morning,  wash  themselves  and  perform  other  necessary  duties 
till  half-past  eight,  and  the  studies  continue  till  half-past  nine  in  the 
evening,  except  the  intervals  for  meals  and  recreation.     They  go  to 


bed  at  ten.  The  school  can  accommodate  five  hundred  and  fifty 

At  the  close  of  each  complete  period  of  instruction,  the  pupils  who 
are  found  deserving,  and  have  attended  long  enough,  receive  a  cer- 
tificate stating  their  degree  of  proficiency  in  the  studies  bearing  on 
their  profession.  The  pupils  who  have  not  completed  their  studies 
receive  a  certificate  of  their  conduct  and  application  during  the  time 
passed  at  the  school.  This  certificate  must  be  countersigned  by  their 
parents  or  masters  when  they  return  for  the  next  half  year. 

The  general  curriculum  of  the  school  comprises  calligraphy,  orthog- 
raphy, composition,  ordinary  and  commercial  arithmetic,  the  elements 
of  algebra,  book-keeping,  elementary  geometry,  descriptive  geometry, 
projections,  stereometry,  elementary  and  technical  physics,  the  details 
of  the  construction  of  machines  and  buildings  ;  joining  of  stone,  wood, 
and  iron ;  technical  chemistry,  the  knowledge  of  building  materials, 
drawing*  up  of  estimates,  laws  affecting  buildings,  free-hand  drawing, 
architectural  drawing,  studies  of  forms  and  orders,  drawing  of  ma- 
chines, drawing  up  of  projects,  modeling.  The  pupils  are  expected 
during  the  summer  half-year,  to  visit  works  in  course  of  execution, 
and  write  reports  of  their  excursions. 



The  small  republic  of  Hamburg  had,  in  1869,  a  population  of 
315,000,  of  which  there  are  in  the  city  and  its  suburbs  225,000,  and 
in  the  outlying  districts,  90,000. 

Besides  being  a  great  commercial  emporium,  and  the  centre  of  a 
very  extensive  business  in  marine  insurance,  it  has  important  branches 
of  home  industry  ;  shipbuilding  on  a  large  scale,  with  sail-cloth,  ropes, 
sugar  refining,  distilling  and  dyeing,  manufacture  of  cigars,  &c. 

The  total  expenditure  for  educational  purposes  amounted,  in 
1869,  to  about  800,000  thalers,  of  which  109,302  were  borne  by  the 
State,  to  which  last  item  is  to  be  added  12,640  thalers  for  special 
schools,  and  about  5,500  for  the  city  library,  botanic  garden,  and 
similar  establishments. 

The  educational  institutions  of  Hamburg  number  437,  with  2,521 
instructors  and  39,098  pupils,  and  are,  in  the  official  report,  divided 
into  the  following  classes  : 

(1.)  Public  Schools.  City  and  Parish  schools  64,  with  183  teach- 
ers and  8,135  pupils.  Schools  for  the  poor  {Armen  Oschulen)  20, 
with  142  teachers,  and  5,079  pupils.  Foundation  schools  {Stiftungs- 
schulen)  21,  with  131  teachers  and  2,376  pupils.  Church  Schools 
(Kirchenschulen)  27,  with  130  teachers  and  4,235  pupils. 

(2.)  Private  Schools.  Elementary  schools  49,  with  127  teachers 
and  1,922  pupils.  Middle  schools  108,  with  562  teachers  and  8,212 
pupils.     Higher  schools  89,  with  1,046  teachers  and  7,686  pupils. 

There  are,  besides,  29  Kindergarten,  of  which  7  are  in  connection 
with  other  schools,  with  68  teachers  and  973  children  attending. 
Also  30  private  courses,  with  132  instructors  and  480  pupils. 

Elementary  Schools. — Nearly  all  the  schools  included  in  the  above 
official  statement  as  Public  Schools,  may  be  classed  as  elementary. 

Secondary  Schools. — The  gymnasium  has  eight  classes,  with  11 
professors,  and  7  assistants.  The  Model  School  has  a  Real  depart- 
ment, and  Female  High  School. 

Superior  Education. — The  Gymnasial  Academy,  founded  in  1 632, 
is  a  connecting  link  between  the  classical  schools  and  the  University. 


There  are  four  professors  ;  one  of  classical  philology,  who  is  also  city- 
librarian  ;  one  of  chemistry,  one  of  biblical  philology  and  philosophy, 
and  one  of  natural  history,  who  is  also  director  of  the  botanic  gar- 
den.    There  is  also  a  teacher  of  mathematics. 

Professional  and  Special  Schools.  There  are  four  special  schools 
for  teachers, — one  for  gymnasiums  and  real  schools,  two  for  elementary 
schools,  one  for  males  and  one  for  females,  and  one  for  the  Kindergar- 
ten  ; — one  evening  trade  school  for  males  with  29  teachers  and  809 
pupils;  one  trade  school  for  females  with  77  pupils  ;  one  trade  school 
in  the  suburb  St.  Paul  with  4  teachers  and  36  pupils  ;  a  winter  day 
school  for  the  building  trades,  with  106  pupils;  the  evening  school 
of  the  educational  union,  with  about  200  pupils ;  one  polytechnic 
preparatory  school  with  16  teachers  and  3d  pupils;  a  navigation 
school  with  3  teachers  and  85  pupils ;  a  private  seamen's  school  with 
6  teachers  and  43  pupils. 


The  public  trade,  and  the  building  school  ( Gewerhe  Schule,  und  Sclmlefi'ir  Bau- 
handioerker,)  at  Hamburg,  have  for  their  object  to  give  to  all  men  engaged  in  any 
-trade,  but  especially  apprentices  and  workmen  connected  with  the  building 
trades,  such  instruction  as  shall  be  of  use  to  them  in  their  occupations.  They 
are  held  in  the  same  rooms  and  under  the  same  director. 

The  hours  of  instruction  in  the  trade  school  are  two  to  sixteen  weekly,  in  the 
evening,  and  the  branches  are  German  with  business  writings  in  German,  book- 
keeping, arithmetic,  algebra,  geometry,  physics,  free  hand  dra-\ving,  and  drawing 
with  the  compass,  drawings  as  applied  to  the  trades  of  building,  ship-building, 
metal  working,  and  those  trades  in  which  some  knowledge  of  art  is  required, 
modeling  and  elementary  instruction  in  drawing  for  boys. 

The  hours  for  instruction  in  the  building  trade  schools  are  fifty-four,  weekly, 
during  the  winter,  and  three  winters  are  required  to  finish  the  course.  .The  num- 
ber of  pupils  in  the  trade  school  is  (1868)  809,  in  the  building  school  1.06. 

The  number  of  scholars  (186y)  is,  in  the  trade  school  about  500  in  winter,  and 
600  in  summer;  in  the  architectural  school,  held  only  in  the  winter,  106. ' 

The  director  is  paid  about  1,500  thalers  per  annum;  the  teachers  (28  in  all) 
thirty  thalers  per  week  during  the  course.  Tuition  in  trade  school,  2  to  4 
thalers  the  course  ;  in  the  building  schools,  30  thalers  the  half  year. 

We  add  a  brief  notice  of  the  common  method  of  teaching  drawing : 

Free  drawing  without  instnmients  begins  -with  drawing  from  wooden  models, 
according  to  Heimerdinger's  method,  in  which  simple  objects,  such  as  tools  used 
by  joiners,  engineers,  &c.,  are  included;  attention  being  paid  to  the  vocation  of 
the  pupil  in  the  choice  of  the  models.  Ornamental  drawing  from  plaster  casts,  in 
outline,  and  in  respect  to. shading,  then  follows  Those  pupils  who  devote  them- 
selves to  building  or  ornamental  trades,  study  the  figure  from  casts  and  anatomy. 
The  metal  workers  draw  freely,  without  instruments,  portions  of  machinery,  &c. 
The  mode  of  execution  (which  is  with  lead  pencil,  pen,  brush,  and  nibber,)  is 
always  the  most  suitable  to  the  branch  of  technical  art  to  which  the  pupil  intends 
to  devote  himself.  In  close  connection  with  this  style  of  drawing,  arc  the  exei*- 
cises  in  ornamental  design.     Plants,  flowers,  and  leaves  are  drawn  from  life,  and 


these  drawings  arc  used  in  designing.  By  these  exercises  the  pupils  hecome  very 
soon  iudOjjcudent  of  all  help.  Geometrical  drawings  are  executed  from  large 
copies.  The  teachers  explain  the  perfect  principles  of  construction,  and  pay 
special  attention  to  exactness  in  execution.  When  the  pupil  has  jic(iuired  conti- 
dence  in  the  use  of  his  instruments,  and  has  mastered  the  es.sential  principles, 
the  measuring  and  drawing  of  some  simple  and  more  complicated  bodies  follows. 
This  chi?s  is  attcndi.^d  by  metal-workers,  joiners,  builders,  and  carpenters,  car- 
riage-l)uilders,  ship-builders,  &c.  The  instruction  is  imparted  by  measuring  and 
drawing  real  objects,  such  as  parts  of  machinery,  tools,  furniture,  doors,  windows, 
carriages,  &c.,  according  to  fixed  rules  and  specified  plans. 

Instruction  in  free-hand  drawing  can  only  be  of  use  to  the  pupils  when  they 
use  real  objects,  and  not  drawings.  By  the  method  pursued  here,  the  hand 
needs  no  particular  preparation,  because  the  nearest  model  offers  an  example  by 
which  the  hand  and  eye  are  both  alike  exercised.  No  particular  introduction  to 
the  rules  of  perspective  is  needed,  the  scholar  learns  to  see  correctly,  and  his 
attention  is  directed  to  the  principles  of  perspective  by  the  teacher. 

From  the  specimens  of  free-hand  drawing  which  were  exhibited  at  Paris  this 
year,  it  would  ap])car  that  no  method  can  compare  with  that  here  referred  to,  for 
producing  a  satisfactory  result  in  a  short  time.  The  results  of  several  other 
industrial  schools  are  in  this  respect  far  behind  those  of  the  Hamburg  school. 
DraAving  from  specimens  should  be  entirely  avoided  in  industrial  schools,  in  free- 
hand as  well  as  in  geometrical  aiid  technical  drawing.  In  the  instruction  of 
teachers,  this  method  has  be.ou  followed  for  a  number  of  years  in  Mr.  Jessen's 
Polytechnic  Institute,  and  also  for  the  last  two  years  in  the  Hamburg  Trade 
School,  with  most  satisfjictory  results.  The  pupils  of  both  show  great  applica- 
tion and  zeal,  and  make  good  progress.  There  are  no  workshops  connected 
with  the  trade  school. 


-In  1862-63,  the  Hamburg  Patriotic  Society,  established  for  the 
promotion  of  art  and  industry,  appointed  a  committee  to  visit  dif- 
ferent countries  in  which  attention  had  been  paid  to  institutions 
of  science  and  art,  especially  in  reference  to  the  advancement  of 
national  industries,  and  report  a  plan  for  the  re-organization  of  exist- 
ing institutions  of  this  kind  in  Hamburg,  or  the  establishment  of 
new.  The  committee,  after  visiting  the  polytechnic  and  trade  schools 
of  Bremen,  Frankfort,  Brunswick,  Stuttgart,  Carlsruhe,  Munich, 
and  other  cities,  as  the  result  of  their  inquiries,  recommended  the 

Plan  for  a  Trade  School  for  Hamhirg. 

The  aim  of  the  Trade  School  shall  be  to  give  those  employed  in  trades  an 
opportunity  of  acquiring  such  knowledge  and  attainments  as  they  stand  in  need 
of  for  an  intelligent  prosecution  of  their  callings. 

In  order  to  carry  out  this  object  in  a  comprehensive  manner,  a  complete  trade 
school  should  be  divided  into  three  quite  different  departments  : 

1.  A  Sunday  and  evening  school  for  such  pupils  as  can  take  advantage  of  the 
instruction  during  the  few  hours  of  the  week  which  they  have  at  liberty  from 
their  other  school  time  or  from  being  otherwise  engaged. 

2.  A  wintei-  school  of  architecture  for  those  engaged  in  the  building  trades,  and 
Avho  will  be  able  to  give  their  time  exclusively  during  the  winter  months  to  the 
attainment  of  theoretical  knowledge  and  skill. 

3.  A  chill  trade  school  for  young  pei'sons  Avho  have  already  left  the  primary 
school,  and  are  in  a  position  to  be  able  to  devote  the  whole  of  their  time  for  a 
year  to  their  industrial  education  before  they  are  appenticed  to  a  trade. 

Although  the  education  of  artisans  is  the  end  which  these  departments  have 
in  view,  and  this  can  be  attained,  for  the  most  part,  by  the  same  subjects  of  study, 
yet  there  must  be  a  difference  between  them  according  to  the  requirements  of  the 
Duyils  attending  the  different  establishments ;    and  especially  as  to  the  time  to 



he  given  to  separate  subjects,  as  well  as  regards  the  subjects  taught,  as  also  as 
regards  the  extent  to  which  they  are  taught. 

Whilst  in  all  three  departments  the  instruction  will  be,  as  far  as  possible,  the 
same,  especial  regard  will  be  paid,  in  all  the  subjects  taught,  to  the  profession 
which  the  pupils  may  have  already  embraced,  or  for  which  they  may  be  destined. 


The  subjects  taught  comprise  : 

1.  Commercial  composition  and  book-keeping,  (orthography,  the  formation  of 
words  and  sentences,  the  composition  of  letters,  invoices,  agreements,  &c.) 

2.  Mathematics,  a.  Arithmetic  and  algebra,  (fractions,  algebraic  notation, 
equations,  1st  and  2d  degree.)     h.  Geometry,  (plane  and  solid  geometry.) 

3.  Physics,  (elements  of  physics  in  general,  the  science  of  heat,  elements  of 
acoustics,  optics,  electricity,  and  magnetism. 

4.  Mechanics,  (elementary  mechanics,  gravity,  motion,  friction,  pressure  of 
water,  water  power,  pressure  of  air,  steam  engines.) 

5.  Chemistry,  (elements  of  inorganic  chemistry,  special  important  branches  of 
organic  chemistry.) 

6.  Technology  and  knowledge  of  implements. 

7.  Political  economy. 

8.  Free-hand  drawing,  (from  simple  objects,  from  ornamental  objects,  figures, 
parts  of  machinery,  &c.) 

9.  Geometric  drawing,  (drawing  by  compass,)  and  geometric  figures,  (geomet- 
rical constructions,  measuring  and  drawing  by  rule,  perspective.) 

10.  Special  drawing  with  practice  in  design  and  construction,  (in  5  classes, 
for  building,  for  manufactures,  for  workers  in  metal,  for  workers  in  wood,  for 

11.  Modeling  in  clay,  wood,  and  wax. 

The  course  of  study  is  for  three  years,  and  the  regular  entrance  of  the  pupils 
takes  place  at  Easter.  Young  persons  are  received  as  pupils  who  have  completed 
their  fourteenth  year  and  possess  a  competent  knowledge  of  the  usual  branches 
of  school  education.  To  each  pupil  is  prescribed  by  the  superior  which  classes 
he  is  to  attend ;  of  course,  as  far  as  possible,  in  this  matter  the  wishes  of  the 
pupil  or  of  his  relations  are  taken  into  consideration. 

The  school  is  intended  for  600  pupils,  and  the  committee  think  they  may  with 
certainty  reckon  upon  this  number,  Avhen  it  is  considered  that  towns  such  as  Nu- 
remberg and  Chemnitz  have  trade  schools  which  are  attended  by  1,800  pupils. 

The  average  number  for  each  class  is  to  be  reckoned  at  35  pupils. 

The  school  is  under  the  superintendence  of  a  director,  subordinate  to  him  are 
masters  for  the  various  subjects. 

The  number  of  lessons  weekly,  amounts,  for  each  pupil,  to  from  6  to  8. 

Weekly  Plan  of  the  Lessons. 






1.  Commercial  knowledge,  &c.,    - 

2.  Mathematics, 

3.  Physics, 

4.  Mechanics,  -        -        -        - 

5.  Chemistry,       .         -        -         - 

6.  Technology, 

7.  Political  economy,  -     .  - 

8.  Free-hand  drawing, 

9.  Geometric  drawing,  &c.,  - 

10.  Special  drawing,  -        -        - 

11.  Modeling,         -        -        -        - 

Classes.    Hours. 
4     of     2 
4     of    2 

4     of     4 
2     of    4 

Classes.    Hours. 

4     of     2 

2     of    2 

2  'of    4 
4     of    4 

Classes.    Hours. 
1*  *  of'  '  1 

Voir"  2 

2      of     2 
1     of    2 

1  of    1 

'e'    of'  4 

2  of    4 

40  hours. 

36  hours. 

48  hours. 


Thus,  altogetlier  124  hours  of  study  weekly. 
-    To  the  S inula V  and  evening  seliool  there  is  also  a  preparatory  class  annexed, 
for  those  who  are*  not  yet  sufficiently  acquainted  with  the  ordinary  branches  of 
school  knowledge.     This  preparatory  class  comprises  the  loUowing  subjects : 

1.  German  language. 

2.  Arithmetic. 

3.  Geometry. 

4.  Free-hand  drawing. 

And  the  arrangement  of  the  classes  is  as  follows  : 

1 .  German  languiige,  -  -  -       2  classes  of  2  hours. 

2.  Arithmetic,    -  -  -  -  2         "  2       " 

3.  Geometry,  -  -  -  .      2         "         2       " 

4.  Free-hand  drawing,  -  .  -  2        "         2      " 

Total,  -  -  -  -    16  hours  weekly. 

The  yearly  expenditure  for  the  Sunday  and  evening  school,  and  for  the  pre- 
paratory class,  is  estimated  altogether  at  25,000  marks  current,  according  to  the 
following  table : 

Mks.  ct. 
For  the  director,  including  a  salary  for  10  hours  lessons  a  week,     -      4,000 
Salary  for  130  hours  lessons  a  week  at  100  mks.  ct.  each  per  year,       13,000 
Rent  of  premises,  -------  5,000 

School  apparatus,       -------          500 

Servants,    --------  200 

Warming,  lighting,  and  cleansing,    -----      2,000 

Total, 25,000 

To  meet  this  we  may  reckon  upon  a  yearly  income  of  18,000  marks  current, 
viz :  600  pupils,  at  30  marks  school  fees  per  year,  so  that  a  yearly  grant  is  requi- 
site of  7,000  marks  current. 


The  subjects  taught  are  : 

1 .  Commercial  composition  and  hook-keeping. 

2.  Mathematics. 

a.  Arithmetic  and  algebra. 
h.  Geometry. 

3.  Physics. 

4.  Mechanics. 

5.  Free-hand  drawing. 

6.  Geometric  drawing. 

7.  Applied  geometry. 

8.  Architectural  drawing,  and  plans  of  buildings. 

9.  The  art  of  building,  the  knowledge  of  construction,  and  estimating  the  cost 
of  buildings. 

10.  Constructive  modeling. 

The  course  of  study  is  for  three  years,  and  the  instruction  is  given  during  the 
five  winter  months,  (November  to  March  )  in  48  weekly  lessons;  besides  these, 
written  exercises  are  prepared  under  the  superintendence  of  a  teacher  in  12 
weekly  lessons. 

Such  persons  are  accepted  as  pupils  as  are  engaged  in  construction,  and  who 
are  acquainted  with  the  ordinary  school  knowledge;  those  who  are  deficient  in 
the  latter  are  referred  to  the  Sunday  and  evening  school. 

The  school  is  intended  for  100  pupils;  it  is  placed  under  the  superintendence 
of  the  director  of  the  trade  school.  There  are  masters  who  teach  under  and  in 
addition  to  him. 


Plan  of  the  Lessons. 






1.  Commercial  knowledge,  &c.,    - 

2.  Mathematics : 

Arithmetic  and  algebra,  - 
Geometry,   -        -        -        - 

3.  Physics,        -        -        -        - 

4.  Mechanics,       -        -        .        - 

5.  Free-hand  drawing, 

6.  Geometric  drawing, 

7.  Applied  geometry, 

8.  Drawing  of  buildings,     - 

9.  Art  of  building,  &c.,    - 
10.  Constructive  modeling,    - 












\    ; 






Besides  this,  13  hours  are  set  apart  weekly  for  the  preparation  of  written  exer- 
cises, under  the  superintendence  of  a  teacher  for  all  the  classes  in  common,  at 
the  same  time,  participation  in  this  instruction  is  not  obligatory  for  those  who 
undertake  this  work  at  home.     The  yearly  expenditure  is  estimated  at  8,300 
marks  current,  viz : 

Mks.  ct. 
For  superintendence,  including  salary  for  6  lessons  per  week,  -       1 ,000 

Salary  for  150  lessons  per  week,  for  5  months,  at  40  marks  per  lesson,  6,000 
School  apparatus,       -  -  -  -  -  -  -         300 

Servants,   -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  150 

Premises,  (those  of  the  Sunday  and  evening  schools,)  -  -        .... 

Warming,  lighting,  and  cleansing,  -  -  -  -  850 



Against  this  we  may  reckon  upon  a  yearly  receipt  of  5,000  marks  current, 
viz:  100  pupils  at  50  marks,  so  that  an  annual  addition  of  3,300  marks  cur- 
rent will  be  necessary. 

III.      THE    DAY   TRADE    SCHOOL. 

The  subjects  taught  comprise :  - 

1 .  German  and  composition. 

2.  Mathematics. 

a.  Arithmetic  and  algebra.  (Fractions,  algebraic  notation,  equations  of  the 
first  and  second  degree,  powers  and  roots,  logarithms.) 

b.  Geometry.     (Plane  and  solid  geometry.) 

c.  Trigonometry.     (Plane  trigonometry.) 

3.  Physics.  (Physics  in  general,  science  of  heat,  principles  of  the  remaining 

4.  Chemistry.     (Inorganic,  and  some  sections  of  organic  chemistry.) 

5.  Free-hand  drawing. 

6.  Geometric  drawing. 

The  course  of  lessons  is  for  one  year,  and  the  regular  entrance  of  pupils  takes 
place  at  Easter. 

Such  young  persons  are  accepted  as  pupils  as  have  completed  their  fourteenth 
year,  and  who  show  proof  of  the  requisite  capacity  to  comprehend  the  above- 
named  subjects. 

The  school  is  primarily  intended  for  a  class  of  35  pupils  ;  it  is  placed  under 
the  director  of  the  trade  scliool.     A   master  insti-ucts  in    the   head  branches, 


assisted  by  teachers.  The  annual  expenditure  is  estimated  at  5,200  marks  cur- 
rent, viz : 

Salary  of  the  head-master,  who  gives  '24  lessons  per  week,  3,000  marks ;  sahiry 
for  18  lessons  per  week,  1,800  ;  premises  (those  of  the  Sunday  seliool  and  even- 
ing school)  ;  school  apparatus,  200;  servant,  50;  Marming-,  150;  total,  5,200. 

Against  this  we  may  reckon  upoa  an  annual  income  oi'  3,500  nuirks,  viz  :  35 
pupils  at  100  marks,  which  will  require  an  annual  addition  of  1,700  marks 

A  trade  educational  establishment,  (comprising :  a.  A  Sunday  and  evening 
Bchool ;  b.  A  winter  school  of  construction ;  c.  A  day  trade  school ;)  would,  there- 
fore, re(piire  an  annual  expenditure  of  38,500  marks  current ;  deducting  from  this 
the  estimated  annual  receipt  of  26,500,  there  will  remain  to  be  asked  an  annual 
grant  of  12,000  marks  cun-ent  from  the  municipality. 


As  a  second  means  towards  the  su])port  and  promotion  of  the  industry  of  the 
city,  the  committee  recommend  the  establishment  of  an  industrial  musnun  icith 
erhihitims  of  products,  after  the  model  of  those  in  other  states,  especially  in  Wur- 
temburg,  England,  and  France. 

Although  for  years  past  the  importance  of  education  througli  the  eyes  has  been 
recognized  as  essential  for  the  completion  of  instruction  pro]jtr  in  industry,  still 
a  long  time  elapsed  before  the  example  of  France,  who  in  1783,  founded  the  Con- 
servatoire des  Arts  et  Metiers,  has  been  followed  in  other  countries. 

It  Avas  only  in  1850  that  an  exhibition  was  opened  at  Stuttgart,  under  the 
'direction  of  the  Royal  Academy,  for  industry  and  commerce,  and  it  was  first  the 
great  universal  exhibition  in  London,  in  the  year  1851,  which  induced  the  Eng- 
lish to  found  their  richly  endowed  Kensington  Museum.  Since  that  time,  iu 
many  places,  efforts  have  been  made  to  supply  this  deficiency,  and  at  this  time 
\v^  hear  of  even  small  towns  which  are  occupied  in  the  establishment  of  indus- 
trial museums.  The  special  experience  of  Wurtemburg  is  most  favorable  as  to 
the  utility  of  such  an  establishment. 

In  addition,  the  foundation  in  Hamburg  of  an  industrial  museum  is  to  l>e 
recommended  on  commercial  considerations.  Hamburg  despatches  daily  to  the 
interior,  raw  materials  ;  travelers  from  Hamburg  range  through  the  interior  iu 
order  to  find  out  objects  of  export.  Might  not  in  many  cases  the  manufacture 
of  these  materials  be  carried  on  here  ?  In  the  second  place,  might  not  many 
Hamburg  manufiictures,  which  have  already  obtained  a  good  reputation  abroad, 
attain  still  greater  success  if  the  manufacturers,  profiting  by  the  beautiful  forms 
brought  under  their  eyes  in  a  museum,  Avere  to  employ  these  in  their  fabrics. 

The  aim  of  such  an  institution  as  the  committee  proposes,  is  to  promote  exist- 
ing trades,  to  call  forth  new  ones,  and  to  increase  the  sale  of  manufactured  goods. 
This  aim  is  to  be  reached  by  the  exhibition  of  raw  materials,  of  the  process  of 
manufacture  of  improved  implements,  and  of  superior  products  of  industry  with 
special  regard  to  the  formation  of  taste. 

The  arrangement  of  an  industrial  museum  will  be  as  follows : 

1.  A  Technical  Section. — This  contains  raw  materials,  manufactures  in  process, 
implements,  models,  &c. 

TJie  collection  of  raw  materials,  and  of  manufactures  in  the  different  stages 
of  their  ])reparation  should  have  in  view  an  exact  knowledge  of  their  origin  and 
price  as  well  as  of  their  uses,  and  at  the  same  time  should  point  out  new  uses. 
The  collection  of  implements,  utensils,  and  machinery  should  indicate  means  to 
the  artisan  of  working  better  and  at  less  cost. 

2.  A  Section  for  Art  Mannfartures. — This  comprises  casts,  engravings,  draw- 
mgs,  ])hotographs,  &c.,  which  ought  to  serve  especially  in  the  formation  and  im- 
provement of  taste  in  industrial  drawing  and  design. 

3  The  Exhibition  of  Products. — This  section  contains  especially  good  or  useful 
new  products  of  industry.  The  artisan  should  here  be  made  acquainted,  from 
seeing  the  fabric  itself,  with  new  combinations,  beautiful  forms,  and  new  employ- 
ment of  materials,  &c.,  in  order  that  he  may  perceive  clearly  the  ])ossil)i]ity  of 
a  juofitable  new  or  improved  manufacture.  The  commercial  interest  will  also 
find  here  new  fabrics,  and  be  made  acquainted  with  their  origin.  Every  object 
should  have  attached  to  it  the  price,  and  the  name  and  residence  of  the  m.inu- 


The  whole  establishment  is  under  the  superintendence  of  a  director,  who  should 
pay  close  attention  to  home  and  foreign  industry,  in  order  to  develop  the  former 
from  the  experience  of  the  latter.  To  this  end  he  must  place  himself  in  corres- 
jiondeuce  with  foreign  exhibitions  and  industrial  societies,  &c.,  as  also  with  the 
consuls  for  Hamburg,  and  with  the  home  manufacturers. 

Entrance  to  the  museum  should,  as  far  as  possible,  be  facilitated,  and  there- 
fore the  committee  think  it  desirable  on  four  days  in  the  w^eek  to  give  admittance 
to  all  gratis,  and  on  the  other  days  to  charge  a  moderate  price  of  admission,  in 
order  in  this  way  to  gain  a  contribution  towards  the  yearly  cost. 

The  use  of  the  museum  must  always  under  regulations  be  open  to  the  trades 
schools,  as  they  have  a  free  claim  to  the  use  of  the  drawings  and  models  therein 
contained,  as  means  of  instruction. 

The  committee  think  it  necessary  to  give  a  right  to  the  manufacturers  of  the 
city,  not  only  to  study  the  fabrics  in  the  different  sections  in  the  locality  of  the 
exhibition,  but  if  they  desire  it,  to  take  these  home  with  them  for  closer  study. 


1.  The  Navigation  School,  opened  m  1826,  by  the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  con- 
tains two  classes :  one  for  lads  who  are  pursuing  the  usual  primary  studies;  and 
the  other  for  seamen,  who  are  qualifying  themselves  by  a  study  of  arithmetic, 
trigonometry,  surveying,  navigation,  nautical  astronomy,  drawing,  with  special 
reference  to  charts ;  code  of  signals,  theory  of  winds,  tides,  and  currents,  mer- 
cantile laws  and  usages,  practical  use  of  instruments  used  at  sea,  book-keeping, 
and  correspondence.     Steam  and  mechanics  have  been  recently  added. 

.  No  one  can  be  employed  as  a  master  or  under  officer  in  a  steam  or  sailing  veS' 
sel  belonging  to  Hamburg,  without  a  certificate  of  proficiency  in  the  studies  of 
this  school,  which  is  managed  by  a  committee  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce. 

2.  The  Seamen's  School,  a  private  enterprise,  receives  as  boarders  43  lads, 
under  15  years  of  age,  for  a  two  years'  course  in  naWgation.  It  employs  three 
teachers,  and  charges  210  thalers  a  year  for  board  and  instruction. 


Music  is  a  regular  subject  of  instruction  in  the  public  schools  of  Hamburg, 
but  the  method  is  left  with  each  school  and  teacher.  Mr.  Eichberg,  in  his  com- 
munication to  the  Boston  School  Committee  on  musical  iustraction  in  the  prin- 
cipal cities  of  Germany,  says  : 

Music  is  not  taught  uniformly  in  the  Hamburg  public  schools,  but  the  several 
teachers  instruct  independently  of  system.  Two  music  lessons  of  one  hour  each 
are  given  to  the  pupils,  either  by  their  regular,  or,  in  the  higher  schools,  by  an 
appointed  special  teacher.  In  the  Latin  school,  four  part  songs,  motets  and 
chorals,  are  sung,  the  lower  classes  singing  soprano  and  alto,  while  the  higher 
classes  take  the  tenor  and  basso  parts.  Pupils  are  not  allowed  to  sing  during 
the  mutation  of  the  voice,  but  have  to  be  present  at  the  music  lessons.  Great 
care  is  taken  to  avoid  choruses  requiring  great  extent  of  vocal  compass.  I  found 
here  Mr.  Benedict  Widmann's  different  publications  well  spoken  of.  They  are 
named  "  Little  Singing  School,  for  the  Three  Divisions  of  Boys'  and  Girls' 
Schools,"  and  "Prefatory  Instruction  in  Singing."  These  two  little  works, 
(sixty-four  and  eighty-two  pages  respectively,  in  12mo,)  contain  many  novel 
ideas  on  class  teaching.  .  The  author  strongly  advocates  musical  instruction  in 
the  primary  schools,  and  maintains  that  the  imitative  faculties  of  the  child  render 
the  teaching  of  singing  far  easier  at  an  early  age  than  it  would  be  when  the  vocal 
organs  iiave  passed  the  period  of  their  elastic  softness. 




The  Free  City  of  Frankfort,  (now  a  portion  of  the  new  province 
of  Nassau,  in  the  kingdom  of  Prussia,)  to  which  our  school  statistics 
refer,  on  a  territory  of  43  square  miles,  had  in  1861  a  poj)ulation 
of  87,518,  of  which  70,000  belonged  to  the  city  proper.  Besides  its 
vast  banking  interests,  there  are  large  mechanical  industries,  in  which 
beauty  of  form  and  nicety  of  execution  are  required,  and  which  have 
been  secured  by  the  appropriate  training  of  artists  and  artisans. 

The  public  educational  establishments  are  adminislered  by  five  co- 
ordinate authorities,  in  which  the  city  and  the  four  religious  denom- 
inations are  represented,  each  by  one  commissioner.  The  expendi- 
tures for"  teachers  (salaries  and  pensions),  buildings,  apparatus,  and 
equipment  generally  by  the  city,  are  very  liberal,  but  would  be  more 
eifective  by  a  simpler  administration.  The  schools,  except  the  gym- 
nasium and  the  special  schools,  are  mainly  denominational  in  their 
management,  and  may  be  classified  as  follows : 

I.  Elementary  Schools. — Eight  country  schools  of  a  higher  char- 
acter, with  2.820  pupils ;  4  Protestant  burgher  schools,  with  2,230 
pupils ;  4  Catholic  schools,  with  950  pupils ;  2  Jewish  burgher  schools, 
with  940  pupils.     Total  elementary  pupils,  6,940. 

II.  Secondary  and  Sri'perior  Schools. — One  gymnasium,  with  20 
teachers,  a  ten  years'  course,  and  an  average  of  160  pupils;  4  real- 
schools,  with  a  Latin  class  in  each,  and  about  900  pupils  in  all ;  3 
higher  burgher  schools,  (Catholic,  Protestant,  and  Jewish,)  with  a 
total  of  1,350  pupils,  male  and  female;  and  3  female  high  schools, 
with  840  pupils,  besides  a  large  number  (forty-four  in  1863,)  of  pri- 
vate institutions  with  elementary  and  secondary  classes. 

III.  Special  Schools  and  Institutions. — One  normal  school,  with 
30  pupils  ;  1  gallery  of  architecture,  painting,  and  sculpture,  with  a 
school  of  fine  arts ;  1  high  school  of  arts  and  trades,  with  a  prepara- 
tory school,  and  a  total  of  260  pupils ;  1  school  of  commerce,  with  a 
preparatory  school,  and  public  lectures;  1  institute  for  deaf  mutes, 
with  20  pupils ;  1  orphan  home,  with  46  inmates  ;  2  infant  asylums, 
with  60  inmates ;  1  school  of  gymnastics ;  1  house  of  refuge,  with 
24  inmates ;  the  Senkenberg  museum  of  natural  history ;  public 
library  of  70,000  volumes,  &c.  In  addition,  we  may  mention  the 
Sunday,  and  evening  industrial  school  of  the  Society  of  Public  Wel- 
fare, which  receives  subventions  from  the  government ;  a  private  acad- 
emy of  commerce ;  a  permanent  museum  for  the  exhibition  of  ma- 
chinery ;  a  school  for  medical  gymnastics. 



The  Schsol  of  Commerce  at  Frankfort  includes  :  (1.)  An  improvement  school 
for  clerks  ;  (2.)  A  regular  commercial  school;  (3.)  An  academy  of  commerce 
and  industry.  The  school,  like  that  at  Leipsic,  belongs  to  the  chamber  of  com- 
merce, and  its  direction  is  confided  to  a  committee  chosen  by  it,  which  com- 
mittee renders  a  monthly  report. 

(1.)  The  Improvement  School  is  open  to  pupils  after  they  leave  the  primary 
schools.  They  m.ust  undergo  an  examination  before  being  admitted.  If  they 
fail  in  this,  they  enter  into  a  supplementary  school  annexed  to  the  establishment, 
where  they  remain  until  they  receive  the  necessary  preparation,  or  fail  in  a  second 
examination,  in  which  last  case  they  are  advised  not  to  pursue  their  studies. 

The  course  lasts  two  years.  The  term  begins  after  Easter  and  continues  until 
Michaelmas ;  there  are  two  lessons  daily,  one  in  the  morning,  and  one  in  the 
afternoon,  the  hours  varying  according  to  the  season  and  the  press  of  business, 
being  fixed  by  the  chamber  of  commerce. 

The  studies  pursued  are  German,  French,  English,  commercial  correspondence, 
the  arithmetic,  geography,  and  history  of  commerce,  book-keeping,  and  callig- 
raphy.    The  school  is  well  attended,  and  the  teaching  is  successful. 

(2.)  The  Commercial  Division  is  open  to  all  who  have  finished  the  burgher  school, 
or  all  but  one  of  the  classes  of  a  gymnasium,  or  can  pass  an  examination  show- 
ing an  equivalent  grade  of  cultivation.  By  these  means,  pupils  with  a  fair  de- 
gree of  secondary,  general,  and  classical  instruction  are  secured. 

The  course  includes  two  classes  of  one  semester  each,  and  the  branches  taught 
are  as  follows,  the  hours  being  three  hours  in  the  morning  and  three  in  the  after- 
noon :  German,  French,  English,  the  arithmetic,  correspondence,  geography,  and 
history  of  commerce,  book-keeping,  physics,  chemistry,  articles  of  commerce, 
calligraphy,  and  political  economy  applied  to  German  commerce. 

The  following  branches  are  optional,  given  at  extra  hours,  and  for  a  var}'ing 
fee,  according  to  special  agreement :  Italian,  Spanish,  and  stenography. 

(3. )  The  Academy  for  Commerce,  open  to  all  who  desire  to  attend,  on  payment  of  a 
fee,  is  a  course  of  lectures  or  conferences,  which  may  be  considered  an  additional 
semester  to  the  last.  The  plan  was  boiTowed  from  Faraday's  lectures  in  the 
Royal  Institution  in  London.  Its  aim  is  to  give  a  high  commercial  education  to 
the  burgher  class.     It  is  administered  by  a  committee  of  eight,  chosen  by  ballot. 

The  course  commences  after  Easter ;  the  lectures  occupy  two  or  three  hours 
in  the  morning  and  two  or  three  in  the  afternoon.  There  are  coTirses  upon  the 
languages,  ethics,  commerce,  and  science.  The  course  upon  the  languages  ex- 
plains the  principles  of  comparative  grammar,  illustrating  with  English,  French, 
and  German.  It  also  includes  remarks  upon  the  literary  styles  of  these  tongues, 
and  extracts  from  the  best  authors  are  repeated.  That  upon  ethics  embraces  re- 
marks upon  the  principal  systems  of  philosophy,  ancient  and  modem,  the  pro- 
gress of  material  and  moral  civilization,  and  the  influence  of  literature,  and  the 
growth  of  the  arts  upon  social  manners  throughout  the  world.  The  course  upon 
commerce  embraces  commercial  law  and  convention,  political  economy,  particu- 
larly in  regard  to  the  comriierce  of  Gennany,  commercial  geography  and  histor}--, 
and  the  universal  history  of  the  industrial  arts.  That  on  science  treats  of  t!ie 
present  condition  of  science,  of  the  most  recent  discoveries  in  physics,  and  of 
chemistry  applied  to  the  knowledge  of  merchandise.  There  is  also  an  afternoon 
course  of  Italian  and  Spanish,  the  fee,  which  varies  according  to  the  number  of 
courses,  being  from  ten  to  thirty  francs  the  semester. 



The  Frankfort  Trades'  Schools  were  founded  by  a  society,  formed  in  1816, 
and'called  the  "  Society  for  the  Promotion  of  useful  Arts  and  Allied  Sciences." 

They  include:  (1.)  A  Sunday  school  for  artisans;  (2.)  An  evening  school; 
(3.)  A  higher  trades' school.  The  first  aims  at  the  completion  of  elementary 
education  for  such  young  persons  as  have  already  left  the  popular  school.  The 
second  offers  exclusive  instruction  in  industrial  technical  drawing. 

The  Hi(jher  Trades'  School  imparts  general  and  special  instruction  to  those 
about  to  enter  a  trade,  and  prepares  those  about  to  devote  themselves  to  some 
branch  of  technical  industry  for  the  special  classes  of  higher  institutions  and  the 
polytechnic  school.  Each  class  is  complete  in  itself,  every  pupil  leaving  Aviien 
fitted  for  his  futui-e  business.  For  instance,  those  intended  for  the  building  trade 
leave  after  the  second  class ;  those  who  wish  to  devote  thems-clves  to  architecture 
or  engineering  go  on  through  the  first. 

The  branches  taught  are  mathematics,  (including  algebra,  geometry,  trigo- 
nometry, analytical  and  practical  geometry,  analysis,)  natural  philosophy,  pbysics, 
chemistry,  mechanics  and  machinery,  descriptive  geometiy,  architectural  and 
machine  drawing,  topographical  and  free-hand  drawing,  German,  French,  history, 
literature,  geography,  and  calligraphy. 

Free-hand  drawing  is  begun  from  copies,  and  goes  on,  as  soon  as  possible,  to 
drawing  from  casts.  Particular  attention  is  paid  to  ornamental  drawing.  Only 
the  best  pupils  are  allowed  to  undertake  shading,  and  then  only  with  the  stump. 
Linear  drawing  begins  Avith  the  construction  of  geometrical  figures  by  which  the 
pupil  is  practiced  in  the  use  of  the  rule,  the  compass,  and  the  drawing  pen,  after 
which  comes  drawing  from  simple  implements,  then  from  wooden  models,  and 
finally  the  pupil  is  exei'cised  in  construction. 

The  fees  for  the  evening  school  are  six  florins  annually.  There  are  none  for  the 
Sunday  school,  but  a  moderate  entrance  money  is  charged.  In  the  higher  trades' 
schools  the  fees  vary  from  30  to  50  florins,  according  to  the  class,  of  which  there 
are  four. 

These  fees,  together  with  the  contributions  of  the  society,  pay  the  expenses 
of  the  trades'  schools.  The  cost  of  the  Sunday  and  the  evening  schools  is  de- 
frayed by  the  monthly  fees,  by  contributions  from  the  treasury  of  the  society,  and 
by  the  interest  from  a  special  school  fund  which  is  in  the  trusteeship  qf  the  society, 
and  is  increased  by  donations,  by  entrance  fees  to  the  Sunday  school,  and  the 
interest  of  that  portion  of  the  fund  which  is  less  than  1 ,000  florins  complete. 

The  administration  of  these  schools  is  in  the  hands  of  a  board  of  directors, 
consisting  of  nine  members  chosen  by  the  society,  of  which  three  go  out  annually. 
They  choose  among  themselves  a  director  Avho  presides,  a  vice-director,  a  secre- 
tary, a  treasurer,  a  manager,  and  an  assistant  librarian.  The  immediate  direc- 
tion of  the  school,  the  maintenance  of  the  fixed  plan  of  studies,  the  care  for  the 
health  and  conduct  of  the  pupils,  and  the  conduct  of  the  masters,  and  the  execu- 
tion of  the  orders  of  the  board,  is  in  the  hands  of  the  head-master,  who  has  a 
seat  in  the  board.  The  director  conducts  all  business  matters,  and  represents  the 
school  at  the  meetings  of  the  society.  The  board  has  for  its  duties,  to  arrange 
the  plan  of  studies,  and  to  name  the  books,  to  provide  apparatus,  to  appoint 
and  dismiss  teachers,  to  an*ange  prize  competitions  and  holidays,  and  to  manage 
the  funds.  They  must  consult  the  teachers  in  forming  the  plan  of  studies,  and 
m.ust  attend  the  recitations  from  time  to  time. 




The  free  city  and  State  of  Lubeck,  the  nominal  capital  of  the 
Hanse  towns,  on  several  isolated  ponions  of  territory,  had  a  total 
population  of  44,357,  of  which  31,898  were  in  the  city  and  immediate 
suburbs.  It  has  considerable  commercial  activity,  but  no  special 
school  calculated  to  prepare  young  men  for  it. 

The  public  schools,  although  numerous  enough  for  the  poor,  are  inef- 
ciently  organized,  and  administered  by  conflicting  authorities,  civil,  ec- 
clesiastical, and  corporate;  the  statistics  may  be  classified  as  follows  : 

I.  Elementary  School. — 1  city  school  for  700  poor  children ;  15 
schools  of  educational  societies  with  an  aggregate  of  4,800  pupils. 
There  are  numerous  private  schools,  both  elementary  and  secondary, 
which  absorb  the  interest  of  the  educated  and  wealthy  families. 

II.  Secondary  and  Superior  Schools. — 1  gymnasium,  founded  in 
1163,  and  known  as  Catharineum,  \\\\h.  128  classical  scholars,  111 
real  scholars,  and  a  preparatory  section  with  82  scholars, — a  total  of 
321  scholars,  and  19  teachers;  3  endowed  schools,  with  Latin  classes, 
and  450  pupils.     The  public  library  has  upward  of  50,000  volumes. 

III.  Special  Schools. — There  are  several  institutions  for  orphan 
and  neglected  children  ;  and  for  special  classes,  but  of  these  we  ha\  e 
no  information  except  the 


The  trade  school,  at  Lubeck,  dates  from  1841,  and  owes  its  origin  and  support 
to  the  Lubeck  Society  for  the  "Promotion  of  objects  of  Public  Utility."  Its  plan 
is  to  give  such  theoretical  instruction  to  apprentices  as  may  be  usefiil  to  them  in 
their  several  trades,  but  it  is  open  to  all  lads  above  the  age  of  twelve  Avho  intend 
to  enter  upon  some  mechanical  occupation,  or  wish  to  fit  themselves  for  the  agri- 
cultural and  polytechnic  schools,  &c.  They  must  be  acquainted  with  the  first 
four  rules  of  arithmetic  and  write  readily  from  dictation.  Most  are,  in  reality, 
farther  advaifced  than  this. 

The  present  head  teacher  was  educated  at  the  Hanover  Polytechnic,  the  others 
in  teachers'  seminaries,  after  having  attended  the  trade  school.  Their  ability  to 
teach  is  ascertained  by  examinations  and  testimonials.  They  are  engaged  per- 
manently, but  may  be  dismissed  at  six  months'  notice. 

No  special  mode  of  instruction  is  prescribed,  it  being  thought  that  diflFerent 
matters  require  different  methods,  and  that  the  individual  action  of  the  teachers, 
in  this  regard,  ought  not  to  be  interfered  with.  The  endeavor  is  to  stimulate  con- 
tinually the  minds  of  the  pupils,  and  cultivate  independence  of  thought.  All 
subjects,  however,  are  illustrated  by  experiments,  for  which  purpose  there  is  a 
large  and  increasing  stock  of  apparatus,  models,  plans,  and  chemical  prepara- 

The  total  number  of  pupils,  in  1867,  was  200.  The  expenses  of  the  school  are 
discharged  by  the  tuition  fees,  at  the  rate  of  about  $5.00  per  head,  the  annual 
cost  of  the  whole,  not  including  the  rent,  being  $1,250.  Orphans  are  received 
free  of  charge,  and  the  fees  for  apprentices  are  sometimes  discharged  by  the  mas- 
ters.    The  institution  has  proved  itself  to  be  useful,  and  is  well  patronized. 


IV.     BREMEN. 

The  free  city  of  Bremen  had  in  1864  a  population  of  98,575,  on  a 
territory  of  106  square  miles.  Of  the  entire  population,  31,358  live 
without  the  city.     The  city  has  extensive  commercial  interests. 

The  superior  administration  of  the  schools  is  in  the  hands  of  the 
Scholarchat,  of  four  members  of  the  senate,  each  school  having  a 
municipal  commission  or  a  school  delegation. 

I.  Public  Primary  Schools,  a.  Nine  parish  schools,  v^ith  2,939 
pupils,  in  four  classes,  both  sexes  being  mingled  in  the  three  lower. 
Each  is  governed  by  the  Bauherren  or  representatives  of  the  com- 
m'uie,  presided  over  by  the  pastor.  h,  Nine  free  schools,  with 
2,062  pupils,  all  state  institutions,  school  materials  being  supplied  gra- 
tuitouslvs  c.  Twenty-four  private  schools,  Avith  2,118  pupils,  opened 
after  special  permission,  and  directed  by  females,  who  receive  half 
their  rent  from  the  state  if  their  annual  pay  is  under  1 2  thalers. 
d.  Two  schools  of  the  women's  societies,  or  industrial  schools,  with 
78  pupils,     e.  Asylums  for  children. 

The  masters  of  the  parish  schools  receive  from  175  to  500  thalers, 
with  lodging;  of  the  free  schools,  180  to  485  thalers.  The  first 
masters  receive  20  thalers  additional  every  five  years,  until  the  whole 
salary  reaches  550.  The  masters  of  the  free  schools  are  pensioned 
by  the  state ;  of  the  parish  schools,  from  a  special  fund.  There  is 
also  a  fund  formed  by  contributions  of  four  thalers  from  each  teacher, 
which  is  for  the  widows  and  orphans. 

/.  Twenty-four  rural  schools,  mostly  over  crowded,  with  an  insuffi- 
cient number  of  teachers.  They  receive  an  annual  subvention  of 
8,740  thalers 

II.  Higher  and  Private  Schools,  a.  Gymnasium,  11  teachers, 
117  scholars,  b.  Preparatory  school,  12  teachers,  278  scholars. 
c.  Six  private  schools,  preparatory  to  gymnasium  and  burgher 
schools,  366  scholars.  cL  Four  private  burgher  and  real  schools, 
555  scholars,  e.  Nine  higher  female  schools,  private  institutions, 
648  scholars,  f.  Fifteen  elementary  schools  for  children  of  the 
wealthier  classes,  627  pupils. 

III.  Special  and  Professional  Schools,  a.  Commercial  school 
15  teachers,  227  scholars,     h.  Teachers'  seminary,  30  pupils. 




1.     Military  Marine. 
There  are  in  Austria  several  kinds  of  naval  schools,  as  follows :     One  each 
for  sailor  lx)ys,  for  marines,  for  quartermasters,  for  naval  pupils  of  the  first  class, 
for  naval  pupils  of  the  second  class,  a  theoretical  school  for  naval  cadets,  and  a 
superior  establishment  for  naval  officers. 

1.  The  school  for  sailor  boys  is  intended  to  train,  as  petty  officers  for  the  navy, 
young  men  from  the  Slave  and  German  provinces,  admitted  between  12  and  14 
years  of  age  into  the  naval  service.  The  instruction  lasts  until  the  pupil  has 
attained  the  age  for  the  conscription ;  he  is  then  entered  as  a  sailor  and  becomes 
a  petty  officer  as  soon  as  he  gets  sufficiently  used  to  the  sea.  The  highest  post 
he  can  attain  is  that  of  upper  boatswain  {Hochbootsmann.) 

2.  The  schools  for  marines  [Zeugscorps)  receive  men  drawn  from  different 
corps  of  the  army.  They  are  trained  as  petty  officers,  and  a  part  receive  the 
uniform.  Those  who  are  fit  to  become  officers  receive  their  promotion  when  they 
leave  their  corps  to  enter  the  school, 

3-  The  school  for  naval  cadets  of  the  first  class  is  kept  on  board  a  war  vessel 
selected  for  the  purpose.  The  object  is  to  prepare  for  the  naval  sei-vice  youths 
of  16  or  18  years  of  age,  who,  on  entering  the  school  have  already  received  a 
complete  civil  technical  education.  The  teaching  here  consists,  therefore,  chiefly 
of  pi'actical  seamanship,  and  also  of  the  application  of  previously  acquired  scien- 
tific knowledge  to  navigation  and  nautical  astronomy.  The  course  occupies  a 
year ;  on  leaving,  the  pupil  is  received  as  a  naval  cadet.  After  passing  two  or 
three  years  at  sea  these  cadets  enter  the  theoretical  school  for  naval  cadets. 

4.  The  school  for  naval  cadets  of  the  second  class  is  intended  solely  to  prepare 
them  to  become  officers.  In  this  school,  beside  the  pupils  placed  there  at  the 
cost  of  the  State,  there  are  others  maintained  by  cndoAvmcnts,  and  also  others 
who  pay  for  their  instruction.  The  sons  of  officers  and  State  functionaries  are 
entitled  to  enter  this  school  at  the  public  expense,  and  any  Austrian  subject  who 
has  the  necessary  qualifications  is  admitted  on  payment.  Foreigners  are  also 
admissible  as  paying  pupils,  provided  they  can  obtain  authorization  from  their 
own  government  to  enter  the  Austrian  service.  To  be-  admitted,  candidates 
must  be  between  12  and  14  years  of  age,  of  sound  health  without  bodily  defect, 
and  able  to  pass  a  previous  examination.  The  instruction  is  given  in  accordance 
with  a  determined  plan,  on  board  a  vessel  prepared  expressly  to  receive  thepupils. 
After  three  years'  instruction  the  pupils  leave  the  school  as  naval  cadets  and  are 
sent  to  sea.  At  the  end  of  two  or  three  years'  active  service  the  cadets  are  ad- 
mitted to  the  theoretical  school.  This  school  receives  from  40  to  50  pupils.  The 
chaplain  on  board  is  charged  with  the  religious  instruction  ;  the  other  teaching 
is  given  by  professors  from  the  hj'drographic  schools.  The  naval  officers  of  the 
school-ship  give  the  instruction  in  practical  seamanship. 

5.  The  theoretical  school  for  .naval  cadets  is  on  shore,  and  its  course  occupies 
a  year,  after  which  the  pupil  undergoes  the  examination  prescribed  for  his  com- 
mission as  an  officer.  On  leaving  this  theoretical  school  the  pupils  are  still  naval 
cadets,  but  become  officers  when  appointed  to  a  ship. 

6.  The  superior  school  for  naval  officers  is  intended  for  the  further  improve- 
ment in  mathematical  and  hydrogi-aphic  studies,  of  such  young  men  as  have 
shown  decided  talent  and  taste  for  those  sciences. 



.  The  kingdom  of  Hanover,  before  its  absorption  into  Prussia,  on  an 
area  of  14,846  English  square  miles,  in  1864  had  1,888,070  iirhab- 
itants.  In  the  Hartz  mountahis  extensive  mining  operations  are 
carried  on,  and  the  total  annual  produce  is  valued  at  5,523,b85 
thalers.  Agriculture  and  the  raising  of  cattle,  form,  however,  the 
most  important  sources  of  income.  On  the  coast,  in  the  rivers,  and  in 
2,0 00  fish-ponds,  a  large  amount  of  fish  is  caught  every  year.  The 
number  of  manufactories,  mostly  linen,  was  in  1861,  7,141,  employ- 
ing 41,855  people.  The  trade  is  largely  absorbed  by  Hamburg  and 

The  total  annual  expenditure  in  1864,  amounted  to  20,066,011 
thalers,  of  which  sum  184,000  thalers  were  expended  on  public  in- 
struction— 116,000  thalers  on  primary,  and  68,000  thalers  on  second- 
ary schools.  The  institutions  of  public  instruction  are  administered 
by  the  minister  of  education  and  ecclesiastical  affairs,  and  embrace : 

1,  Primary  Instruction.  There  are  3,584  primary  schools,  with  281,348  schol- 
ars, and  3,812  teachers. 

•2.  Secondary  Instniction.  There  are  8  real  schools,  with  965  scholars,  and 
39  teachers;  11  higher  burgher  schools,  with  2,181  scholars,  and  112  teachers; 
17  gymnasia,  with  5,192  scholars,  and  205  teachers  ;  3  progymnasia,  with  272 
scholars,  and  23  teachers;  11  higher  girls'  schools,  with  1,862  scholars,  and 
107  teachers  ;  making  a  total  of  44  secondary  schools,  with  10,472  scholars,  and 
486  teachers. 

3.  Superior  Tnfitruction.  The  University  at  Gottingen,  with  4  faculties,  had  in 
1868,  809  students,  and  119  professors. 

4.  Special  and  Professional  Instruction.  Eleven  teachers'  seminaries,  with  254 
pupils,  viz:  1  (preparatory  institute)  at  Hanover,  Avith  32  pupils;  1  (head  semi- 
nary) at  Hanover,  with  24  pupils  ;  1  (after-training)  at  Hanover,  with  1.2  pupils; 
1  (city  and  county  teachers)  at  Alfeld,  with  50  pupils  ;  1  (boarding  seminary)  at 
Liineburg,  with  32  pupils;  1  at  Aurich,  with  26  pupils;  1  at  Stade,  A\dth  20 
pupils;  1  at  Neuenhaus,  with  10  pupils;  1  (catholic)  at  Osnabriick,  with  12 
pupils;  1  (protestant)  at  Osnabriick,  with  24  pupils;  1  (catholic)  at  llildcsheim, 
with  12  pupils.  3  navigation  schools;  3  commercial  academies;  1  agricultural 
school ;  1  polytechnic  school,  at  Hanover ;  I  mining  school ;  1  school  of  forestry ; 
1  military  academy;  3  theological  seminaries  ;  1  asylum  for  the  blind,  at  Hano- 
ver, with  75  pupils;  1  institution  for  the  deaf  mutes,  at  Ilildosheini,  with  120 
pupils;  1  do.  at  Emden,  with  25  pupils;  2  with  normal  schools,  at  Stade  and 
Osnabriick,  with  48  pupils  ;  1  for  imbeciles  ;  3  rescue  houses ;  1  Pestalozzi  home 
and  refuge ;  5  orphan  houses ;  20  infant  schools  and  gardens. 

Since  1866  Hanover  forms  part  of  the  kingdom  of  Pnissia,  constituting  the 
province  of  Hanover. 




Of  the  educational  institutions  of  Hanover  designed  or  used  to  prepare  young 
persons  for  their  special  career,  and  to  meet  the  demands  of  the  public  service 
or  of  particular  industries  or  special  classes,  we  select  a  few  for  brief  notice. 


An  apprentice  can  not  become  a  member  of  his  trade  without  the  approba- 
tion of  a  committee  of  the  guild,  over  which  presides  a  member  of  the  municipal 
council.  One  of  the  conditions  imposed  by  the^committee  is  evidence  of  regu- 
lar attendance  on  the  evening  and  the  Sunday  classes  estabhshed  at  the  expense 
of  the  town,  and  under  the  supervision  of  a  government  board.  These  im- 
provement classes  include  drawing  and  geometry,  besides  a  review  of  the  pri- 
mary studies.  Of  these  schools  there  were  37  in  1863,  with  ItO  teachers,  4,077 
apprentices,  and  3,763  journeymen. 

artisans'   school   at   HANOVER. 

Besides  the  apprentice  improvement  schools,  there  exists  in  the  capital  a 
trade  or  artisan  school,  with  a  preparatory  class.  In  the  latter,  tliere  is  an 
average  attendance  of  234  pupils,  and  in  the  school  proper  over  600  workmen 
GVQ^y  year.  Drawing  constitutes  the  principal  subject  of  instruction,  and  in 
1864,  out  of  344  attending  to  it,  102  were  classed  as  free-hand;  149  special,  67 
geometrical  and  architectural ;  and  26  from  the  cast. 

woEKiyrEx's  societies'  classes. 
Connected  with  societies  of  workmen,  which  exist  in  the  chief  towns,  there 
are  classes  (taught  by  paid  professors)  which  in  Hanover  were  attended  in  1864 
by  814  members,  of  whom  more  than  one-half  were  taught  in  different  classes 
of  drawing,  modeling,  and  wood-carving. 


The  real-school  was  originally  established  in  1835  for  young  men  whose 
parents  intended  them  to  follow  a  trade,  but  it  was  deemed  best  to  exclude  all 
matters  special  and  technical,  and  the  municipality  instituted  an  independent 
course  of  commercial  instruction,  book-keeping,  and  kindred  subjects,  distrib- 
uted through  two  years,  of  four  terms  of  six  months  each,  held  four  evenings 
in  the  week.  The  merchants'  guild  selects  the  pupils  who  apply,  and  their  mas- 
ters are  bound  to  give  them  the  necessary  time,  and  to  enforce  their  regular 


In  Nienberg  there .  is  a  special  school  for  workmen  in  the  building  trades — 
open  in  the  winter  from  October  21  to  the  end  of  March,  and  divided  into  three 
classes,  in  which  sixty  hours  a  week  are  devoted  by  practical  masons,  joiners, 
and  those  pursuing  other  trades,  mainly  to  technical  studies. 
-  Lowest  Class. — Compositions  in  the  German  language,  8  hours  per  week ; 
Arithmetic  and  algebra,  9 ;  Plane  geometry,  calculation  of  areas,  7  ;  Linear 
drawing  and  descriptive  geometry. — jointing  roofe,  framing,  &c.,  15 ;  Element^ 


of  physics,  4;  Architectural  drawing,  5;  Free-hand  drawing,  and  ornament,  12 
— ^.i  totiil  of  60  hours  for  live  raoiiUis. 

Stcond  Class. — Syntax,  punctuation,  business  letters  in  German,  4  hours ;  Al- 
gebra, 6 ;  Plane  and  solid  geometry. — Bimiliiude,  polygons,  the  circle,  planes, 
cubature,  4  hours  per  week  ;  Descriptive  geometry. — framing  of  roofs,  vaults, 
staircases,  compound  apparatus,  parts  ol  machines,  shadows,  perspective,.  8 ; 
Technical  physics. — Ibrces,  eflects,  centre  of  j^raviiy,  simple  machines,  4;  Les- 
sons on  buildings  for  stone-cutters,  masons,  carpenters,  slaters,  with  drawing  of 
plans,  sections,  elevations,  orders,  enUiblatures,  details,  21;  Lessons  on  building 
materials,  3 ;  Drawing  of  ornaments,  from  models,  6 ;  Modeling  in  clay  or 
plaster,  wood  or  stone,  4.     Total,  60  hours  per  week. 

Fi7-d  doss. — German  language. — Written  and  oral  compositions,  2  hours  ; 
Manufacturers'  book-keeping,  2  ;  Algebra,  geometv}',  plane  and  solid,  (repeti- 
tions and  exercises.)  4;  Practical  geometry. — Surveying  of  land,  roads,  parts  of 
towns,  leveling,  plotting,  4;  Technical  physics. — Machines  employed  in  build- 
ing, resistance  of  materials,  pressure  of  water,  hoisting  machines — Mechanics 
connected  with  building,  6;  Course  on  building. — Erection  of  houses.  &c. — 
Study  of  ground — Foundations — Establishment  of  comi)]ete  projects  with  esti- 
mates— Design  of  building — Laws  affecting  buildings.  80 ;  Drawing  of  orna- 
ment, 6 :  Modeling  in  plaster  and  clay,  stone  and  wood,  6  to  12.  Total,  60  to 
66  lessons  per  week. 

This  school,  in  1863-64,  had  14  professors  and  195  pupils,  of  whom  there 
were  89  masons,  87  joiners,  2  tilers,  9  millwrights  and  fitters,  7  cabinet-makers, 
1  locksmith. 

The  majority  of  the  pupils  were  from  17  to  25  years  of  age ;  the  youngest 
was  15,  and  the  eldest  37. 


The  first  impulse  towards  the  erecting  of  this  institution  was  given  by  the 
old  Industrial  Club  in  Hanover,  which  urged  upon  the  ministers  of  state  (in 
1830)  the  necessity  of  a  technical  school.  The.  ministry  entered  into  the  idea, 
caused  means  to  be  furnished,  and  appointed  the  distinguished  Karmarsch,  still 
at  its  head,  to  take  immediate  charge  of  the  school,  under  the  Eoyal  Commis- 
sioners of  Technical  Schools.  The  first  terra  of  the  higher  industrial  school, 
which  name  it  took,  commenced  October  3d.  1S31.  In  1834  the  hired  buildings 
proved  insufficient,  and  a  new  building  was  begun  for  its  accommodation  and 
completed  in  1837,  at  an  expense  of  $80,000.  A  careful  choice  of  teachers, 
watchful  superintendence  of  the  instruction,  and  a  marked  progress  in  the  ex- 
tension of  the  latter,  made  this  school  soon  famous,  and  won  confidence,  espe- 
cially in  foreign  lands.  Ifext  to  Carlsruhe  it  has  the  greatest  number  of 
foreigners.  In  1847  it  received  the  name  of  Polytechnic  school,  which  it  had 
really  been  for  a  long  time. 

The  aim  of  the  school  is  in  general  the  same  as  that  of  other  institutions  of 
the  kind,  viz ,  a  preparation  for  technical  State  service  in  architecture,  railway 
building,  and  the  making  of  machinery,  as  well  as  to  give  a  scientific  education 
and  special  studies  to  those  who  wish  to  fit  themselves  for  carrying  out  scien- 
tific and  industrial  undertakings.  The  instruction  is  divided  into  a  preparatory 
course,  and  the  school  proper,  which  includes  the  higher  special  studies. 

A  comparison  can  not  be  instituted  between  this  preparatory  course  and  the 
general  mathematical  classes  of  other  schools,  since  differential  and  integral 
calculus  is  not  taught  here.  In  hke  manner,  the  school  proper  is  not,  as  else- 
where, divided  into  special  departments,  but  tlie  whole  course  is  given  in  single 
subjects,  more  or  less  of  which,  according  to  circumstances,  form  the  scientific 
education  of  the  pupils  for  any  particular  department.     To  prevent  pupils  from 


taking  an  unsuitable  course  of  study,  certain  acquirements  are  necessary  for 
entering  each  class,  whereby,  in  an  indirect  way,  a  definite  course  is  secured. 

To  meet  the  increasing  demands  for  special  instruction,  additional  studies 
have  from  time  to  time  been  added  to  the  printed  announcements,  and  in  these, 
certain  fixed  courses  are  recommended  to  students  for  special  technical  depart- 

The  chief  subdivisions  of  the  teaching  are  regulated  with  a  view  to  giving 
tlie  instruction  necessary:  1.  For  manufacturing  chemists;  2.  For  agricul- 
turists; 3.  For  surveyors;  4.  For  mechanicians  and  constructors  of  machines; 
5.  For  architects ;   6.  For  hydraulic,  railway,  and  road  engineers. 

To  be  admitted  as  a  pupil  in  the  preparatory  school,  candidates  must  be  six- 
teen years  of  age,  and  seventeen  for  the  upper  school  or  for  special  divisions. 
The  instruction  required  for  the  preparatory  school  comprises  the  German  lan- 
guage and  the  habit  of  composition  therein,  the  use  of  decimal  fractions,  the 
rules  of  three  and  of  proportions,  the  elements  of  algebra,  plane  geometry,  and 
general  notions  of  geography  and  history.  As  for  the  special  courses  of  the 
superior  school,  candidates  must  be  masters  of  the  matters  taught  in  the  pre- 
paratory school,  of  which  we  give  the  details  below.  However,  the  pupils  who 
intend  to  follow  only  the  courses  of  natural  history,  are  not  obliged  to  undergo 
an  examination  in  mathematics.  No  examination  is  imposed  on  those  who 
mean  to  attend  only  the  lessons  on  drawing  and  modehng. 

Programme  of  the  Preparatory  School. — Elementary  mathematics:  algebra 
as  far  as  equations  of  the  third  and  fourth  degrees ;  elements  of  geology  and 
botany;  elements  of  mineralogy ;  free-hand  drawing ;  linear  drawing;  elements 
of  descriptive  geometry. 

Programme  of  the  Polytechnic  School. — Pure  mathematics,  in  two  courses,  as  far 
as  the  calculus  of  variations  ;  descriptive  geometry ;  practical  geometry  ;  me- 
chanics ;  higher  mechanics,  theoretical  and  applied;  construction  of  machines; 
study  of  machines ;  study  of  prime  movers  and  other  machines ;  building  con- 
struction, in  three  courses;  roads  and  railways;  bridges  and  hydraulic  con- 
structions ;  geology,  mineralogy,  and  physical  geography ;  pure  physics ;  applied 
physics ;  chemistry,  theoretical  and  applied  with  manipulation ;  manual  labor, 
including  instruction  in  working  in  metals  and  in  wood,  spinning  and  weaving, 
modeling,  and  the  construction  of  small  models. 

To  enable  the  pupils  to  select  the  courses  which  they  may  attend,  and  to  pre- 
clude numerous  inquiries,  the  general  regulations  state  that  the  preparatory 
school  comprises,  in  the  course  of  a  year,  the  following  subjects:  zoology,  bot- 
any, mineralogy,  elementary  mathematics,  free-hand  and  hnear  drawing. 

The  order  of  the  studies,  after  leaving  the  preparatory  school  and  for  special 
branches,  is  shown  by  the  following  programme : 

For  Chemists. — First  Year. — Preparatory  school. 

Second  Ytar. — Theoretical  chemistry,  technology,  theoretical  and  apphed 
physics  and  meclianics. 

Third  Year. — Geology  and  physical  geography,  or  instead,  general  knowledge 
of  machines  and  applied  chemistry. 

Fourth  Year. — Chemical  manipulation. 

For  Agriculturists. — First  Year. — Preparatory  school. 

Second  Year. — Theoretical  chemistry,  technology,  physics,  mechanics. 

Tiiird  Year. — General  knowledge  of  machines,  first  course  of  building  con- 
struction, practical  geometry  and  drawing  of  plans,  or  else  chemical  manipula- 
tion, practical  chemistry. 

For  Surveyors. — First  Year. — Preparatory  school. 

Second.  Year. — First  course  of  higher  mathematics ;  theoretical  and  applied 
physics;  descriptive  geometry. 


Taird  Year. — Practical  geometry  with  drawing  of  plans.  Geology  and  phy- 
sical geography. 

Foii  Mechanicians  and  Machine-makers.  —  First  Year.  —  Preparatory 

Second  Year. — First  course  of  higlier  mathematics;  mechanics,  technology, 
descriptiv.e  geometry,  theoretical  physics. 

Till  id  ^''mr.— Knowledge  of  machines,  construction  of  machines,  first  course 
of  construction,  higlier  meclianics. 

Fourth  Year. — Knowledge  of  special  machines ;  second  course  of  higher 
mathematics,  pure  chemistry,  applied  physics. 

For  Architects. — First  Year. — Preparatory  school. 

Second  Year. — First  course  of  higher  mathematics ;  technology,  descriptive 
geometry,  mechanics,  tlieoretical  physica 

Third  Year. — First  course  of  construction  and  ornamentation,  practical  geom- 
etry and  drawing  of  plans,  general  knowledge  of  machines,  modelmg,  drawing 
from  the  cast. 

Fourth  Year. — Second  course  of  construction  and  ornamentation,  physical 
geography,  construction  of  roads  and  railways,  modehug  and  drawing  from  the 

Fifth  Year. — Third  course  of  construction  and  ornamentation,  bridges  and 
hydraulic  constructions,  theoretical  chemistry. 

For  Civil  Engineers. — First  Year. — Preparatory  school. 

Second  Year. — First  course  of  higher  mathematics;  technology,  descriptive 
geometr}^  theoretical  physics,  and  mechanics. 

TJiird  Year. — Second  course  of  higher  mathematics;  first  course  of  building 
construction;  practical  geometry  and  drawing  of  plans,  construction  of  ma- 

Fourth  Year. — Road  and  railways ;  second  course  of  building  construction  ; 
higlier  mechanics,  pliysical  geography,  and  applied  physics. 

Fifth  Year. — Hydraulics  and  construction  of  bridges,  third  course  of  building 
construction ;  special  machines,  and  theoretical  chemistry. 

The  French  Commission  submit  the  following  observations  on  the  above 
courses : 

The  details  which  have  been  given  show  that  the  order  of  the  teaching  is  so 
regulated  that,  for  certain  important  divisions,  such  as  those  of  mechanicians 
and  architects,  pupils  may  receive  a  very  serviceable  amount  of  technical  in- 
struction, with  the  aid  of  elementary  mathematics,  and  enter  upon  the  practice 
of  their  professions  without  going  through  the  whole  course  of  studies.  Such 
an  arrangement  is  very  suitable  for  many  young  men,  and  in  no  way  injurious 
to  the  soundness  of  their  education. 

Thiis,  to  enable  them  to  attend  the  first  course  of  mechanics,  the  course  of 
construction  of  machines,  those  of  hydraulics,  prime  movers,  and  of  the  prin- 
cipal machine-tools,  and  for  the  drawing  up  of  projects  relative  to  these  ma- 
chines, the  meclianical  engineers  do  not  require  more  than  the  elementary  and 
fundamental  principles  of  geometry,  algebra,  trigonometry,  and  descriptive 
geometry.  Tliere  is  no  necessity  for  them  to  study  the  higher  pure  mathe- 
matics, which,  notwithstanding  their  utility,  present  considerable  diflBculties  to 
certain  minds,  and  require  no  little  time  and  effort.  The  same  may  be  said  of 
the  instruction  given  to  architects ;  for,  after  attending  the  first  two  courses  of 
construction,  the  pupils  may  have  acquired  the  knowledge  necessary  for  ordi- 
nary buildings. 

This  gradation  of  instruction  greatly  diminishes  the  inconvenience,  above 
mentioned,  of  the  high  reading  in  the  second  course  of  pure  mathematics. 
Moreover,  the  table  showing  the  distribution  of  the  students  among  the  different 
branches  of  learning,  which  we  are  about  to  give,  justifies  our  observations ; 
for  it  will  thereby  he  seen  that  whilst  89  pupils  are  inscribed  for  elementary 
mathematics,  and  83  for  the  first  course  of  higher  mathematics,  there  are  only 
1-4  for  the  second  course  of  the  same  studies.  It  is  therefore  more  than  prob- 
able that  a  small  proportion  of  the  83  pupils  of  the  first  course  really  profit  by 
those  lessons. 


The  pupils  were  distributed  among  the  diflFerent  branches  as  follows: 

Elementary  mathematics, 89  Mineralogy, 57 

Pure  mathematics,     P^*  course, 83  Geolojry.  , 40 

'     p^d  course 14  Hieoretical  physics, ,24 

Mechanics 93  Technicul  physics, 10 

Higher  mechanics, 60  Theoretical  chemistry 50 

Practical  geometry .'i?  Technical  chemistry, 27 

Descriptive  geometry 73  Practical  chemistry, 29 

Study  of  machines,  H^y^omse, 86  Technology,. 82 

■'  ^ 'J(l  course, .ii  Lmenr  drawing, /9 

Construction  of  machines, 65  Free-hand  drawing 96, 

1st  course,.  79  Drawing  from  the  round  and  reliefs, .'. .  10 

Construction  of  buildings,  >^  2d  course, .  45  Modeling 5 

I  1st 

s,  ^  2d  ( 

course,.  27        French  langunge, 11 

History  of  the  (irt  of  building,        (         „q         English  language, 21 

Construction  of  roads  and  bridges,  ji  * " '  H  istory 16 

Hydrnulic  constructions, 30         Law  and  police  of  buildings, 20 

Zobiogy  and  botany, 52 

This  table  clearly  shows  what  courses  best  suit  the  requirements  of  the  class 
of  persons  who  attend  institutions  of  this  kind. 

They  are  in  the  order  of  the  preceding  tab!e : — Elementary  mathematics ; 
first  course  of  pure  mathematics  (which  might  be  simplified;)  elementary  me- 
chanics (which  might  be  extended;)  practical  geometry;  descriptive  geometry; 
the  study  of  machines,  first  course  (which  might  be  made  more  elementary;) 
tlie  construction  of  machines;  building  construction;  zoology  and  botany; 
theoretical  chemistry  ;  technology  ;  linear  drawing ;  free-hand  drawing. 

It  would  seem  therefore  that  attention  ought  to  be  directed  principally  to 
these  ditlerent  branches  of  learning,  and  every  effort  made  to  facilitate  their 
study  by  the  adoption  of  the  simplest  methods.  It  seems  clear  that  the  teach- 
ing of  the  sciences  of  a  high  order  has  a  repellant  effect  on  the  pupils.  That 
physics  should  be  among  the  number  of  the  studies  least  followed  is  remarkable 
and  much  to  be  regretted.'  There  are,  perhaps,  particular  causes  for  this,  but, 
in  anj^  case,  that  science  ought  to  hold  a  higher  rank  in  the  programme  and  to 
have  greater  facihties  for  experimenting. 

The  number  of  pupils  for  the  last  three  years  has  averaged  about  440,  of 
whom  380  were  regular — the  age  ranges  from  eleven  to  twenty,  a  majority 
being  under  sixteen  years. 

There  are  21  regular  professors,  3  tutors,  and  several  special  teachers. 

The  State  pays  all  expenses  over  the  receipts  from  tuition,  (w'hich  amount  to 
about  $6,500  a  year,)  and  supplies  the  building  and  equipment. 

Prof  Koristka,  in  his  account  of  the  Higher  Polytechnic  Institutions'  of  Ger- 
many, speaks  of  this  school: 

The  school  at  Hanover  rightly  enjoys  great  reputation  in  foreign  lands..  It 
stands  firm  by  its  first  organization,  which  followed  closely  that  of  Austria.  It 
is  not  divided  into  separate  schools,  but  its  whole  course  is  given  in  single  sub- 
jects, which  are,  however,  combined  in  such  a  waj'-  as  to  give  most  of  the 
advantages  of  special  schools.  Its  experience  is  proof  that  success  depends 
as  mucli  on  the  excellence  and  cooperation  of  the  teachers  as  on  organization 
and  courses  of  study.  All  the  teachers  (twenty-four,  of  whom  six  have  the 
title  of  professors  and  three  of  assistant-professors)  constitute  a  board,  which 
meets  once  a  month  in  council  and  decides  on  all  general  rules  as  to  studies 
and  discipline.  All  submit  to  tlie  "directory,"  which  is  lodged  in  two  persons 
appointed  by  the  government — one,  the  principal,  is  responsible  for  the  finances 
and  the  collections,  and  the  other,  for  the  discipline.  The  general  supervision 
belongs  to  a  royal  commission,  consisting  of  the  two  directors,  and  four  other 
members.  This  commission  appoints  the  professors  and  must  visit  the  class  and 
lecture-rooms,  and  report  annually.  Terms  in  the  preparatory  school,  $24; 
and  in  the  Polytechnic  there  is  a  fee  for  each  coursC;  which  varies  according  to 
the  length  from  $3  to  $16. 



The  Electorate  of  Hesse- Cassel,  on  an  area  of  4,430  English 
square  miles,  in  1804  had  74o,0G3  inhabitants.  .  It  is  chiefly  an  agri- 
cultural and  cattle-producing  country  ;  factories  are  only  to  be  found 
in  the  larger  towns,  and  these  chiefly  devoted  to  linen,  and  of  late 
years  also  to  cotton  fabrics.  There  are  also  some  paper,  glass,  iron, 
and  other  workshops,  and  338  distilleries. 

The  total  annual  expenditure  of  the  government  of  Hesse-Cassel 
in  1865,  amounted  to  4,897,680  thalers,  of  which  90,330  thalers  were 
expended  for  general  instruction.  The  amount  of  school-fees  is 
estimated  at  60,000  thalers  annually. 

The  institutions  of  public  instruction  are  administered  by  the 
minister  of  the  interior,  and  under  him  by  the  provincial  and  district 
autjiorities,  and  include : 

1.  Primary  or  Common  Schools  (  Volksschulen).  Of  these  there 
were  in  1865,  about  1,300,  of  which  117  are  burgher  and  city 
schools,  with  about  126,000  scholars,  and  1,163  teachers. 

2.  Secondary  Schools.  2  Latin  schools,  with  89  scholars,  and  5 
teachers  ;  2  progymnasia,  with  128  scholars,  and  13  teachers  ;  6  gym- 
nasia, with  1,333  scholars,  and  92  teachers  ;  10  real  schools  and  higher 
burgher  schools,  with  2,254  scholars,  and  110  teachers;  making  a 
total  of  20  secondary  schools,  with  3,804  scholars,  and  220  teachers. 

3.  Superior  Schools.  The  University  at  Marburg,  with  four  facul- 
ties (theology,  law,  medicine,  philosophy),  had  50  professors,  and 
310  students. 

4.  Special  and  Professional  Schools, 
3  Teachers'  seminaries. 

1  Higher  industrial  school. 

1  School  of  forestry. 

1  School  of  agriculture. 

A  catholic  seminary  at  Fulda. 

A  cadet  school  at  Cassel. 

An  academy  of  arts  at  Cassel. 
After  the  war  of  1866,  the  Elector  was   deposed,  and  the  whole 
country  annexed  to  Prussia,  of  which  kingdom  it  now  forms,  together 
with  Nassau  and  Frankfort,  the  province  of  Hesse  and  Franken. 




The  Grand-duchy  of  Hesse-Darmstadt,  on  an  area  of  3,240  Eng- 
lish square  miles,  in  1864  had  816,902  inhabitants.  Hesse-Darm- 
stadt is  chiefly  an  agricultural  country ;  on  the  Rhine  the  vine  is 
extensively  cultivated,  and  the  region  of  the  Odenwald  and  the  Wet- 
terau  are  famous  for  excellent  fruit. 

The  total  annual  expenditure  of  the  government  of  Hesse- Darm- 
stadt in  1866,  amounted  to  9,372,962  florins,  of  which  44,463  florins 
were  extended  for  primary  instruction,  and  28,040  florins  for  second- 
ary instruction. 

The  institutions  of  public  instruction,  administered  by  the  minis- 
ter of  the  interior,  embrace : 

1.  Primary  Schools.  Of  these  there  are  1,756,  with  150,568 
scholars,  and  1,382  teachers. 

2.  Secondary  Schools.  6  gymnasia,  with  1,171  scholars,  and  81 
teachers;  10  real  schools,  with  1,818  scholars,  and  110  teachers;  3 
higher  burgher  schools,  with  646  scholars,  and  29  teachers;  making 
a  total  of  19  secondary  schools,  with  3,635  scholars,  and  220  teachers. 

3.  Superior  Schools.  The  University  at  Giessen,  with  four  facul- 
ties (theology,  law,  medicine,  ,and  philosophy),  had  in  186§-9,  45 
professors,  and  326  students^. 

4.  Special  and  Professional  Schools, 
2  Teachers'  seminaries. 

1  School  of  forestry. 
1  Commercial  academy. 

1  Military  academy. 

2  Schools  of  agriculture. 

1  School  of  veterinary  surgery. 

2  Polytechnic  schools. 

2  Deaf  and  dumb  asylums. 
1  Institution  for  the  blind. 




The  Grand  Ducliy  of  Meckleriburg-Scluverin,  on  an  area  of  4,834  English 
square  miles,  in  1864,  had  552,612  inliabitants,  entirely  agricultural,  the  rural 
population  being  little  removed  from  the  condition  of  serfs.  The  trade  in  corn, 
cattle,  butter,  &c.,  is  chiefly  carried  on  by  the  two  ports  of  Wismar  and  Rostock. 

The  total  annual  expenditure  in  1865  was  3,430,028  thalers,  of  which  sum 
about  30,000  was  expended  for  public  instruction. 

The  institutions  of  public  instruction  are  administered  by  the  Minister  of 
Education,  who  at  the  same  time  is  Minister  of  Justice  and  Ecclesiastical  Affairs. 

1.  Primary  Schools. — There  are  1,334  elementary  schools  and  45  burgher- 
schools.  The  exact  number  of  scholars  and  teachers  is  not  given  officially,  but 
by  estimation  there  were  in  1864  about  69,000  pupils,  under  1,517  teachers. 

2.  Secondary  Schools. — There  are  5  gymnasia,  with  2,083  scholars  and  91 
teachers;  and  8  real-schools  and  higher  burgher-schools,  with  1,429  scholars 
and  62  teachers;  making  a  total  of  13  secondary  schools,  with  3,512  scholars 
and  153  teachers. 

%  S'rperior  Schools. — There  is  1  university  at  Eostock,  with  4  faculties  (the- 
ology, law,  medicine,  and  pliilosophy,)  with  38  professors  and  171  students. 
4.  Special  and  Professional  Schools  : 

2  Teachers'  seminaries,  one  at  Neukloster  with  64  pupils,  and  a  second 

at  Dobberau  with  10  pupils. 
1  Deaf  and  dumb  institution  at  Ludwigslust,  with  58  pupils. 
1  Couimercial  academy. 
1  Military  adademy. 
1  School  of  agriculture. 

3  Nautical  schools  (Wustrow,  Eostock,  and  Wismar.)  with  an  aggregate 

of  200  pupils.     That  at  Wustrow  has  a  three  years'  course,  and  a 

preparatory  class. 
1  School  of  veterinary  surgery. 
1  Polytechnic  school. 
40  Evening  trade-schools,  for  apprentices  and  journeymen. 


The  Grand  Duchy  of  Mecklenburg-Strelitz,  on  an  area  of  997  English  square 
miles,  in  1861,  had  99,060  inhabitants,  who  are  mainly  engaged  in  agriculture 
as  tenants. 

There  is  only  one  "Minister  of  State,"  who  manages  all  the  affairs  of  the 
Grand  Duchy,  including  the  public  schools,  viz. : 

1.  Primary  Schools. — There  are  231  primary  schools.  The  number  of  schol- 
ars and  teachers  can  not  be  ascertained  from  official  documents,  but  it  is  esti- 
mated that  there  were  in  1864  about  13,000  pupils,  under  250  teachers. 

2.  Secondary  Schooh. — There  are  3  gymnasia,  with  814  scholars  and  33 
teachers;  and  4  real  and  higher  burgher-schools,  with  1,162  scholars  and  33 
teachers,  making  a  total  of  7  secondary  schools,  with  1,976  scholars  and  66 

3.  Special  and  Professional  Schools. — 1  Teachers'  seminary  at  Mirow,  with  16 
pupils :  3  institutions  for  neglected  children,  with  65  pupils ;  5  industrial 
schools  for  girls  (teach  sewing,  &c.,)  with  95  pupils. 



The  Duchy  of  Nassau,  on  an  area  of  1,802  English  square  miles, 
in  1865  had  465,636  inhabitants.  There  are  considerable  iron,  lead, 
and  copper,  as  also  a  few  silver  mines,  employing  about  10,000  men ; 
but  more  than  mining,  agriculture  employs  a  large  proportion  of  the 
population.  The  vine  is  cultivated  on  the  banks  of  the  Rhine,  and 
the  wines  raised  in  Nassau,  (Riidesheimer,  johannisberger,  Hock- 
heimer,  &c.,)  are  considered  the  best  in  Germany. 

The  total  annual  expenditure  of  the  government  of  Nassau  in 
1862,  amounted  to  5,117,831  florins. 

The  institutions  of  public  instruction  are  administered  by  the  min- 
ister of  state,  and  embrace : 

1.  Primary  Schools.  Of  these  there  are  716,  with  1,059  teach- 
ers, and  72,296  scholars. 

2.  Secondary  Schools.  There  are  3  gymnasia,  with  50  teachers, 
and  711  scholars;  4  progymnasia,  with  26  teachers,  and  274  schol- 
ars ;  13  real  schools,  with  109  teachers,  and  1,345  scholars ;  making 
a  total  of  20  secondary  schools,  with  2,330  scholars,  and  185  teachers. 

3.  Special  and  Professional  Schools.  Of  these  there  are  the 

2  Teachers'  seminaries,  1  for  catholic  teachers  (62),  at  Monta- 

baur,  and  another  at  Usinglen,  for  protestant  teachers  (7^9). 
2  Theological  seminaries. 
1  Military  school. 
1  Commercial  academy. 

1  Agricultural  school,  at  Geisberg,  with  35  pupils. 
27  Mechanical,  or  trade  schools. 
1  Institute  for  the  deaf  and  dumb. 
Since  1866,  Nassau  has  formed  part  of  the  kingdom  of  Prussia,  to- 
gether with  Hesse  Cassel  and  Frankfort,  constituting  the  province  of 
Hesse  and  Franken, 




One  of  the  most  important  steps  of  this  Society,  has  been  the  establishing  in 
various  parts  of  the  Duchy,  of  what  are  called  Gewerbe-schulen,  or  industrial 
schools,  consisting  of — 

Firstii/,  Evening  classes,  (Apend-schulen^)  held  in  winter  time  for  the  purpose 
of  giving  young  Artizans  and  others  an  useful  complement  to  their  elementary 
education,  in  such  branches  as  commercial  reckoning  and  correspondence,  and 
practical  geometry. 

Secondly^  Sunday  Classes,  (Suntag-schulen,)  intended  for  departments  of 
study  y.h\(ih  are  not  so  well  taught  in  the  evening  as  by  daylight,  and  held  011 
Sundays  for  the  benefit  of  young  men,  chiefly  apprentices,  whose  occupations 
would  not  allow  them  to  attend  conveniently  during  the  week.  They  comprise 
the  various  branches  of  drawing  required  for  the  industrial  trades,  and  geometry 
applied  to  the  arts  of  design. 

According  to  the  annual  Report,  read  at  the  General  Meeting  of  the  Gewerbe- 
Verein,  on  the  11th  of  May,  1853,  by  the  able  Secretary,  Dr.  Casselmann,  the 
number  of  Industrial  Schools  in  activity  in  various  parts  of  the  Duchy,  is  at  pres- 
ent twenty -five,  with  an  aggregate  number  of  about  two  thousand  students. 

A  MoJeling  School  has  also  been  established  at  Weisbaden,  and  is  attended  at 
present  by  between  thirty-five  and  forty  students. 

The  Report  gives  7419  florins,  or  about  6l8i.  sterling,  as  the  amount  expen- 
ded in  the  last  financial  year,  for  founding  and  maintaining  the  above  schools, 
whereof  about  two  thousand  florins  were  furnished  by  the  Society,  and  ^our 
thousand  florins  were  covered  by  a  government  grant  5  the  remainder  was  sup- 
plied by  the  localities. 

To  secure  a  proper  degree  of  intelligence  and  practical  skill  in  all 
who  parsue  any  trade,  there  is  a  legalized  system  of  apprenticeship, 
which  Mr.  Twining  thus  describes. 

The  would-be  Artizan  must  be  able  to  exhibit  proof  of  having  concluded  his 
attendance  at  school,  (which  as  I  have  mentioned  elsewhere,  is  obligatory  from 
the  sixth  to  the  fourteenth  year,)  by  satisfactorily  passing  his  final  examination; 
he  must  also  have  passed  his  confirmation,  which  takes  place  about  the  same 
time  ;  it  is  pi*eceded  for  a  considerable  period,  by  strict  religious  instruction,  and 
is  solemnized  by  both  Protestants  and  Catholics  in  a  veiy  impressive  manner. 

If  a  lad  is  quite  a  dunce,  and  especially  if  he  can  not  satisfactorily  get  through 
his  Catechism,  he  may  be  retained  under  tuition  another  year  ;  or  if  his  vicious 
propensities  are  found  incorrigible  by  ordinary  means,  he  may  be  sent  off*  to  a  dis- 
ciplinarian school,  called  Rettungs-haus.  One  of  these  establishments  was 
founded  in  1851,  near  the  little  town  of  Nassau,  by  the  Countess  von  Gieeh,  and 
now  contains  about  ten  boys;  another  has  just  been  erected  near  Weisbaden  by 
a  pious  Evangelical  Society. 

If  all  is  tolerably  right,  the  lad  receives  in  due  form  his  educational  certificate, 
and  he  and  his  friends  set  about  looking  out  for  the  right  sort  of  shop,  and  a 
comfortable  master  ;  but  before  a  definite  agreement  is  come  to,  German  prudence 
steps  in  very  appropriately,  and  prescribes  two  weeks'  preliminary  trial.  If  this 
turns  out  to  mutual  satisfaction,  a  contract  is  drawn  up,  of  which  the  legalization 
is  obtained  with  very  little  expense,  or  none  at  all,  if  the  parties  are  poor. 

For  ordinary  trades,  such  as  those  of  the  shoemaker,  tailor,  joiner,  baker,  <fcc., 
the  usual  term  is  three  years,  and  the  total  sum  to  be  paid  to  the  master  varies 
from  thirty  to  sixty  florins,  (Si 2  to  $20  ; )  or  a  term  of  four  years  is  agreed  upoUj 
without  payment,  the  work  of  the  apprentice  in  the  last  year  being  expected  to 
form  an  equivalent. 

With  respect  to  more  difficult  trades,  such  as  those  of  the  watchmaker,  mech- 
anician, lithographer,  &c.,  the  term  is  usually  three  or  four  years,  with  a  payment 
of  eighty  to  two  hundred  florins,  ($33  to  $40.)  Some  few  trades,  requiring  lit- 
tle or  no  technical  training,  are  exceptional  with  regard  to  payments  ;  thus  ap- 
prentices engaged  in  the  operations  of  building,  whitewashing,  &c.,  not  only  have 
nothing  to  pay,  but  i*eceive  at  once  a  daily  remuneration  of  a  few  kreuzers. 

In  no  case  does  an  apprenticeship  last  longer  than  four  years  ;  serious  disagree 


ments  between  masters  and  apprentices  are  in  some  measure  obviatfd  by  the  ex- 
amination which  must  be  undergone  before  an  artizan  can  settle  anywhere  as  mas- 
ter ;  but  in  all  cases  redress  is  facilitated  by  the  practice  of  paying  the  stipulated 
sum  by  installments,  so  that  one-third  or  one-half  the  amount  sfcmds  over  to  the 
conclusion  of  the  term.  If  an  apprentice  has  just  cause  for  complaint,  he  is 
releasjd  by  the  local  authorities  from  further  obligations  towards  his  master,  and 
his  friends  from  further  payment. 

At  the  expiration  of  his  term,  the  apprentice  must  furnish  proof  of  the  extent 
of  his  acquirements,  by  executing  some  appropriate  piece  of  handiwork,  in  the 
presence  of  the  official  judges  of  the  trade,  forming  a  kind  of  jury,  which,  from 
its  usefulness,  deserves  some  attention. 

Every  three  years  the  masters  in  each  trade  residing  in  a  district,  or  in  a^ group 
of  districts  if  the  trade  is  a  scarce  one,  assemble  to  elect,  or  re-elect,  three  repre- 
sentatives for  the  purpose  of  ex-.imining  the  certificates,  and  of  testing  and  record- 
ing the  abilities  of  industrial  candidates. 

If  the  examiners  are  not  satisfied  with  the  j^oung  man's  performance,  he  must 
find  means  of  improving  himself,  within  half-a-year,  against  another  trial  ;  if,  on 
thci  conti-ary,  they  are  well  pleased,  he  obtains  his  certificate  as  Gesell^  or  jour- 
neyman, and  sets  out  for  his  travels. 

When  the  Gesell  arrives  at  a  town,  he  goes  forthwith  to  the  Herberge^  or  spe- 
ciMlly  appointed  inn  of  his  trade,  where  the  Herberge  Vater,  (inn  father,)  from 
whom  he  is  entitled  to  receive  paternal  attentions  and  advice,  shows  him  a  regis- 
ter, in  the  form  of  a  slate,  or  blackboard,  on  which  is  inscribed  the  name  of  any 
master  wanting  a  hand.  If  the  register  is  a  blank,  and  the  Gesell  has  no  cash 
in  purse  from  previous  savings,  he  may  claim  his  Viaticum,  or  traveling  money, 
which  is  either  paid  from  the  treasury  of  the  town,  or  from  a  subscription  purse 
of  the  trade,  or  made  up  by  small  donations  which  he  gets  at  the  several  work- 
shops of  his  calling,  where  he  applies  in  succession  for  that  purpose ;  in  so  doing, 
he  generally  makes  good  his  claim  to  brotherly  assistance  by  some  token  which  he 
b  'ars,  or  by  mysteriously  symbolicalical  signs  and  passwords,  analogous  to  those 
usei  in  freemasonry. 

At  Frankfort,  where  trade  affairs  are  reckoned  to  be  on  a  more  liberal,  or  more 
antiquated  footing  than  elsewhere,  an  itinerant  servant  of  the  proud  company  of 
hiir-eutters  receives  from  a  special  purse  as  much  as  thirty-six  kreuzers,  (one 
shilling  ; )  but  Jhis  may  be  accounted  exceptional,  and  in  the  generality  of  cases, 
the  total  amount  which  a  common  journeyman  obtains  by  legitimate  means,  is  no 
more  than  a  few  pence.  At  all  events,  the  sum  is  definitive  ;  except  in  case  of  ill- 
ness, no  further  sum  can  be  claimed,  and  it  will  be  w^ell  if  the  next  morning's 
dawn  sees  our  wanderer  trudging  contentedly  onward,  his  knapsack  on  his  back, 
with  a  boot  sticking  out  at  each  end  of  it,  and  his  faithful  pipe  dangling  at  the 
side  of  his  mouth,  whilst  he  sings  some  classical  ditty  of  the  brotherhood. . 

There  was  a  time  when  the  industrial  vocabulary  construed  the  word  fechten 
as  a  justifiable  kind  of  begging,  which  did  not  disgrace  a  needy  journeyman,  but 
now  it  is  inscribed  in  the  bl  ick-book  of  the  police  5  and  if  a  poor  fellow,  com- 
pelled by  sheer  necessity,  extends  an  unwilling  hand  toward  a  stranger,  and  a 
gend'arme  espies  him  in  the  act,  he  is  not  only  punished  with  arrest,  but  this  fact 
is  noted  down  in  his  pass-book,  and  subjects  him,  wherever  he  goes,  to  be 
watched  with  a  suspicious  eye,  and  to  increased  severity  in  case  of  a  repetition 
of  the  offence. 

Before  the  journeyman  can  become  a  master  in  his  art,  or  profession,  and  fix  his 
aboie  as  such  in  a  place  of  his  choice,  a  few  important  steps  remain  to  be  taken.  If  a 
native  of  another  state,  he  must  obtain  the  freedom  of  the  one  of  which  he  wishes 
to  become  a  denizen  ;  if  merely  of  anoth.-r  parish,  he  must  still  get  admission  to 
parochial  rights,  wh'ch  are  sometimes  expensive:  in  every  case,  he  is  required  to 
accomplish  single-handed,  for  strict  inspection  by  the  Prufungs  Coimnission, 
some  model  piece  of  workmanship,  sufficient  to  show,  not  merely  a  moderate 
amount  of  skill,  as  when  he  was  a  candidate  for  a  journeymanship,  but  his  thor- 
ough knowledge  of  the  arcana  majora  of  his  calling.  If  he  can  follow  up 
the  display  orally,  with  theoretical  evidence,  he  is  entitled  to  be  admitted  forthwith 
to  -the  Honorable  Company  of  the  Masters  of  the  Trade. 



The  agricultural  institute  at  Geisberg,  near  Wiesbaden,  stands  on  an  elevated 
plateau,  overlooking  a  most  enchanting  region  of  country,  witli  the  fashionable 
invalid  resort  of  Wiesbaden  close  by,  while  at  a  little  distance  rolls  tlie  winding 
Rhino  betwerjn  its  vine-clad  hills.  Tlie  celebrated  vineyard  of  Johannisberg  is 
not  far  down  the  river.  This  school  differs  from  most  others  in  giving  instruc- 
tion only  in  winter. 

It  is  on  the  isolated  and  independent  plan,  and  is  designed  for  the  instruction 
of  practical  farmers,  without  teaching  practice  on  the  place.  Apphcants 
be  sixteen  years  old,  possess  a  good  elementary  education,  and  a  good 
"character."  Tliey  have  to  bring  a  written  certitlcate  of  willingness  on  the 
part  of  the  parent  or  guardian  that  they  should  enter  the  sethool,  and  it  is 
expected  that  the  pupils  shall  have  spent  one  or  more  sumnurs  in  work  on  the 
farm,  before  thay  enter.  If  the  requisite  certificate  of  profieienc}^  in  tlie 
elementary  studies  cannot  be  produced,  or  if  it  is  not  satisfactory,  the  applicmt 
is  examined,  and  either  rejected  or  accepted  with  conditions,  not  unlike  the 
practice  in  entering  Harvard  College,  where  comparatively  few  gel  in  without 
"conditions."  Each  pupil  is  required  to  attend  all  the  lectures;  but  they  liave 
a  class  of  pupils,  as  they  have  at  Hohenheim,  called  huspitante7i,  or  students  who 
take  only  the  partial  course. 

The  theoretical  instruction  is  given  in  a  regular  course  of  two  winters,  the 
term  beginning  on  the  15th  of  October  of  each  year,  and  ending  on  the  31st 
of  March.  During  the  intervening  sunmier  they  are  either  at  home,  at  work  on 
the  farm,  or  if  they  desire  it,  the  director  of  the  institute  procures  them  suitable 
places  with  skillful  practical  farmers. 

Natives  of  Nassau  pay  no  tuition.  Outsiders  pay  forty-four  florins,  or  about 
eighteen  dollars  a  year.  All  the  pupils  board  in  the  town  of  Wiesbaden.  The 
instruction  is  by  lectures  and  written  and  verbal  questions  on  the  studies. 
After  the  return  of  the  students  from  their  summer's  work  on  the  farm,  they 
are  required  within  six  weeks  to  present  a  full  written  detail  of  operations, 
which,  after  suitable  corrections,  are  returned  to  the  writer. 

The  parents  or  guardians  are  informed,  from  time  to  time,  of  the  industry  and 
conduct  of  the  pupil.  G-ambling,  so  fashionable  and  exciting  at  Weisbaden,  is 
forbidden,  and  no  student  is  allowed  to  smoke  or  to  keep  a  dog. 

The  institute  possesses  a  library,  which  appeared  to  be  tolerably  well  stocked, 
very  good  collections  and  fine  lecture  and  study  rooms.  It  is  on  ratlier  a  small 
scale  as^  compared  with  some  others,  though  it  may  be  called  one  of  the 
superior  class.  It  was  founded  in  1835,  and  as  may  be  inferred  from  what  has 
been  said  above,  on  the  principle  that  it  is  of  no  use  to  try  to  teach  theory 
and  practice  at  the  same  school.  There  is  a  small  farm  connected  with  the 
school,  but,  judging  from  the  helter-skelter,  or  generally  mixed-up  condition  of 
every  thing  about  the  premises,  I  should  think  they  were  quite  right  in  not 
attempting  to  teach  practice  there.  Old  ploughs,  drags,  carts,  harrows  and 
every  thing  else  lay  around  the  buildings  in  no  small  confusion.  When  I  drove 
into  the  yard  I  felt  sure  we  had  made  some  mistake,  and  had  got  upon  the 
premises  of  a  very  slovenly  farmer,  but  the  driver  was  sure  he  was  right,  and. 
the  result  justified  his  topographical  knowledge. 

The  farm  buildings  are  irregular  and  crowded,  not  large  or  imposing,  but 
rather  oidinary  in  every  respect,  though  the  building  used  by  the  students  and 
tlie  collections  was  better. 

These  collections  consisted  of  minerals,  birds,  quadrupeds,  seeds,  grains,  and 
grasses,  and  a  fine  collection  of  wax  fruits. 

The  instruction  embraces,  in  the  first  term  or  winter,  the  German  language, 
arithmetic,  botany,  mineralogy,  physics,  general  agriculture,  cultivation  of 
meadow-:,  rural  architecture,  and  veterinary  science.  In  the  second  winter 
the  boys  take  up  zoology,  physics,  farm  accounts,  special  agriculture,  special 
zojteclmy,  horticulture,  technology,  veterinary  medicine  and  composition. 

The  price  of  farm  labor  there,  I  learned,  was  thirty-six  kreutzers,  or  twenty- 
four  cents  a  day,  the  men  boarding  themselves. 
— — ^ _ — ___ ___ 

'  *  Report  of  C.  L.  Flint  on  Agricultural  Schools,  &c. 



The  Grand-duchy  of  Oldenburg,  on  an  area  of  2,417  English 
square  miles,  in  1864  had  314,416  inhabitants,  chiefly  engaged  in 
agriculture,  with  very  few  engaged  in  manufactories  and  other  forms 
of  industry.  Though  favorably  situated  for  maritime  commerce,  it 
has  but  a  small  seafaring  population,  and  its  trade  is  principally 
confined  to  coasting  traffic. 

The  total  annual  expenditure  of  the  government  of  Oldenburg  in 
1865,  amounted  to  2,386,110  thalers,  of  which  70,900  thalers  were 
expended  for  public  instruction  (46,200  for  primary,  and  24,700  for 
secondary  instruction). 

The  institutions  of  public  instruction  are  administered  by  the  min- 
ister of  education,  who  at  the  same  time  is  minister  of  the  grand- 
ducal  house,  of  justice,  and  of  foreign  affairs. 

1.  Primary  Schools.  There  were  in  1865,  490  elementary  schools, 
with  43,174  scholars,  and  630  teachers. 

2.  Secondary  Schools.  There  are  10  higher  burgher  schools,  with 
1,395  scholars,  and  58  teachers ;  4  gymnasia,  with  644  scholars,  and 
47  teachers ;  1  progymnasia,  with  65  scholars,  and  10  teachers ; 
making  a  total  of  15  secondary  schools,  with  2,104  scholars,"  and  115 

3.  Special  and  Professional  Schools. 

2  Teachers'  seminaries  for  evangelical  teachers,  at  Oldenburg, 

with  30  pupils,  and  another  at  Vechta,  with  20  pupils. 
1  Deaf  and  dumb  institute. 
1  Military  academy. 
1  Nautical  school,  with  30  pupils. 
1  Trade  school,  with  30  pupils. 
1  Agricultural  school,  with  44  pupils. 
1  Orphan  home,  at  Varel,  with  30  inmates. 
7  Infant  schools  and  gardens. 



The  kingdom  of  Prussia,  on  an  area  of  107,757  English  square 
miles  in  1864,  (before  its  recent  accession  of  territory  and  people,) 
had  a  population  of  19,269,563,  of  which  number  8,395,418  were 
engaged  in  agriculture,  178,903  in  mining,  1,067,593  in  mechanical 
and  manufacturing  pursuits,  and  215,078  in  commerce. 

The  total  annual  expenditure  of  the  government  of  Prussia  in 
1865  amounted  to  169,243,365  thalers,  of  which  sum  1,865,309 
thalers  were  expended  for  public  instruction,  art,  and  science,  in  ad- 
dition to  communal  and  provincial  appropriations. 

The  institutions  of  public  instruction  are  administered  by  the 
Minister  of  Public  Instruction  and  Ecclesiastical  Afiairs ;  the  mili- 
tary ^schools  are  under  the  Minister  of  War ;  and  the  special  schools 
of  trade,  mines,  and  agriculture,  are  under  the  control  of  the  several 
ministers  charged  severally  with  the  administration  of  those  interests. 

1.  Primary  or  Common  Schools. — Of  these  there  were  in  1864: 

25,056  elementary  schools,  with  36,157  teachers  and  2,825,322  scholars. 
.271  burgher-schools  for  boys,  with  1,171  teachers  and  43,731  scholars. 
906  licensed  private  schools,  with  1,683  teachers  and  52,692  scholars. 
2.^5  private  schools  for  boys, with  515  teachers  and  8,421  scholars. 
239  licensed  private  schools  for  girls,  with  1,456  teachers  and  47,321 

396  private  schools  for  girls,  with  2,161  teachers  and  27,593  scholars. 
Making  a  total  of  27,073  primary  schools,  with  43,143  teachers  and  3,005,080 

2.  Secondary  Schools. — There  were  in  1864: 

117  Hitfher  burgher  and  real-schools,  with  1,210  teachers  and  27,189 
28  Progymnasia,  with  223  teachers  and  3,058  scholars. 
147  Gymnasia,  with  2,117  teachers  and  49,331  scholars. 
Making  a  total  of  292  secondary  schools,  with  3,550  teachers  and  79,578 

3.  Superior  Schools. — In  1864  there  were  6  universities  [Berlin,  Bonn,  Bres- 
lau,  Halle,  Kcinigsberg,  Greifswald.]  each  with  four  faculties,  viz.,  theology, 
law,  medicine,  and  pliilosophy,  and  1  Catholic  academy  at  Miinster  with  two 
f  leulies,  viz.,  tl)eology  and  philosophy.  These  7  institutions  have  a  total  of  389 
professors  and  170  private  professors  \privat  docenien,]  and  6,077  students.  Be- 
sides these  there  were  2  Catholic  theological  seminaries  [Paderborn  and  Brauns- 
berg.]  1  Protestant  theological  seminary  [Prussian  State-church]  at  Witten- 
berg, and  1  Moravian  theological  seminary  at  Gnadenfeld,  Silesia.  There  are 
large  scientific  collections  and  libraries  connected  with  most  of  these  institu- 
tions, and  the  Royal  Library  at  Berlin  numbers  upwards  of  500,000  volumes 
and  10,000  manuscripts.  The  two  chemical 'laboratories  at  Bonn  and  Berlin 
recently  erected  are  the  most  complete  in  Europe. 




4.  Special  cmd  Professional  Schools. 

60  Teachers'  seminaries,   [19  Catholic  and  41  Protestant]  with  about 
3,800  students;  besides  44  small  institutions  and  classes,  which 
are  not  recognized  as  government  seminaries. 
•?  Seminaries  for  secondary  school  teachers  and  professors. 

3  Academies  of  art  [Berlin,  Dusseldorf,  and  KiJnigsberg.] 

1  Academy  of  architecture. 

5  Art  and  building  {baugewerk)  schools. 

2  Technical  academies  or  institutes  (at  Berlin  and  Cologne.) 
27  Provincial  technical  schools,  with  2,600  pupils. 

2  Superior  weaving-schools. 
1  Weaving  and  pattern-drawing  school. 
265  Industrial  schools  for  mechanics. 
1  Royal  military  academy. 
1  Artillery  and  engineer-school. 
5  Cadet-scliools. 

1  Militarj'^  academy  of  surgery  and  medicine. 
1  Military  school  of  surgery. 
1  School  of  veterinary  surgery. 
1  Military  school  of  veterinary  surgery. 
1  Central  school  of  gymnastics. 

4  Military  schools. 

16  Garrison  schools  (for  soldiers'  children.) 

5  Nautical  schools. 

14  Schools  of  midwifery. 
26  Schools  for  deaf-mutes. 
10  Schools  for  the  blind. 

1  Conservatorium  and  6  schools  of  music. 
34  Schools  of  agriculture. 

1  Mining  academy  (Berlin.) 

8  Schools  of  practical  mining. 

6  Schools  of  commerce. 
4  Schools  of  forestry. 

The  only  statistics  of  Prussian  schools  since  the  accession  of  ter- 
ritory and  population  in  1866,  are  for  the  Secondary  Schools,  which 
we  give  from  Dr.  Wiese's  Report  on  High  Schools  for  1869. 



Sold  Provinces. 
I.  Gymnasinms. 

RegulnT  Classes 42.973 

Preparatory  Classes, 4,046 

Total  of  both, .* .  47,019 

n.  Pro-Gymnaaia. 

Regular  OInsses 2,430 

Preparatory  Classes, 167 

Totalofbnth, 2,597 

ni.  Real  Schools. 

Resnlar  Classes, 18,741 

Preparatory  Classes, 3,362 

Total  of  both 22,103 

rV.  Higher  Burgher  Schools. 

Regular  (^hisses 1,991 

Preparatory  Classes, 4.52 

Totalofbnth 2,443 

V.  Secondary  Schools  of  all  kinds. 

Regular  Cbisses .66,135 

Preparatory  Classes, 8,027 

Total  ofboth 74,162 


old  Provinces. 

3  new  Provinces 






























87,492  17,129 





Sunday  schools,  for  instructing  the  young  people  of  a  parisli  in 
the  catechism,  and  biblical  and  church  history,  existed  in  Prussia  and 
throughout  Germany,  certainly  as  early  as  the  sixteenth  century,  but 
their  recognition  as  part  of  the  public  school  system  dates  from  17G3, 
when  Frederick  11,  in  his  General  Regulations  of  Schools  (section  G), 
ordains  that  "  on  Sundays,  besides  the  lesson  of  the  catechism  or  repe- 
tition school  given  by  the  minister  in  the  church,  the  school-master 
shall  give  in  the  school  recapitulary  lessons  to  the  unmarried  people 
of  the  township.  They  shall  there  practice  reading  and  writing.'* 
In  the  General  regulations  for  the  Catholic  schools  in  Silesia,  opened 
in  1765,  "the  older  children  are  required  to  attend  the  Sunday  in- 
struction in  Christianity  every  Sunday  afternoon,  and  after  that  to 
participate  for  two  hours  in  the  lessons  in  reading  and  writing  given 
in  the  school,  which  lessons  the  teachers  shall  give  under  the  direc- 
tion of  the  pastor,  that  they  may  become  useful  to  the  young.  Those 
also  who  have  left  school,  and  are  not  yet  twenty  years  of  age, 
myst  attend  these  lessons,  and  their  employers  are  bound  to  send 
them  to  school  at  such  time,  that  they  may  review  what  they  learned 
before,  and  acquire  necessary  knowledge."  On  this  basis  of  law  and 
habit,  by  degrees  the  instruction  of  the  Sunday  school  was  extended 
and  systematized,  and  became  an  important  portion  of  the  elementary 
education  of  the  people.  In  the  large  villages  and  cities,  drawing, 
and  the  firs*  principles  of  natural  history  and  mechanics,  composition 
in  the  form  of  business  correspondence,  and  other  branches  bearing 
on  the  occupations  of  the  pupils,  were  gradually  introduced  into  this 
class  of  schools,  which  were  also  held  on  Monday  mornings,  in  the 
evening  of  other  days,  as  well  as  on  the  half-holidays  of  Wednesday 
and  Saturday,  and  on  holidays.  They  were  also  connected  with  the 
real  schools  and  trade  institutes,  and  got  the  name  of  Further  Im- 
provement Schools.  In  Prussia  in  1854,  there  were  220  such  schools, 
with  18,000  pupils;  and  in  BerhA,  the  trade  improvement  schools  are 
taught  on  Sunday  by  the  teachers  of  the  higher  schools,  and  consti- 
tute an  important  agency  in  the  technical  instruction  of  apprentices 
and  workingmen. 


The  real  school,  which  in  Prussia  now  occupies  a  well-defined  place 
in  the  system  of  general  education,  had  originally  a  direct  technical 
aim,  in  the  plan  of  Francke  in  1698,  and   of  Semler  in   1706  and 


1738,  and  of  Hecker  in  1747.*  Francke  projected  a  special  pedago- 
g:iim  for  children,  who  wished  to  become  "  secretaries,  clerks,  mer- 
chants, administrators  of  estates,  or  learn  useful  arts."  Semler  calls  his 
school  "  a  mathematical  trades  school,"  and  in  the  mathematical,  me- 
chanical, and  economical  real  school,"  opened  by  him  in  Berlin  in 
1738,  the  instruction  given  was  "in  connection  with  models  and  real 
objects," — things^  as  he  designates  them. 

Rev.  J.  J.  Hecker,  in  the  programme  of  his  "  Economical  Mathe- 
matical School,"  opened  in  the  schools  of  Trinity  church  in  1 747,  he 
pledges  to  all  his  pupils  "  a  preparation  to  facilitate  their  entry  into 
any  trade  they  may  choose."  Among  his  classes  was  one  of  "  archi- 
tecture and  building,"  another  of  "  manufacture,  commerce  and  trade," 
and  another  of  "  agriculture ; "  moreover,  "  drawing  shall  be  prac- 
ticed." The  views  of  Hecker  were  encouraged  by  Frederick  II,  who 
named  his  institution  the  "  Royal  Real  School."  This  school  became 
the  normal  school  for  teachers  of  schools  on  the  crown  domains  ;  and 
to  it,  Felbinger  sent  a  number  of  pupil-teachers,  who  became  the  or- 
ganizers of  improved  schools  in  Austria,  in  which  realistic  studies  and 
methods  were  prominent. 

In  connection  with  the  real  school  should  be  mentioned  the  Higher 
Burgher  School — the  high  school  of  the  primary  system  in  all  large 
towns,  and  which  received  its  earliest  and  highest  development  in 
Leipsic,  but  which  in  Ka3nigsberg,  Dantzig,  and  other  large  provincial 
centres,  aimed  to  fit  their  pupils  for  practical  careers.  Both  the  real 
school  and  the  higher  burgher  schools,  although  they  no  longer  aim 
to  bo  technical  or  professional  schools,  even  for  a  commeftial  career, 
do  give  a  scientific  preparation  for  such  higher  vocations  of  4:he 
State  as  do  not  require  an  academic  career,  and  they  also  prepare 
students  for  the  special  and  purely  technical  schools.  Without  them, 
the  subordinate  departments  of  the  public  service  would  not  be, so 
well  filled,  and  the  special  schools  of  trade,  commerce,  agriculture, 
and  forestry  could  not  attain  their  present  high  development. 


The  immense  strides  made  in  mechanical,  manufacturing,  and  com- 
mercial industry,  and  the  gigantic  works  in  engineering  and  construc- 
tion which  the  public  service  in  peace  and  in  war  have  required  in , 
the  last  half  century,  have  made  necessary  the  establishment  of  spe- 
cial schools,  in  which  architects,  builders,  machinists,  engineers,  artil- 
lerists, and  technical  chemists  could  be  taught  and  trained.     Hence 

*  For  an  account  of  the  educational  labors  and  views  of  Francke  and  Hecker,  see  Barnard's 
Educational  Reformers  of  Germany. 


in  every  State  we  find  government  schools  for  these  purposes,  and  in 
all  the  great  centres  of  population  and  special  industries,  these  insti- 
tutions are  as  varied  in  their  independent  organization  or  associated 
classes,  as  are  the  industries  and  wants  to  be  supplied.  Prussia  has 
felt  deeply  these  necessities,  and  side  by  side  with  the  thorough  re- 
organization and  extension  of  her  general  system  of  education — the 
multiplication  and  improvement  of  primary,  secondary,  and  superior 
scliools — has  grown  up  a  system  of  special  instruction — schools  of  ag- 
riculture, forestry,  commerce,  navigation,  architecture,  engineering, 
construction  in  wood  and  metal,  and  trades  of  all  sorts,  which  will 
compare  favorably  with  the  best  in  other  countries  of  Europe.  Al- 
though not  as  early  in  the  field  as  some  of  the  smaller  States,  and 
not  acting  with  such  entire  disregard  of  the  general  system  as  some 
others,  in  which  the  manufacturing  and  mechanical  establishments  are 
relatively  more  numerous  and  important,  this  class  of  institutions  in 
Prussia  are  worthy  of  particular  study  on  account  of  the  superior 
system  of  general  education  on  which  they  all  rest. 


^The  earliest  Trade  Schools,  (  Gewerhe  Sclmlen,  as  they  are  called, 
the  word  gewerhe  being  used  in  its  restricted  meaning,  equivalent  to 
the  improvement  of  material  for  the  purposes  of  gain,)  in  Prussia, 
were  organized  by  Beuth  in  1817-18,  at  Berlin  and  at  Aix  la  Cha- 
pelle,  to  meet  a  want  of  government  for  better  workmen  in  building 
operations.  The  school  at  the  latter  place  was  expressly  founded  to 
improve  the  general  and  special  education  of  carpenters,  mill-wrights, 
masons,  stone-cutters,  cabinet-makers,  locksmiths,  house-painters,  bra- 
ziers, pewterers,  and  other  handicrafts.  They  were  first  connected 
with  the  Sunday  schools. 

Those  established  at  that  time  were  called  Handiuerher  forfhildunq 
schulen,  and  belonged  to  the  class  of  "improvement  schools,"  being 
planned  to  add  to  the  knowledge  of  the  local  handicraftsmen  and 
their  apprentices.  Schools  for  special  trades  or  industries  did  not 
rise  until  a  few  years  later.  The  whole  system  underwent  a  reorgan- 
ization in  IS'JO,  when  all  the  establishments  of  this  character  were 
assigned  to  the  Department  of  the  Minister  of  Commerce. 

There  are  now  not  far  from  500  giving  instruction  in  almost  all 
branches  of  industrial  activity,  and  all  being  exclusively  devoted  to 
technological  studies.  The  real  and  burgher  schools,  (of  which  there 
were  in  1868,  over  190,)  through  which  those  pupils  who  are  intend- 
ing to  enter  the  higher  technical  institutions  generally  pass,  and 


which,  moreover,  give  some  instruction  in  commerce,  are  not  included 
in  this  Hst. 

The  technical  schools  may  be  divided  into  those  imparting  general 
industrial  instruction,  and  those  devoted  to  special  branches. 

I. — The  class  giving  general  instruction  embraces  the  following : 

(1.)  Establishments  corresponding  to  Improvement  Schools. — There 
are  a  number  of  varieties  of  these :  the  evening,  Sunday,  and  finish- 
ing schools ;  societies  for  apprentices  to  which  improvement  schools 
are  added  ;  journeymen's  schools,  and  workmen's  societies,  which  also 
make  provision  for  technical  instruction. 

This  class  does  not  carry  technical  studies  very  far,  except  in  draw- 
ing, the  general  aim  being  to  extend  the  knowledge  gained  in  the  ele- 
mentary schools,  and  nothing  more  than  this  is  required  at  admission. 

(2.)  Foremen's  Schools. — These  aim  to  train  foremen  for  various 
mechanical  occupations.  The  institution  at  Koenigsberg  has  7  teach- 
ers and  69  scholars,  (1867)  ;  tlie  fees  are  about  six  thalers  per  half 
year.  The  requirements  for  admission  are  the  studies  of  the  primary 

(3.)  The  Provincial  and  Municipal  Trade  SclTools. — These  two 
classes  of  establishments  form  the  next  grade  in  technical  instruction, 
and  prepare  pupils  to  enter  the  central  academy  at  Berlin.  They  re- 
ceive those  who  have  had  a  partial  course  in  the  gymnasiums,  real 
schools,  or  burgher  schools.  There  are  in  Prussia  about  30  of  these, 
averaging  four  or  five  teachers,  with  2,600  scholars  in  all.  The  fees 
vary  exceedingly.  There  is  a  journeyman's  improvement  school  con- 
nected with  each. 

(4.)  Central  Trade  Academies. — The  highest  grade  of  education 
for  mechanicians,  chemists,  and  ship-builders  is  obtained  at  these- estab- 
lishments, which  approaches  the  character  of  a  polytechnic  univer- 
sity. There  are  now  two — the  Academy,  {Gewerhe  Acadeinie,  form- 
erly called  Gewerhe  Institut.)  is  at  Berlin;  another,  recently  organ- 
ized (1867),  at  Aix  la  Chapelle.  The  Berlin  Academy  receives 
scholars  who  have  completed  the  course  at  the  provincial  trade 
schools,  real  schools,  or  the  gymnasiums.  Of  this  institution,  J. 
Scott  Russell,  in  his  elaborate  treatise  on  systematic  technical  educa- 
tion for  the  English  people,  thus  speaks  : 

Here  in  Berlin,  I  found  a  large  and  handsome  building,  close  by  the  king's 
palace,  in  one  of  the  best  parts  of  the  town,  and  this  was  called,  at  that  time,  a 
•'  Gewerhe  Schule,"  or  royal  school  for  trade  teaching  This  very  humble  desig- 
nation did  not  lead  me  to  expect  the  high  scientific  education  and  training  which 
was  there  provided  for  the  young  professional  men  of  Berlin.  The  truth  is,  that 
in  Berlin,  everything  but  the  three  learned  professions,  law,  medicine,  and  theol- 
ogy, were  still  called  trades,  and  not  yet  admitted  to  the  rank  of  professions,  just 
as,  in  our  country,  the  time  was  when  Brindley,  the  canal  engineer,  was  still 


reckoned  a  sort  of  superior  ditcli-dioger,  and  Georcre  Stephenson  a  sort  of  superior 
engine-driver.  The  tradition  had  still  enough  influence  in  Berlin  to  call  a  tech- 
nical university  for  the  modern  professions  a  "  trade  school." 

Since  that  time,  the  dignity  of  the  "  Gewerbe  Schulc "  has  been  recognized. 
Its  buildings,  its  cndownieuts,  the  rank  and  salaries  of  its  professors,  the  number 
and  preliminary  qualifications  of  its  pupils,  have  all  been  raised.  It  has  now 
the  recognized  rank  of  a  technical  university,  with  professors  of  equal  dignity, 
and  degrees  of  equal  weight. 

Berlin  being  the  first  technical  university  with  which  I  became  acquainted,  and 
also  one  of  the  earliest,  I  should  naturally  quote,  as  an  example  of  a  "  technical 
university  abroad,"  this  Gewerbe  Institut,  or  Gewerbe  Academie,  of  Berlin.  I 
recommend  those  of  my  countrymen  who  care  for  such  things,  to  visit  that  insti- 
tution, which  is  admirably  conducted,  systematically  organized,  and  a  great  boon 
to  the  professional  men  of  Prussia.  Tliey  will  find  that  it  in  every  way  lends 
itself,  by  means  of  evening  as  well  as  morning  lectures,  by  trade  associations  con- 
nected with  it,  by  free  libraries  and  museums,  to  the  education  not  merely  of  the 
higher  professional  men,  but  also  of  the  working  men  who  have  leisure  and  dis- 
position to  desire  high  trade  knowledge. 

In  very  many  respects,  therefore,  I  consider  Berlin  a  model  technical  university. 
I  do  not  quote  it,  however,  as  my  type  of  what  such  a  university  might  be,  be- 
cause it  laboi-s  under  some  traditional  and  local  disadvantages,  which  somewhat 
narrow  its  sphere,  derange  its  symmetry,  and  cramp  its  development.  It  is  not 
symmetrical  in  the  highest  degree,  because  in  Berlin  there  had  already  existed, 
before  it  attained  its  present  growth,  surrounding  institutions,  which  had  monop- 
olized a  portion  of  its  ground. 

I^ndred  academies,  institutions,  or  universities,  had  already  provided  educa- 
tion and  training  for  some  of  the  arts  and  professions  which  a  more  isolated  uni- 
versity would  have  systematically  included  in  its  curriculum ;  and  which  it  was, 
therefore,  unwise,  unnecessary,  or  inconvenient  to  include  in  the  new  organization, 
Preeisely,  therefore,  because  the  Berlin  Geioerbe  Academie  fits  its  place,  and  an- 
swers its  special  purpose,  it  is  less  fitted  to  serve  as  a  type  of  a  symmetrical  insti- 
tution than  some  others  of  more  recent  growth,  more  remote  from  the  overshad- 
owing influence  of  rival  and  more  ancient  institutions. 

II. — Listitiitions  giving  instruction  in  special  professions,  include : 

1.  Building  Professions:  {I.)  Building  Schools. — There  are 
many  of  these  open  to  all  building  artisans  who  have  received  an 
elementary  education,  and  imparting  theoretical  and  practical  instruc- 
tion in  their  special  departments.  They  rank  w^ith  "  improvement 
schools."     The  fees  are  about  six  thalers  per  half-year. 

(2.)  Building  Academy, — This  academy  at  Berlin  educates  archi- 
tects and  engineers  of  the  highest  grade. 

2.  Mining  Pursuits  :  (1.)  Mining  Schools. — These  correspond 
in  grade  to  the  provincial  industrial  schoolsj  and  educate  foremen  and 
master  workmen  in  the  mines. 

(2.)  Mining  Academy  at  Berlin,  which  gives  the  highest  education 
in  mining  and  in  metal  working,  and  prepares  mining  engineers. 

3.  Weaving  AND  Dyeing:  (1.)  Weaver's  Schools. — The  weav- 
ing schools  belong  to  the  grade  of  improvement  schools.  There  are 
3  of  them  in  Prussia,  with  12  teachers  and  9G  pupils  in  all.  The 
fees  are  20  thalers  per  half-year. 

(2.)  Superior  Weaving  Schools. — There  are  5  superior  weaving 
schools,  with  12  teachers.     They  require   the  same  qualifications  as 


the  provincial  industrial  schools.  The  fees  are  about  20  thalers  per 

(3.)  Industrial  Drawing  School. — The  industrial  drawing  school 
at  Berlin  gives  a3sthetic  and  practical  instruction  to  designers  for  va- 
rious tissues  and  to  weavers.     It  is  a  distinct  institution. 

4.  Commerce. — Commercial  instruction  is  given  to  some  extent 
in  schools  of  a  general  literary  aim.  Of  the  special  institutions  .  of 
this  class,  the  school  of  commerce  for  young  women,  at  Berlin,  de- 
serves attention. 

0.  Navigation. — There  are  six  schools  intended  to  train  young 
men  to  be  pilots  and  captains  of  merchant  vessels.  These  are  at 
Memel,  Dantzig,  Pillau,  Grabow,  Stettin,  and  Stralsund. 

6.  Agriculture. — There  are  thirty-two  institutions,  in  which 
both  the  theory  and  practice  of  agriculture,  and  kindred  occupations, 
are  taught,  and  several  of  them,  in  the  range  and  thoroughness  of  in- 
struction, are  not  surpassed  in  any  country  of  the  world.  The  work 
of  the  school  is  carried  home  to  neighborhoods  by  itinerant  teachers 
paid  by  the  government,  who  go  from  village  to  village,  and  the  re- 
sults of  improved  methods  are  seen  and  disseminated  by  the  action 
of  upwards  of  five  hundred  agricultural  associations,  which  by  con- 
ferences, exhibitions,  and  prizes,  keep  up  a  lively  interest  in  agricul- 
tural improvement. 

7.  The  new  laboratories,  as  well  for  original  research  as  for  higher 
instruction,  may  be  regarded  not  only  as  "  arsenals  '*  of  science,  but 
as  mighty  engines  of  industrial  development. 

The  teachers  of  the  lower  and  middle  grades  of  technical  schools 
become  prepared  by  giving  instruction  in  a  gymnasium  or  real  school, 
and  afterwards  studying  in  the  Berlin  trade  academy  for  three  years. 
Teachers  from  other  schools  are  also  employed,  and,  in  the  lowest 
grades  of  technical  schools,  instruction  is  often  given  gratis  by  private 

To  all  of  these  institutions  are  attached  libraries,  and  to  many  be- 
long collections  of  models,  and  other  aids  of  instruction ;  especially 
full  is  the  collections  of  the  central  academy  at  Berlin. 

The  result  of  the  system  has  been  to  convert  workmen  into  refined 
and  thinking  men,  and  to  develop  rapidly  the  industrial  resources 
of  the  country,  as  was  shown  in  the  late  international  exhibition  at 



The  Sunday  School  of  the  Society  of  Industry,  (Gewerbe  Gesellschaft)  at 
Konigsber^  instructs  apprentices  in  the  ordinary  trades.  It  requires  no  previous 
practical  edu.-ation,  the  only  requirement  being  that  the  candidate  has  passed 
through  the  elementary  schools,  which  implies  some  rudimentary  knowledge  of 
religion  and  Bible  history,  German,  history,  geography,  natural  history,  arith- 
metic, mensuration,  drawing,  singing,  and  gymnastics. 

Instruction  is  given  by  the  professors  of  the  Provincial  Trade  School  in  the 
same  city,  Avho  receive  extra  pay  for  serving.  The  branches  pursued  are  the  fol- 
lowing: algebra,  arithmetic,  gravitation  (planimetry  and  geometry),  elementary 
mechanics  and  mechanical  technology,  physics  and  chemistry  in  their  funda- 
mental doctrines,  knowledge  of  wares  and  tools,  drawing  (architectural,  machine, 
free-hand,  and  geometrical),  modeling  in  clay,  wax,  wood,  &c.,  book-keeping  and 
business  writings. 

The  course  lasts  one  or  two  years.  There  is  no  charge,  the  expense  being 
borne  by  the  Society  of  Industry  of  the  Province  of  Prussia.  There  are  from  80 
to  100  scholars. 


The  Working- Men's  Union,  at  Berlin  (Betiin  Handw&i-ker  Verein),  stands  in 
the  first  rank  of  associations  of  this  class  in  Germany.  It  was  founded  in 
1843,  dissolved  in  the  revolutionary  period  of  1848,  and  again  re-organizcd.  It 
has  for  its  object  to  promote  good  morals,  general  culture,  and  special  professional 
knowledge  among  its  members.  Its  doors  are  open  to  artisans  of  all  degrees, 
masters,  workmen,  and  apprentices.  Every  young  man,  of  good  character,  can 
join  it  on  being  introduced  by  a  member,  and  paying  a  fee  of  three  silver  groschen 
(about  seven  cents)  a  month.  In  its  organization  is  a  Committee  of  Instruction, 
composed  of  friends  of  industry  and  of  the  working  classes  who  volunteer  their 
services,  among  whom  are  sgme  of  the  most  prominent  men  in  the  capital. 

The  objects  of  the  Society  are  accomplished  by  debates,  instruction,  both  gen- 
eral and  special,  free  lectures  and  social  gatherings.  The  meetings  take  place 
four  times  a  week,  in  the  evening,  after  working  hours,  and  are  occupied  with 
study  and  debating,  always  ending  with  choral  singing. 

Debates.  The  debaters  are  generally  members  of  the  Committee  of  Instruc- 
tion, the  subject  being  chosen,  and  the  names  of  the  participants  published  three 
months  beforehand.  Between  1861  and  1865,  there  were  .592  such  debates,  about 
half  of  the  subjects  being  questions  relating  to  industry  and  science.  In  general, 
each  meeting  completes  a  subject,  but  sometimes  the  subject  is  carried  through 
several  in  succession.  All  subjects  except  politics  and  religion  may  be  dis- 

Lectures.  The  lectures  are  held  on  the  evenings  of  Monday,  Wednesday, 
Saturday  and  Sunday.  The  subjects  are  very  various.  In  1867,  lectures  were 
given,  during  the  first  nine  months,  on  the  following  subjects,  many  of  them  oc- 
cupying only  one  lecture  :  physics,  chemistry,  technology,  natural  history,  unity 
of  natural  forces  and  agencies,  history  and  mode  of  lighting  with  gas,  value  of 
machinery,  laws  of  exchange,  public  law,  national  rewards,  paper  money,  security 
of  insurance  companies,  cultivation  of  industry,  manufacturing  towns  in  France, 
weaving,  lace  making,  calling  and  position  of  the  female  sex,  relations  of  man 
and  wife,  of  parents  and  children,  woman  in  literature  and  in  art,  sanitary  laws, 



physiology,  anatomy  of  the  intestines,  music,  history  and  works  of  art,  history, 
history  of  religion,  Egmont  and  Orange,  severance  of  the  Netherlands  and  Spain, 
literature,  trick  and  romance,  lyrics,  Goethe's  Hermann  and  Dorothea,  Faust, 
Lessing,  Don  Juan  Fabel,  translation  of  that  work,  Arkwright,  Wedgewood, 
upon  Grabbe  and  Hcbbel,  Franz  Dunker,  Zimmermann  and  village  education, 
Paris  exhibition,  Brelcck,  Born  and  Ebert's  report  from  Paris,  sketches  of  a  jour- 
ney, German  emigration,  German  life  in  London,  Venice,  education,  education 
in  the  Verein,  medicine,  domestic  economy. 

Lectures  begin  at  8^,  and  are  not  to  last  longer  than  forty-five  minutes,  on 
Monday  evenings  fifteen  minutes.  Members  of  other  societies  pay  one  silver 
groschen ;  those  who  do  not  belong  to  the  societies  2|-  groschen.  Once  a  week, 
on  Wednesday  evening,  each  member  can  bring  two  ladies,  without  entrance  fee. 

The  courses  of  instruction  are  as  follows,  the  principle  of  demanding  special 
payment  having  been  adopted  after  mature  consideration  : 


1.  Calligraphy  and  reading,  .  .  - 

2.  Orthography  "       " 

3.  German  (grammar  and  reading), 

4.  "         (syntax  and  reading), 

5.  "         (composition  and  epistolary  style),  - 

6.  Arithmetic. — Course  I,       - 

7.  «  "        II,  .  -  . 

8.  Geometrical  and  architectural  drawing  ( Sunday 

niorning),     -  -  -  -  - 

9.  Geometry,    ----- 

10.  Book-keeping  by  single  entry,  theory  of  hills  of 

exchange  (Sunday  morning), 

11.  Commercial  arithmetic    (Sunday  morning), 

12.  Book-keeping,  double  entry,       "  " 

13.  Mechanical  designing,  "  " 

14.  Projection, 

15.  Singing,  in  two  courses,  each 

16.  Stenography   (Sundays),          -  .  - 

17.  Modeling,    - 

18.  French    (2  courses),     - 

19.  English  (2  courses), 

20.  Pattern  reading  for  weavers   (Sunday), 

Hours  Weekly. 

Fee  for  3  Months. 

7^  groschen. 



n    " 

7|      " 

10         " 

7i      « 


15         " 

H     " 

1    thaler. 


15   groschen.' 

1    thaler. 

7^  groschen. 

^2          " 

1    thaler. 

15   groschen. 


1  ^  thaler. 


H       " 


15    groschen. 

In  pursuance  of  the  purpose  of  opening  classes  in  special  trades,  a  school  for 
the  building-trades  has  been  opened,  under  the  supervision  of  two  architects  con- 
nected with  the  Committee  of  Instruction,  imparting  the  theoretical  knowledge 
necessary  for  a  young  artisan  in  a  building-trade,  and  to  enable  him  to  pass  the 
examination  for  becoming  a  master  in  his  guild.  There  are  four  courses,  each 
occupying  four  winter  months,  comprising  eight  hours  of  instruction  daily.  The 
subjects  taught  are :  German,  arithmetic,  theory  of  proportions,  algebra,  geome- 
try, geometrical  projection,  elements  of  physics,  theory  of  mechanical  powers, 
theory  of  heat,  theory  of  architecture,  agricultural  architecture,  ornamentation, 
architectural  and  free-hand  drawing  and  modeling  in  clay.  The  fees  are  from 
4  to  6  thalers  monthly,  but  there  is  a  deficit  of  from  400  to  500  thalers  annually, 
made  up  by  the  Union. 

The  recreations,  which  may  be  considered  as  means,  and  powerful  means,  of 
moral  education,  are  participated  in  by  the  female  relations  of  the  members.  The 


days  selected  for  this  purpose  are  Sundays  and  holidays ;  the  amusements  con- 
sist of  di.scussions  suited  to  the  capacity  of  tlie  female  auditors,  coiicerts,  choral 
singinjj,  dramatic  readings,  balls  and  scenic  representations,  held  in  the  Society's 
hall,  or  in  a  large  park  outside  of  the  city.  Excursions  into  the  country  take 
place  often. 

There  is  a  savings  bank  for  tlve  members;  on  the  plan  of  Schulzc  Delitzsch, 
and  an  insurance  company  affiliated  to  the  great  Germania  company. 

As  a  minor  arrangement  of  great  possible  utility  may  be  mentioned  the  box 
for  questions  by  workmen  on  matters  pertaining  to  practical  life,  or  arising  from 
their  reading.  It  is  filled  every  evening,  and  emptied  by  the  teachers  at  each 
successive  general  meeting. 

The  Union  now  numbers  3,000  permanent  members,  nine-tenths  of  whom  be- 
long to  the  industrial  classes.  As  many  as  10,000  temporary  members  have 
been  inscribed  in  one  year.  The  lectures  are  attended  by  10,000  to  12,000  hear- 
ers, and  the  school  by  1,300  students,  of  all  grades,  apprentices,  journeymen, 
workmen,  and  masters. 

The  building  of  the  Union  cost,  in  1864,  together  with  the  land,  68,000  thalers. 
It  is  the  first  in  Germany,  exclusively  devoted  to  the  instruction  of  w^orking- 
men.  The  ccnti*al  hall  is  SO  feet  long,  60  wide  and  20  high,  and  will  contain 
more  than  2,000  persons.  It  opens  directly  on  a  garden,  the  two  together  afford- 
ing sufficient  room  for  all  the  members  and  their  families  on  festive  occasions. 
Two  entire  stories  are  occupied  by  the  lecture-rooms,  &c.,  and  the  library.  The 
latter  is  free  to  all  the  members,  books  being  exchanged  two  evenings  in  the 
week.  The  number  of  volumes  (1865)  is  3,500,  of  which  from  250  to  500  are 
taken  out  weekly.  The  average  number  of  readers  is,  in  summer  500,  in  winter 
700.  There  is  a  great  demand  for  books  upon  commerce  and  industry.  The 
reading-room  is  mostly  furnished  by  the  generosity  of  the  editors  of  the  various 
periodicals,  and  contains  70  journals,  besides  political,  technical,  literary  and 
religious  reviews.     It  is  visited  by  a  very  large  number. 


The  Provincial  Trade  School  at  Dantzic,  which  may  be  considered  as  a  fair 
example  of  its  class,  has  for  its  object  to  instruct  commercial  assistants  and  mas- 
ters or  overseers  in  small  manufactories.  A  further  object  is  the  preparing  can- 
didates for  the  polytechnic  institutes  at  Berlin.  It  is  governed  by  a  director,  who 
with  four  other  persons  appointed  by  the  provincial  government,  forms  a  school 
committee,  regulating  the  financial  and  other  affairs  of  the  school.  The  profes- 
sorships are,  one  for  mathematics,  mechanics,  engineering,  and  mechanical  tech- 
nology, one  for  the  natural  sciences,  namely,  physics,  chemistry,  mineralogy,  and 
chemical  technology,  and  one,  with  an  assistant,  for  sketching,  modeling,  and 
geometrical  drawing.  The  director  is  one  of  the  two  first,  the  others  rank  ac- 
cording to  seniority.     They  are  considered  government  officers. 

Professors  are  appointed  by  the  provincial  government,  after  an  examina- 
tion before  a  special  board,  but  the  province  may  appoint  assistants  temporarily 
without  this  formality.  All  appointments  are  to  be  confirmed  by  the  minister, 
to  whom  also  the  board  reports  the  results  of  its  examinations,  and  who  may 
dispense  with  the  latter  in  the  case  of  those  who  have  undergone  it  at  a  previous 
period,  or  have  the  reputation  of  having  had  experience  in  giving  instruction. 

If  the  candidate  has  not  had  practice  in  teaching,  the  engagement  is  made  for 
six  months  only,  but  he  is  definitely  settled  if  he  has  been  m  active  service  for  a 


period  of  from  three  to  five  years.  He  is  entitled  to  a  pension,  his  time  of  service 
being  counted  from  the  date  of  the  beginning  of  his  probation,  and  a  regular  an- 
nual deduction  being  made  from  his  salary. 

The  Minister  of  Commerce  exercises  supervision  over  the  plan  of  instruction 
to  render  the  system  of  the  provincial  trade  schools  uniform.  This  plan  is 
forwarded  to  him  every  year,  in  August,  together  with  a  detailed  report  on  the 
condition  of  the  institution  from  the  provincial  government. 

It  receives  scholars  at  fourteen,  who  can  read  and  write  correctly,  who  have 
some  practice  in  drawing,  can  explain  any  German  book  within  the  capacity  of 
their  age,  "  be  able  to  vise  books  for  self  instruction,"  and  possess  a  knowledge 
of  arithmetic  as  far  as  vulgar  fractions,  besides  being  acquainted  with  the  solu- 
tion of  ordinary  questions,  such  as  measuring  the  superficies  of  polygonal  planes 
and  prismatic  bodies. 

Young  mechanics,  with  only  the  knowledge  acquired  in  the  primary  schools, 
can  obtain  the  necessary  preparation  in  the  journeyman's  Sunday  and  evening 
improvement  sckool,  which  is  connected  with  the  institution.  But  if  it  is  thought 
necessary,  a  preparatory  class  may  be  opened,  supported  by  the  community,  and 
not  as  an  integral  part  of  the  higher  establishment ;  it  is  also  desired  that  its 
course  be  so  arranged  as  to  be  profitable  to  those  not  intending  to  pursue  their 
studies  farther.  If  such  a  preparatory  class  be  organized,  it  is  to  be  provided 
with  a  good  elementary  teacher,  and  to  be  under  the  control  of  the  director  of  the 
.  provincial  trade  school. 

The  course  lasts  two  years,"  and  is  divided  into  a  junior  class  for  theoretical 
studies  and  drawing,  and  a  senior  class  for  application  of  the  instruction  received 
to  the  differ  ent  branches  of  industrial  pursuits.  The  term  commences  at  the 
beginning  of  October,  and  there  are  only  two  months  vacation  in  the  year.  The 
number  of  hours  of  lessons  is  not  to  exceed  36  a  week  ;  the  director  gives  16  to 
18  hours,  the  other  professors  20  to  24.  As  the  number  of  scholars  in  the  school 
is  over  forty,  they  are  divided,  according  to  the  law,  into  two  drawing  classes, 
and  an  assistant  is  engaged  for  the  lower  class.  The  cm*riculum  includes  the 
following  studies  :  German  composition,  arithmetic,  with  extensive  exercises  in 
its  practical  application,  theoretical  and  applied  geometry  with  practical  appli- 
cations to  surveying,  algebra,  trigonometry,  descriptive  geometry,  conic  sec- 
tions, stereotomy,  physics,  with  strength  of  materials,  mechanics,  theory  of 
wheel- works,  chemistry  and  the  technology  of  chemistry,  mineralogy  as  applied 
to  practice,  various  architectural  constructions  in  the  various  materials  used,  ge- 
ometrical drawing  carried  to  constructing  parts  of  machines  from  logarithms, 
free-hand  drawing  of  ornaments,  and  outline  sketches  from  models,  in  pencil, 
ink,  chalk,  and  elpia ;  finally,  clay  modeling  from  plaster  casts.  There  is  no 
religious  instruction. 

Between  the  senior  and  junior  classes  is  an  examination.  Those  failing  are 
allowed  to  continue  in  the  junior  class  another  year.  Any  one  who  can  pass  this 
examination  is  allowed  to  enter  the  senior  class,  whether  he  has  studied  in  the 
school  or  not. 

This  institution  enjoys,  as  well  as  some  of  the  other  provincial  trade  schools, 
the  right  of  issuing  certificates  after  a  final  examination  of  those  who  have  com- 
pleted the  course  of  study.  This  privilege  is  obtained,  in  all  cases,  after  special 
petition,  accompanied  with  specimen  drawings  and  written  exercises  from  all  the 
members  of  the  senior  class.  This  petition  is  granted  if  a  favorable  report  is  re- 
ceived by  the  Minister  of  Commerce  from  a  commissary  sent  to  examine  the  class. 



The  final  examination  for  the  "certificates  of  maturity  "  is  held  in  July,  or  at 
the  beginning  of  August,  and  is  open  to  all  who  choose  to  announce  tlu-ir  inten- 
tion in  writing,  whether  they  have  been  pupils  in  the  institution  or  not.  It  is 
held  before  a  board  consisting  of  a  government  commissary,  the  director  and  the 
professors  of  the  senior  class,  and  is  both  written  and  oral.  From  the  oral  part, 
however,  those  proposing  to  engage  in  certain  trades  in  house-building  are  ex 
cused.  Four  compositions  are  to  be  written  under  the  eye  of  a  professor,  without 
books  or  aids  of  any  kind ;  one  in  four  hours,  in  German,  on  some  subject  well 
known  to  the  pupil  that  he  may  have  little  to  do  but  to  arrange  his  thoughts, 
and  three  others  to  be  finished  in  seven  hours  each ;  one  on  a  subject  taken  from 
physics,  one  from  chemistry  and  chemical  technology,  and  one  from  mechanics 
and  engineering. 

Those  passing  the  examination  are  excused  from  two  of  their  three  years'  mili- 
tary service,  and  may  be  admitted  to  the  Royal  Trade  Academy,  (gewerbeaca^emie,) 
at  Berlin.  Like  other  provincial  trade  schools,  that  at  Dantzic  has  the  right  of 
conferring  a  stipend  and  a  free  place  at  the  gewerbe  academie. 

There  are  (1867)  25  in  the  first  and  35  in  the  second  class.  Few  of  these  are 
preparing  for  the  Berlin  academy.  The  fees  are  12  thalers  a  year.  It  is  a  day 
school.  The  building  is  furnished  by  the  city,  the  Government  having  paid  the 
first  expenses  of  opening  it,  which  amounted  to  about  4,000  thalers,  half  of  which 
was  for  instruments  and  half  for  a  library  and  drawing  models.  The  annual 
cost  is  shared  by  the  State  and  the  city,  and  amounts  to  about  3,200  thalers. 


Excellent  and  useful  as  are  the  provincial  schools  of  arts  and  trades  in  Prussia, 
we  must  look  to  Berlin  and  its  neighborhood  for  the  most  complete  development 
of  the  system  of  scientific  studies,  and  facilities  for  the  practical  application  of 
the  same  to  national  industries,  although  there  is  no  graded  or  administi'ative 
connection  between  the  institutions  The  two  schools  which  give  a  thorough 
preparation  for  the  highest  special  schools,  are  the  Royal  Real  School,  and  the 
City  Trade  School.  The  programmes  of  these  excellent  schools  were  drawn  up 
by  eminent  teachers,  assisted  by  the  suggestions  of  successful  business  men,  and 
will  be  found  in  the  following  account  by  Prof.  Bache.  They  are  valuable  as  a 
general  preparation  for  business  life,  as  well  as  for  the  higher  ti'aining  of  a  poly- 
technic school. 

The  Royal  Real  School,  whose  history  is  given  in  another  place,*  as  well  as 
the  City  Trade  School,  had  its  origin  in  the  conviction  that  Latin  and  Greek  were 
not  the  only  nor  the  highest  objects  of  study,  either  for  mental  discipline,  or  for 
the  use  of  pupils  who  are  to  grapple  with  practical  problems  of  life  in  the  public 
service  or  in  national  industries ;  and  its  continued  work  for  100  years  has 
demonstrated  the  value  of  modern  languages,  drawing,  mathematics,  ( including 
algebra,  geometry,  and  trigonometry),  physics,  natural  history,  and  chemistry, 
for  the  highest  purposes  for  which  public  schools,  for  the  great  majority  of  the 
community,  are  instituted  It  was  the  pioneer  institution  in  that  great  revolu- 
tion in  pedagogy  which  has  asserted  the  claims  of  science  in  agriculture,  archi- 
tecture, commerce,  and  manufactures,  in  modern  systems  of  public  instruction. 

♦Special  Report  of  Commissioner  of  Education  on  Condition  and  Improvement  of  Public 
Schools  in  the  District  of  Columbia,  1861-S.— Appendix.— Notes  on  the  Public  Schools  of  Berlin 
and  Prussia. 


The  Frederick  William  Gymnasium  is  regarded  by  Dr.  Bache,  as  a 
fair  specimen  oftiiis  class  of  schools  in  Prussia;  in  the  organization  and 
instruction  of  which  a  good  degree  of  liberty  is  tolerated  by  the  govern- 
ment, to  enable  them  the  better  to  meet  the  peculiar  circumstances  of 
each  province,  and  the  peculiar  views  of  each  director. 

The  Royal  Real  School,  and  City  Trade  School  of  Berlin,  furnish  a 
course  of  instruction  of  the  same  general  value  for  mental  discipline,  but 
better  calculated  for  that  class  of  pupils  who  are  destined  in  life,  not  for 
what  are  designated  as  the  learned  profession,  but  for  tradesmen  and  me- 
chanics. There  is  less  of  verbal  knowledge  but  more  of  mathematics 
and  their  application  to  the  arts ;  and  the  whole  is  so  arranged  as  to  fa- 
cilitate the  acquisition  of  those  mental  habits  which  are  favorable  to 
the  highest  practical  success. 


The  Royal  Real  School  of  Berlin  was  founded  as  early  as  1747,  by  Counsellor 
Hecker.  At  the  period  in  which  this  school  was  founded,  Latin  and  Greek  were 
the  exclusive  objects  of  study  in  the  learned  schools,  and  the  avowed  pui-pose  of 
this  establishment  was  that  "  not  mere  words  should  be  taught  to  the  pupils,  but 
realities,  explanations  being  made  to  them  from  nature,  from  models  and  plans, 
and  of  subjects  calculated  to  be  useful  in  after-life."  Hence  the  school  was  called 
a  "  real  school,"  and  preserves  this  name,  indicative  of  the  great  educational 
reform  which  it  was  intended  to  promote,  and  the  success  of  winch  has  been, 
though  slow,  most  eei-tain. 

The  successor  of  Hecker,  in  1769,  divided  this  flourishing  school  into  three  de- 
partments, the  pedagogium,  or  learned  school,  the  school  of  arts,  and  the  German 
school :  the  whole  establishment  still  retaining  the  title  of  real  school.  The  first 
named  department  was  subsequently  separated  from  the  others,  constituting  the 
Frederick  William  gymnasium ;  the  school  of  arts,  and  the  German,  or  elemen- 
tary school,  remain  combined  under  the  title  of  the  royal  real  school.  The  same 
director,  however,  still  presides  over  the  gymnasium  and  the  real  school. 

The  question  has  been  much  agitated,  whether  the  modem  languages  should  be 
considered  in  these  schools  as  the  substitutes  for  the  ancient  in  intellectual  educa- 
tion, or  whether  mathematics  and  its  kindi-ed  branches  should  be  regai'ded  in  this 
light.  Whether  the  original  principle  of  the  "  realities"  on  which  the  schools 
were  founded,  was  to  be  adhered  to,  or  the  still  older  of  verbal  knowledge,  only 
with  a  change  of  languages,  to  be  substituted  for  it.  In  this  school  the  languages 
will  be  found  at  present  to  occupy  a  large  share  of  attention,  while  in  the  similar 
institution,  a  description  of  which  follows  this,  the  sciences  have  the  pre- 

In  the  royal  real  school  the  branches  of  instniction  are — ^religion,  Latin,  French, 
English,  German,  physics,  natm-al  history,  chemistry,  histoiy,  geograj'hy,  draw- 
ing, wi'iting,  and  vocal  music.  The  Latin  is  retained  as  practically  useful  in  some 
branches  of  trade,  as  in  pharmacy,  as  aiding  in  the  nomenclature  of  natui-al  his- 
tory, and  as  preventing  a  separation  in  the  classes  of  this  school  and  that  of  the 
gymnasium,  which  would  debar  the  pupils  fi'om  passing  from  the  former  to  the 
latter  in  the  upper  classes.  It  mvist  be  admitted  that,  for  all  purposes  but  the  last, 
it  occupies  an  uimecessaiy  degree  of  attention,  especially  in  the  middle  classes. 

The  following  table  shows  the  distribiition  of  time  among  the  courses.  There 
are  seven  classes  in  numerical  order,  but  ten,  in  fact,  the  third,  fourth,  and  fifth 
being  divided  into  two  ;  the  lower  fourth  is  again,  on  account  of  its  numbers,  sub- 
divided into  two  parallel  sections.  Of  these,  the  seventh,  sixth,  and  fifth  are  ele- 
mentary classes,  the  pupils  entering  the  seventh  at  between  five  and  seven  yeare  of 
age.  In  the  annexed  table  the  number  of  hom-s  of  recitation  per  week  of  each 
class  in  the  several  subjects  is  stated,  and  the  vertical  column  separating  the  ele- 
mentaty  classes  from  the  others,  contains  the  sum  of  the  hours  devoted  to  each 
branch  in  the  higher  classes,  o?vc1u'l'n<:(  th?  lower  section  of  the  foui'th  class, 
which  has  not  a  distinct  course  from  that  of  the  other  division. 






Latin,  . 


Mathematics,*  . . 
Natural  History, 


Chemistry,  .... 
(x.-ography,  .... 

Writing, . 
Singing,  . 


36  36  35  35  32  32  32 

6    5 
3    4 

3    4 



•S  '  £  .  -5 

4  5 

8  8 

2  3 

4  3 

2  2 

2  2 

4  4 

26  26  26  26 


Proportion  of  other 
studies  to  German 
in  the 
















Pupils  who  enter  this  school  between  five  and  seven  years  of  age,  and  go  regu- 
larly through  the  elementary  classes,  are  prepared  at  ten  to  pass  to  its  higher 
classes,  or  to  enter  the  lowest  of  the  g}'mnasium.  It  is  thus  after  the  fifth  class 
that  a  comparison  of  the  two  institutions  must  begin.  The  studies  of  the  real 
school  proper,  and  of  the  gymnasium,  have  exactly  the  same  elementary  basis, 
and  they  remain  so  far  parallel  to  each  other  that  a  pupil,  by  taking  extra  instruc- 
tion in  Greek,  may  pass  from  the  lower  third  class  of  the  former  to  the  lower  third 
of  the  latter.  This  fact  alone  is  sufficient  to  show  that  the  real  schools  must  be 
institutions  for  secondary  instruction,  since  the  pupils  have  yet  three  classes  to  pass 
through  after  reaching  the  point  just  referred  to.  It  serves  also  to  separate  the 
real  schools  from  the  higher  burgher  schools,  since  the  extreme  limit  of  the 
courses  of  the  latter,  with  the  same  assistance  in  regard  to  Greek,  only  enables 
the  pupil  to  reach  the  lower  third  class  of  the  gymnasium.  In  general,  a  pupil 
would  terminate  his  studies  in  the  real  school  at  between  sixteen  and  eighteen 
years  of  age.  The  difference  between  the  subjects  of  instruction  in  the  real 
school  and  the  Frederick  William  gymnasium,  consists  in  the  omission  in  the 
former  of  Greek,  Hebrew,  and  philosophy,  and  the  introduction  of  English  and 
chemistiy.  The  relative  proportions  of  time  occupied  in  the  same  subjects  in  the 
two  schools,  will  be  seen  by  comparing  the  two  columns  next  on  the  right  of  the 
numbers  for  the  seventh  class,  in  the  table  just  given.  The  first  of  these  columns 
contains  the  proportion  of  the  number  of  hours  per  week  devoted  to  the  different 
subjects  in  the  six  classes  of  the  real  school  above  the  elementary,  the  number  of 
hours  devoted  to  the  German  being  tciken  as  unity;  and  the  second,  the  same 
proportion  for  six  classes  of  the  gyujnasium,  beginning  with  the  lowest,  the  same 
number  of  hours  being  taken  as  the  unit,  as  in  the  preceding  column.  To  bring 
the  natural  historj'  and  physics  into  comparison,  I  have  taken  thenumbei-s  for  the 

*  Including  arithmetic,  geometry,  algebra,  and  trigonometry. 
t  These  numbers  include  the  entire  course. 


upper  classes  of  the  gymnasium  in  which  these  branches  are  taught.  Of  the 
courses  common  to  the  two  schools,  those  to  which  nearly  equal  attention  is  paid 
in  both  institutions,  are — the  religious  instruction,  the  German,  geography  and 
history,  writing,  and  vocal  music.  The  French,  mathematics,  physics,  and  nat- 
ural history,  predominate  in  the  real  school,  the  Latin  in  the  gyiimasiimi.  The 
effect  of  reckoning  the  fii'st,  second,  and  upper  third  classes  of  the  gymnasium, 
does  not  materially  change  the  proportionate  numbers  of  the  courses  which  are 
common  to  the  two  schools,  except  as  to  Latin  and  mathematics.  To  show  this, 
the  column  on  the  extreme  right  of  the  table  is  introduced,  containing  the  pro- 
portions for  all  the  nine  classes  of  the  Frederick  William  gymnasium. 

There  were,  in  1838,  five  hundred  and  ten  pupils  in  this  real  school,  under  the 
charge  of  fourteen  regular  or  class  masters,  teaching  several  subjects  in  the  lower 
classes,  and  of  six  other  teachers.  Each  of  the  eleven  class  divisions  thus  aver- 
ages about  forty -six,  who  are  under  the  charge  of  one  teacher  at  a  time. 

The  elementary  course  in  the  real  school  is  similar  to  that  described  in  the 
burgher  schools,  beginning  with  the  phonic  method  of  reading,  the  explanations 
of  all  the  words  and  sentences  being  required  at  the  same  time  that  the  mechani- 
cal part  of  reading  is  learned.  Written  and  mental  arithmetic  are  taught  together 
in  the  lowest  class.  The  religious  instruction  consists  of  Bible  stories  adapted  to 
their  age  ;  and  verses  are  committed  to  improve  the  memory  of  words.  The  ex- 
ercises of  induction  are  practiced,  but  in  a  way  not  equal  to  that  with  objects, 
introduced  by  Dr.  Mayo  in  England.  Some  of  the  pupils  are  able  to  enter  the 
gj'mnasium  after  going  through  the  two  lowest  classes. 

In  regard  to  the  real  classes  proper,  as  I  propose  to  enter  into  the  particulars  of 
the  course  of  study  of  the  trade  school,  I  shall  here  merely  make  a  few  remarks 
upon  two  of  the  branches  studied  in  them,  namely,  French  and  drawing.  The 
remarks  in  regard  to  the  French  will  serve  to  show  how  great  a  latitude 
a  teacher  is  allowed  in  the  arrangement  of  his  methods,  the  result  of  which 
is,  that  those  who  have  talent  are  interested  in  improving  their  art  by  observation 
and  experiment.  The  French  teacher  to  whom  I  allude  had  been  able  to  secure 
the  speaking,  as  well  as  the  reading,  of  French  from  his  pupils.  From  the  very 
beginning  of  the  coui*se  this  had  been  a  point  attended  to,  and  translation  from 
French  into  German  had  been  accompanied  by  that  from  German  into  French : 
the  conversation  on  the  business  of  the  class-room  was  in  French.  The  pupils 
were  exercised  especially  in  the  idioms  of  the  language  in  short  extempore  sen- 
tences, and  the  differences  of  structure  of  the  French  and  their  own  language 
were  often  brought  before  them,  and  the  difficulties  resulting  from  them  antici- 
pated. Difficult  words  and  sentences  were  noted  by  the  pupils.  Declamation 
was  practiced  to  encourage  a  habit  of  distinct  and  deliberate  speaking,  and  to 
secure  a  correct  pronunciation.  The  chief  burthen  of  the  instruction  was  oral. 
Without  the  stimulus  of  change  of  places,  the  classes  imder  this  gentleman's  in- 
struction were  entirely  alive  to  the  instruction,  and  apparently  earnestly  engaged 
in  the  performance  of  a  duty  which  interested  them.  K  such  methods  should 
fail  in  communicating  a  greater  amount  of  knowledge  than  less  lively  ones,  which 
I  belive  can  not  be  the  case,  they  will  serve,  at  least,  to  break  down  habits  of  in- 
tellectual sloth  to  prornote  mental  activity,  the  great  aim  of  intellectual  education. 

The  drawing  department  of  this  school  is  superintended  by  a  teacher  who  has 
introduced  a  new  method  of  instruction,  particularly  adapted  to  the  purpose  for 
which  drawing  is  to  be  applied  in  common  life  and  in  the  arts ;  a  method  which 
is  found  to  enable  a  much  larger  proportion  of  the  pupils  to  make  adequate  jiro- 
gress  than  the  ordinary  one  of  copying  from  drawings.*  In  this  method  the  pupil 
begins  by  drawing  from  simple  geometrical  forms,  those  selected  being  obtained 
from  models  in  wood  or  plaster,  of  a  square  pillar,t  a  niche,  and  a  low  cylinder, 
(the  form  of  a  mill-stone.)  The  square  pillar  separates  in  joints,  affording  a  cube 
and  parallelepipeds  of  different  heights.  The  hemisphere  which  caps  the  niche 
may  be  removed,  leaving  the  concave  surface  of  its  cylindrical  part.  The  exer- 
cises of  the  pupil  ran  thus :  First,  to  place  upon  a  board,  or  upon  his  paper  or 

*  Mr.  Peter  Schmidt,  who  now.  in  his  old  age.  has  received  from  the  government  a  pension 
in  rf  Turn  for  the  introduction  of  his  method,  and  the  instruction  in  it  of  a  certain  number  ol 

t  Seven  and  a  half  inches  high,  and  one  inch  and  a  hail  ii»  .v..  ~^-3Xt  section. 


slate,  a  point  vertically  above  another,  or  so  that  the  lines  joining  the  two  shall 
be  parullol  to  the  rijirht  or  left  hand  edge  of  the  board,  paper,  or  slate.  Second, 
to  join  them.  Third,  to  place  a  point  hoi-izontally  from  the  second,  and  at  a  dis- 
tance equal  to  that  between  the  fii-st  and  second  points.  Fourth,  to  place  one 
vertically  over  the  third,  and  at  a  distance  equal  to  that  below  the  first,  and  to 
join  the  third  and  fourth.  The  first  and  fourth  being  then  joined,  a  square  is 
formed.  After  practice  in  this,  the  simple  elevation  of  the  cube  is  drawn.  Next, 
a  perspectis'o,  by  the  use  of  a  small  frame  and  silk  threads,  such  as  is  common  in 
teaching  the  elements  of  this  subject,  and  by  means  of  which  the  pupil  acquires 
readily  a  knowledge  of  the  practice.  The  drawing  of  lines  in  various  positions, 
and  with  various  proportions,  terminates  this  division  of  the  subject.  The  niche 
and  cylinder  afford  a  similarly  graduated  series  of  lessons  on  the  drawing  of  curved 
linos,  and  the  drawing  of  lines  of  different  degrees  of  strength  and  of  shadows  is 
introduced.  This  is  accompanied  with  some  of  the  more  simple  rules  of  shadow 
and  shade.  ^lore  difhcult  exercises  of  perspective  follow  from  natural  objects 
and  from  works  of  art  or  mechanism,  according  to  the  direction  to  the  pupil's  at- 
tainments and  the  amount  of  taste  which  he  displays.  This  method  of  teaching 
has  been  introduced  quite  generally  in  Prussia,  and  with  the  best  results  as  to  the 
formation  of  accuracy  of  eye  and  of  hand. 


Tlie  City  Trade  School  was  founded  to  give  a  more  appropriate  education  for 
the  mechanic  arts  and  higher  trades  than  can  be  had  through  the  courses  of  clas- 
sical schools.     It  is  a  great  point  gained,  when  the  principal  is  admitted  that  dif- 
ferent kinds  of  education  are  suited  to  different  objects  in  life  ;  and  such  an  ad- 
mission belong-s  to  an  advanced  stage  of  education.     As  a  consequence  of  a  gen- 
eral sentiment  of  this  kind,  numerous  schools  for  the  appropriate  instruction  of 
those  not  intended  for  the  learned  professions  grow  up  by  the  side  of  the  othei-s. 
^  The  city  of  Berlin  is  the  patron  of  the  trade  school  which  I  am  about  to  notice, 
as  the  king  is  of  the  real  school  already  spoken  of.     Its  stability  is  thus  secured, 
but  the  means  of  furnishing  it  with    the  necessary  materials  for  instruction  are 
liberally  provided.*     The  trade  school  is  a  day  school,  and  consists  of  five  classes, 
of  which  the  lowest  is  on  the  same  grade  as  to  age  and  qualification  at  admission, 
as  the  fourth  class  of  a  gymnasium.     It  is  assumed  that  at  twelve  years  of  age  it 
will  have  been  decided  whether  a  youth  is  to  enter  one  of  the  learned  professions, 
or  to  follow  a  mechanical  employment,  or  to  engage  in  trade,  but  the  higher  classes 
are  not  closed  against  pupils.     Of  the  five  classes,  four  are  considered  necessary 
for  certain  pursuits  and  the  whole  five  for  others ;  the  courses  of  all   but  the  firet 
class  last  one  year,  that  of  the  first,  two  years,  a  youth  leaving  the  school  at  from 
16  to  17  or  18  years  of  age,  according  to  circumstances.     During  the  year  lb36-7, 
the  number  of  pupils  in  the  several  classes  were,  in  the  first  class,  eleven  :  in  the 
second,  twenty-nine  ;  in  the  upper  third,  forty-three ;    in  the  lower  third,  fifty- 
two  ;  in  the  fourth,  fifty ;  total,  one  hundred  and  eighty-five ;  from  which   num- 
bers it  appears  that  a  considerable  proportion  of  the  pupils  leave  the  school  without 
entering  the  first  class.     The  number  of  teachers  is  nineteen,  five  being  regular  or 
class  teachers,  and  fourteen  assistants.     The  director  gives  instruction. 

The  following  list  of  the  callings  to  which  pupils  from  this  school  have  gone  on 
leaving  it,  will  show  that  it  is  really  what  it  professes  to  be,  a  school  for  the  in- 
struction of  those  who  intend  to  follow  occupations  connected  with  "  commerce, 
the  useful  arts,  higher  trades,  building,  mining,  forestry,  aorriculture,  and  military 
life  ;"  and  further,  that  its  advantages  are  appreciated  by  the  class  for  whom  it  is 
intended.  The  list  includes  the  pupils  who  have  left  the  school  from  the  first  and 
second  classes,  in  the  years  1830,  1832, 1833  and  1837.  From  the  first  class,  two 
teachers,  five  architects,  one  chemist,  twenty-six  merchants,  one  machinest,  two 
calico-printers,  two  glass-workers,  one  cloth  manufacturer,  one  silk  manuf;>cturer, 
one  miner,  thirteen  agriculturalists,  eight  apothecaries,  two  gardeners,  one  painter, 
one  mason,  one  carpenter,  one  tanner,  one  miller,  one  baker,  one  potter,  one 
saddler,  one  soap-boiler,  one  cabinet-maker,  two  soldiers,  one  musician,  five  to 

*The  present  director  of  fV'''-  school,  Mr.  Kloden,  was  formf^j-ly  director  of  the  higher 
burgher  school  ai  Potsaam,  and  is  one  of  the  most  distinguished  teachers  iu  his  line  in  Persia. 



public  offices,  one  to  the  trade  institution,  six  to  gymnasium.  From  tlie  second 
class,  forty-one  merchants,  one  teacher,  one  chemist,  one  machinest,  one  ship-car- 
penter, nine  agricuhurist,  one  sugar-refiner,  three  dyers,  one  tanner,  one  brewer, 
two  distillers,  one  miner,  two  lithographers,  one  dye-sinker,  three  apothecaries, 
one  dentist,  two  painters,  two  gardeners,  three  masons,  five  carpenters,  one  miller, 
four  bakers,  one  butcher,  one  to  the  trade  institution,  three  to  public  offices,  two 
to  a  gymnasium,  one  musician,  one  veterinary  surgeon,  one  soldier,  being  ninety 
from  the  first  class,  and  ninety-seven  from  the  second,  in  the  period  of  four  years. 

In  the  course  of  instruction,  the  sciences  and  kindred  branches  are  made  the 
basis,  and  the  modern  languages  are  employed  as  auxiliaries,  the  ancient  languages 
being  entirely  omitted.  The  subjects  embraced  in  it  are — religious  instruction, 
German,  French,  English,  geography,  history,  mathematics,  physics,  chemistry, 
technology,  natural  history,  writing,  drawing,  and  vocal  music. 

The  courses  are  fully  laid  down  in  the  following  list,  beginning  with  the  studies 
of  the  lowest  or  fourth  class. 


Religious  Inst  iiicti  on*  The  srospel  according  to  St.  Luke,  and  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles 
explained,  with  a  catechetical  development  of  the  truths  of  reUgion  and  ethical  applications. 
Two  hours  per  week. 

German.    Gi-ammatical  exercises  in  writing.     Recital  of  poetical  pieces. 

Frejich.  Grammatical  exercises.  Regular  and  irregular  verbs.  Reading  from  Lauren's 
Reader.     One  hour  of  conversation.    Four  hours. 

Arithmetic.  Mental  and  written,  including  proportions  and  fractions,  with  the  theory  of 
the  operations.     Four  hours. 

Geometry.    Introductory  course  of  forms.    Two  hours. 

Geography.    Elementary,  mathematical,  and  physical  geography.    Two  hours. 

Natural  History.  In  the  summer  term,  elements  of  botany,  with  excursions.  In  the  win' 
ter.  the  external  characters  of  animals.    Two  hours. 

Physics.  Introductory  instruction.  Genei-al  properties  of  bodies.  Forms  of  crystals, 
specific  gravity.  &c.    Two  hours. 

Writing.     Two  hours. 

Drawing.    Outline  drawingand  shadows,  from  models  and  copy-boards.    Two  hours. 

Vocal  Music.    Two  hours. 


Religious  Instruction.  The  Acts  of  the  Apostles  and  the  Epistles  read  and  explained. 
Two  hours. 

German.  Grammar  with  special  reference  to  orthography  and  etymology.  Written  exer« 
cises  upon  narrations  made  by  the  teacher.     Delivery  of  poetical  pieces.     Four  hours. 

French.  Translation  from  French  into  German  from  Gredicke's  Chrestomathy.  Grammar  ; 
irregular  verbs.    Extemporalia,  and  translations  from  German  into  French.    Four  hours. 

Arithmetic     Partly  abstract,  partly  practical,  from  Diesterweg's  Instructor.    Four  hours. 

Geometry.  Determination  of  angles  in  triangles  and  polygons.  Equality  of  triangles. 
Depeiidance  of  angles  and  sides  of  triangles.     Constructions.    Three  hours. 

Geigrnphy.    Physical  description  of  the  parts  of  the  earth,  except  Europe.    Two  hours. 

Natural  History.  Mineralogy.  In  summer,  botany,  the  class  making  excursions  for  prac- 
tical exercise.    Man.     Three  hours. 

Physics.  General  properties  of  bodies  and  solids  in  particular.  Doctrines  of  heat  and 
their  "application  to  natural  phenomena  and  the  arts.    Two  hours. 

Chemistry.  Introduction.  Atmospheric  air.  Experimental  illustrations  of  chemistry, 
applied  to  the  arts.    Two  hours. 

Writing.  Two  hours.  Architectural  and  topographical  drawing.  Two  hours.  Drawing 
by  hand  (or  those  who  do  not  take  part  in  the  other.     Two  hours. 

Vocal  Music.    Two  hours. 


Religious  Instruction.    Christian  morals,  from  Luther's  Catechism.    Two  hours. 

German.  Simple  and  complex  sentences.  Compositions  on  special  subjects.  Poems  ex- 
plained and  committed.     Four  hours. 

French.  Translation  from  Gredicke's  Chrestomathy,  oral  and  in  writing.  Written  trans- 
lations from  Beauvais'  Introduction,  from  German  into  French.  Gi'ammar,  examples  treated 
extempore.    Four  hours 

Arithmetic.  Properties  of  numbers.  Powers.  Roots.  Decimal  fractions  Practical 
Arithmetic  from  Diesterweg.    Four  hours. 

Geometry.  Similar  figures.  Geometrical  proportion.  Exercises.  Mensuration  of  rectili- 
near figu  res.     Three  hours. . 

Geography.  Physical  geography  of  Europe,  and  in  particular  of  Germany  and  Prussia. 
Two  hours. 

Natural  History.  Continuation  of  the  mineralogy  of  the  lower  third  class.  Review  in 
outline  of  zoology  and  the  natural  history  of  man  in  particular.  Botany,  with  excursions  in 
summer.    Three  hours. 

♦Roman  Catholic  pupils  are  not  required  to  take  part  in  this  instruction,  which  is  comma' 
nicated  by  a  Protestant  clergyman. 


Physics.    Electricity  and  maffnetism,  witn  experiments.    Two  hours. 
Chemitfry.    Water  and  non-metallic  bodies,  with  experiments.    Two  hours. 
Writing     Two  iiours.    ArchitcctuTcU  and  topographical  drawing.    Two  hours.    Some  of 
the  pupils  dnrinjf  this  time  are  engaged  in  ornamental  drawing. 
Vocal  Music.    Two  hours. 


Rrligious  Instiiiction.  Explanation  of  the  first  three  gospels.  History  of  the  Christian 
religion  and  church  to  the  reformation.    Two  hours. 

German.  Correction  of  exercises  written  at  home,  upon  subjects  assigned  by  the  teacher. 
Oral  anil  written  exercise^;.     Introduction  to  the  history  of  German  poetry     Three  hours. 

French.  Grammar;  extemporalia  for  the  application  of  the  rules.  Written  and  oral 
translations  froni  German  into  French,  from  Beauvais'  Manual,  and  vice  versa,  from  Ideler 
and  Nolte's  Manual.    Four  hours. 

English  Exercises  in  reading  and  speaking.  Translation  into  German,  from  Burkhardt. 
Dictation.     Verbs.     Two  hours. 

Arithmetic.  Commercial  Arithmetic.  Algebra,  to  include  simple  and  quadratic  equa- 
tions.    Logarithms     Three  hours. 

Geometry.     Circles.     Analytical  and  plane  trigonometry.     Three  hours. 

Geography.  The  states  of  Eurojje,  with  special  reference  to  their  population,  manufac- 
tures and  commerce.    Two  hours. 

History.  Principal  events  of  the  history  of  the  middle  ages  and  of  later  times,  as  an  intro 
duction  to  recent  liistory.     One  hour. 

Natural  History.     Mineralogy.     Physiology  of  plants.     Three  hours. 

Chemistry.    Metallic  bodies  and  their  compounds,  v^'ith  experiments.    Three  hours. 

Architectural,  topographical.,  and  plain  drawing.  Drawing  with  instruments.  Introduc- 
tion to  India  ink  drawing.     Beginning  of  the  science  of  constructions.    Two  hours. 

Druicing  From  copies,  and  from  plaster  and  other  models.  Two  hours.  This  kind  of 
drawing  may  be  learned  instead  of  the  above. 

Vocal  Music.     Two  hours. 


Religious  Instruction.  History  of  the  Christian  religion  and  church  continued.  Refer- 
ences to  the  bble.    One  nour. 

German.  History  of  German  literature  to  recent  times.  Essays.  Exercises  of  delivery. 
Three  hours. 

French.  Reading  from  the  manual  of  Buchner  and  Hermunn,  with  abstracts.  Classic 
authors  read.  Review  of  Grammar.  Exercises  at  home,  and  extemporalia.  Free  delivery. 
"Correction  of  exercises.     Four  hours. 

English.  Syntax,  with  written  and  extempore  exercises  from  Burkhardt.  Reading  of 
classic  authors.     Writing  of  letters.     Exercises  in  speaking. 

Arithmetic  Algebra.  Simple  and  quadratic  equations.  Binomial  and  polynomial  theo- 
rems.    Higher  equations.     Commercial  arthmetic  continued.     Three  hours. 

Geometry.  Plane  trigonometry  and  its  applications.  Conic  sections.  Descriptive  Geome- 
try.   Three  hours. 

History.  History  of  the  middle  ages.  Modern  history,  with  special  reference  to  the  prog- 
ress of  civilization,  of  inventions,  discoveries,  and  of  commerce  and  industry.     Three  hours. 

Natural  History.  In  summer,  botany,  the  principal  families,  according  to"  the  natural  sys- 
tem. In  wi  iter,  zoology.  The  pupils  are  taken,  for  the  purpose  of  examining  specimens  to 
the  Royal  Museum. 

Physics.  In  summer,  optics  with  experiments.  In  winter  the  system  of  the  world. 
Three  hours. 

Technology.  Chemical  and  mechanical  arts  and  trades,  described  and  illustrated  by  mo- 
dels.    Excursions  to  visit  the  principal  workshops.    Four  hours. 

Architectural  and  machine  drawing.  Two  hours.  Those  pupils  who  do  not  take  part  in 
this,  receive  lessons  in  ornamental  drawing  from  plaster  models. 

Vocal  Music.    Two  hours. 

The  pupils  of  this  class  are,  besides,  engaged  in  manipulating  in  the  laboratory  of  the  insti- 
tion  several  hours  each  week. 

The  courses  require  a  good  collection  of  apparatus  and  specimens  to  carry 
them  out,  and  this  school  is,  in  fact,  better  furnished  than  any  other  of  its  grade 
which  I  savp  in  Prussia,  besides  which,  its  collections  are  on  the  increase.  The 
facilities  for  the  courses  are  furnished  by  a  collection  of  mathematical  and  physical 
apparatus,  a  labratory,  with  a  tolerably  complete  chemical  apparatus  and  series  of 
tests,  a  collection  of  specimens  of  the  arts  and  manufactures  (or  technological  col- 
lection,) a  collection  of  dried  plants,  and  of  engravings  for  the  botanical  course, 
and  a  sinall  garden  for  the  same  use,  a  collection  of  minerals,  a  collection  of  insects, 
a  collection  in  comparative  anatomy,  a  series  of  engravings  for  the  drawing  course, 
and  of  plaster  models,  a  set  of  maps,  and  other  apparatus  for  geography,  some  as- 
tronomical instruments,  and  a  library.  The  pupils  are  taken  from  time  to  time, 
to  the  admirable  museum  attached  to  the  university  of  Berlin,  for  the  examination 
of  zoological  specimens  especially. 

That  this  school  is  as  a  preparation  for  the  higher  occupations,  and  for  profee- 
eions  not  ranking  among  the  learned,  the  equivalent  of  the  gymnasium  is  clearly 
shown   by  the  sulijects  and  scope  of  its  courses,  and   by  the  age  of  its  pupils. 



Some  of  these  occupations  require  no  higher  inslruction,  others  that  the  pupils 
shall  pass  to  the  special  schools  introductory  to  them.  So  also,  many  of  the  pupils 
of  the  gymnasia  pass  at  once  into  active  life,  others  enter  the  university. 

The  class  of  schools  to  which  the  two  last  described  belong,  are  most  important 
in  their  influence.  In  many  countries,  an  elementary  education  is  the  limit  beyond 
which  those  intending  to  enter  the  lower  grades  of  the  occupations  enumerated  in 
connection  w-ith  the  City  Ti'ade  School  of  Berlin,  do  not  pass  -,  and  if  they  are  in- 
clined to  have  a  better  education,  or  if  intending  to  embrace  a  higher  occupation, 
they  desire  to  be  better  instructed,  they  must  seek  instruction  in  the  classical 
schools.  The  training  of  these  schools  is,  however,  essentially  different  from  that 
required  by  the  tradesman  and  mechanic,  the  verbal  character  of  the  instruction 
is  not  calculated  to  produce  the  habits  of  mind  in  which  he  should  be  brought  up, 
and  the  knowledge  which  is  made  the  basis  of  mental  training  is  not  that  which 
he  has  chiefly  occasion  to  use.  Besides,  were  the  course  ever  so  well  adapted  to 
his  object,  the  time  at  which  he  must  leave  school  only  permits  him  to  follow  a 
part  of  it,  and  he  is  exposed  to  the  serious  evils  which  must  flow  from  being,  as  it 
were,  but  half  taught. 

In  fact,  however,  he  requires  a  very  different  school,  one  in  which  the  subjects 
of  instruction  are  adapted  to  his  destination,  while  they  give  him  an  adequate  m- 
tellectual  culture  5  where  the  character  of  the  instruction  will  train  him  to  the 
habits  which  must,  in  a  very  considerable  degree,  determine  his  future  usefulness  ; 
and  where  the  course  which  he  pursues  will  be  thorough,  as  far  as  it  goes,  and 
will  have  reached  before  he  leaves  the  school  the  standard  at  which  it  aims.  Such 
establishments  are  furnished  by  the  real  schools  of  Germany,  and  as  the  wants 
v.hich  gave  rise  to  them  there,  are  strongly  felt  every  where,  this  class  of  institu- 
tions must  s})read  extensively.  In  Germany  they  are,  as  has  been  seen,  no  new 
experiment,  but  have  stood  the  test  of  experience,  and  with  various  modifications 
to  adapt  them  to  differences  of  circumstances  or  of  views  in  education,  they  are 
spreading  in  that  country.  As  they  become  more  diffused,  and  have  employed  a 
greater  number  of  minds  in  their  organization,  their  plans  will  no  doubt  be  more 
fully  developed. 

It  is  certainly  highly  creditable  to  Germany  that  its  "  gymnasia."  on  the  one 
hand,  and  its  "  real  schools''  on  the  other,  offer  such  excellent  models  of  secondary 
instruction  in  its  two  departments.  The  toleration  which  allows  these  dissimilar 
establishments  to  grow  up  side  by  side,  admitting  that  each,  though  good  for  its 
object,  is  not  a  substitute  for  the  other,  belongs  to  an  enlightened  state  of  senti- 
ment in  regard  to  education,  and  is  worthy  of  the  highest  commendation 


!fO.   OF  HOURS  PER   WEEK. 







Geometry, . , 



Natural  History, 






Vocal  Music, 




Upper     Lower 
Third       Third 

34        32        32        32       28 




The  Royal  Trade  Academy  {Konigliche  Geiverbe  Acadamie),  formerly  the  Royal 
Trade  Insititute  {Institut),  at  Berlin,  was  founded  in  1821,  and  underwent  a  re- 
organization in  1849. 

Its  object,  according  to  the  terms  of  a  circular  of  1860,  is  "  to  give  the  student 
an  opportunity  to  qualify  himself  for  the  position  of  a  superintendent  or  owner 
of  a  technological  establishment."  It  stands  at  the  summit  of  technical  instruc- 
tion. It  may  be  considered,  together  with  the  building  and  mining  academies, 
of  which  a  description  is  given  elsewhere,  as  a  polytechnic  school. 

The  institution  is  in  the  department  of  the  Minister  of  Commerce,  Industry 
and  Public  Works.  It  is  governed  by  a  Council  of  Studies,  composed  of  a  high 
official  of  the  Bureau  of  Commerce,  Industry  and  Public  Works,  of  the  director 
of  the  academy  as  his  substitute,  of  two  professors  of  the  school,  and  of  two 
other  gentlemen  "as  independent  representatives  of  science  and  industry."  All 
the  interests  of  the  institution,  and  all  changes  in  its  organization,  are  deliberated 
upon  by  this  Council,  and  the  results  of  its  deliberations  laid  before  the  ?»[inistry. 
The  immediate  management  is  in  the  hands  of  the  director  already  mentioned. 
He  is  not  a  teacher.  There  ai-e  ten  titular  professors,  and  twelve  other  teachers. 
Most  of  the  former  fill  professorships  in  other  establishments,  as  in  the  Univer- 
sity. The  teaching  corps  forms  a  board,  called  together  at  the  close  of  tlie  term 
to  a  school  conference  on  the  order  of  classes.  There  is  also  in  this  institution 
a  class  of  instructors  called  Privatdocenten,  receiving  fees  from  their  private  pupils, 
but  no  salary  from  the  government.  They  must  have  completed  the  three  years' 
course,  and  have  been  in  practice  as  competent  engineers. 

The  conditions  of  admission  are  as  follows  :  1.  The  candidate  must  be  be- 
tween 17  and  27  years  of  age,  and  must  bring  a  certificate  of  birth  to  prove  this. 
2.  He  must  present  a  certificate  of  maturity  from  a  provincial  trade  school,  from 
a  first  class  real  school,  or  from  a  gymnasium.  3.  Students  in  the  shipbuilding 
division  must  prove  that  they  have  been  engaged,  for  at  least  one  year,  in  prac- 
tical work  in  the  shipyard  of  a  seaport,  before  they  can  go  on  in  the  special 
studies  of  their  profession.  The  requirement  of  one  year's  practical  work  was 
originally  made  from  all  candidates,  but  it  was  repealed,  because  a  great  part  of 
what  had  been  acquired  at  the  gymnasium  was  often  forgotten  during  the  inter- 
val. In  the  case  of  shipbuilders,  however,  the  year's  experience  is  absolutely 

The  period  of  instruction  is  three  years,  with  six  half-yearly  terms.  Of  these, 
the  first  three,  Section  A,  are  occupied  with  general  and  purely  theoretical  tech- 
nical studies,  for  all  the  students  in  common.  During  the  last  three,  Section  B, 
special  courses  are  pursued,  and  practical  exercises  are  added.  The  special  de- 
partments are : 

I.     Special  technology,  as  mechanics. 
n.     Chemistry  and  metallurgy. 
III.     Ship-building. 

The  studies  of  Section  A  are  obligatory  on  all,  but  those  students  of  chemistry 
who  aim  only  at  being  assistants  in  factories.  It  is  thought  that  "  those  having 
this  modest  object  in  view,  can  do  very  well  without  the  mathematics  of  the  third 
term,  and  will  employ  their  time  more  usefully  in  the  laboratory.  The  director 
may,  therefore,  allow  that  class  of  chemists  to  experiment  in  the  laboratory  after 
having  attended  the  lectures  in  the  fii-st  theoretical  section  for  one  year."    Those 


intending  to  establish  or  superintend  chemical  factories,  must  go  through  the 
whole  course.  The  period  of  study  can  be  prolonged  by  students  of  mechanics, 
who  are  allowed  to  spend  an  additional  year  in  the  workshops  connected  with 
the  institution. 

The  academical  year  begins  October  1st,  and  closes  August  15th,  with  a  vaca- 
tion of  ten  days  at  Christmas,  and  one  of  the  same  length  at  Easter. 

In  regard  to  the  studies  pursued,  we  extract  from  the  circular  of  August  23, 
1860,  already  cited,  the  following  paragraph,  which  shows  the  admirable  spirit  in 
which  they  are  planned : 

The  characteristic  peculiarity  of  the  course  of  instruction  is  this,  that  the 
students  do  not  obtain  the  knowledge  necessary  to  their  future  career  by  a  series 
of  lectures,  independent  of  one  another,  as  at  the  University,  but  that  the  lec- 
tures form  a  complete  and  well  organized  course,  intimately  connected  Avith  each 
other,  and  so  arranged  that  the  student  passes  through  all  the  theoretical  and 
practical  branches  of  science  and  art,  step  by  step  from  the  moment  he  becomes 
a  member  of  the  second  section  to  the  time  when  he  leaves  the  Institute.  This 
is  the  reason  Avhy  teachers  and  students  are  not  permitted  to  select  the  objects 
of  teaching  and  study,  that  the  students  are  obliged  to  pass  through  the  general 
theoretical  section,  and  that  the  professors  must  arrange  their  lectures  in  har- 
mony with  the  general  plan  of  the  Institute.  Free  choice  is,  however,  allowed 
within  certain  specified  limits. 

The  curriculum,  which  has  undergone  many  changes,  is  as  follows : 


a.  Complement  to  general  knowledge  of  figures ;  higher  equations. 
6.   Spherical  trigonometiy. 

c.  Differential  and  integral  calculations. 

d.  Analytical  statics  and  mechanics. 

e.  Theory  of  mechanical  effects  of  heat. 

/.  Descriptive  geometry,  and  application  of  it  to  perspective  construction  of 

shadows  and  lithotomy. 
g.  Special  inorganic  chemistry. 
A.  Physics. 

i.    General  experimental  chemistry. 
h.  General  knowledge  of  constructive  building. 
/.    Knowledge  of  simple  machines. 
m.  Dra^wang. 
n.  Modeling. 


I. — For  mechanicians :  .    ■ 

a.  Theory  of  solidity  of  buildings,  and  of  parts  of  machinery ;  calculations 
with  regard  to  buildings  put  together;  theory  of  Arone's  counterpoise; 
and  {Futter  mauern)  building  of  sluices. 
h.  Motion  of  water  and  air  in  natural  and  artificial  ducts ;  practical  hydrau- 
lics ;  theory  of  heating  apparatuses ;  fireplaces. 

c.  General  theory  of  machines ;  their  resistance  and  regulation,  particularly 

the  theory  of  hydraulic  motors  and  steam  engines. 

d.  Calculations  with  regard  to  simple  parts  of  machinery;  general  princi- 

ples of  their  construction. 

e.  Details  of  machines  ;  power  machines. 

f.  Mechanical  technology. 

g.  Chemical  technology. 

h.  Practice  in  plans  of  parts  of  machines,  and  whole  machines. 

i.   Practice  in  plans  of  power  machinery. 

k.  Practice  in  plans  of  machines  and  factory  grounds. 

l.   Plans  and  drawings  of  such  artistic  forms  as  can  be  executed  in  cast  iron. 

m.  Mathematical  foundation  of  the  most  important  physical  laws. 


n. — For  chemists  and  smelters  : 

a.  Spociiil  inorganic  chemistry. 

b.  Special  organic  chemistry. 

c.  Mineralogy. 

d.  Geognosy. 

e.  Metuliurgic  chemistry. 
/:  Chemical  technology. 

o.  Special  knowledge  of  machines  and  machine  power. 
A.  Practice  in  planning  chemical  works. 
i.   Practical  studies  in  the  laboratory. 

III. — For  ship-builders : 

a.  (up  to  i)  as  in  II.  1. 

k.  I) rawing  of  vessels  and  parts  of  vessels. 

/.  Art  of  ship-building,  general  displacement  and  stability,  first  part ;  hy- 
drostatic calculations. 

m.  Art  of  ship-building,  knowledge  of  stability,  second  part;  theory  of  sail- 
ing and  steam  vessels,  general  principles  with  regard  to  form  of  vessels ; 
knowledge  of  construction  of  wooden  and  iron  vessels. 

n.  Practice. 

o.  Planning  and  calculating  cost  and  capacity  of  vessels. 

At  the  close  of  every  term  a  review  of  the  studies  pursued  during  the  term  is 
held.  This  review,  which  is  a  kind  of  examination,  and  is  called  "repetition," 
is  obligatory  only  upon  the  stipendiaries,  and  that  class  of  students  who  avail 
themselves  of  the  free  places  in  the  school. 

On  leaving  the  Acadeiiy,  the  student  receives  a  certificate,  signed  by  the 
council  of  teachers ;  it  enumerates  all  the  lectures  and  practical  exercises  he  has 
attended  ;  reports  his  standing  in  the  repetitions  and  adds  a  critique  on  the  skill 
and  judgment  displayed  by  him  in  the  practical  department. 

There  is  a  fine  collection  of  models,  which  has  recently  been  re-arranged  and 
newly  classified.  They  are  in  bronze,  and  plaster  of  Paris,  and  consist  of  models 
of  ornaments  and  of  the  plastercasts  for  the  drawing  class,  models  for  wood  and 
cotton  manufactures,  and  some  illustrating  descriptive  geometry.  Most  of  them 
were  made  at  the  school.  There  is  a  rich  collection  for  machinery  and  mechan- 
ical technology.  The  library  is  open  to  the  public  at  stated  hours.  The  pupils 
can  use  the  collections  under  certain  restrictions. 

There  is  a  laboratory  for  organic  chemistry,  with  room  for  50  pupils,  and  one 
for  inorganic  chemistry  with  room  for  20. 

The  reagents  are  arranged  on  tables,  each  large  enough  for  six  pupils,  and 
provided  with  cupboards  and  shelves.  Evaporating  processes  are  carried  on  in 
glazed  and  closed  stoves,  with  gas  burners,  and  hot  sand  baths,  the  whole  well 
closed  and  ventilated. 

The  workshops  connected  witi^the  academy  are  more  extensive  than  at  any 
other  technical  establishment,  and  not  only  give  practical  instruction  in  mechan- 
ics and  ship-building,  but  encourage  the  construction  of  new  machines,  and  man- 
ufacture models  for  the  drawing-school,  and  for  general  industrial  uses.  There 
are  consequently  always  a  certain  number  of  regular  workmen  employed  in  them. 
The  pupil  begins  with  the  making  of  a  screw,  and  proceeds  in  regular  order  to 
the  most  difficult  mechanical  operations,  for  which  the  large  machines  and  mon- 
uments made  here  afford  a  good  opportunity. 

The  number  of  pupils-  in  the  Academy  was  440  in  1867.  In  1861-62  there 
were  374  pupils,  of  whom  67  were  mechanics,  20  chemists,  and  3  ship-builders. 
The  fees  are  twenty  thalers  per  half  year ;  forty-five  thalers  for  those  who  work 


practically  in  the  chemical  laboratory,  and  the  student  must  pay  for  all  breakages, 
&c.,  caused  by  his  negligence.  For  practical  work  in  the  workshops,  the  fee  is 
one  thaler  per  half  year ;  for  work  in  the  photographic  atelier  once  a  week,  two 
thalers  per  half  year.  Masters  of  establishments,  working-men's  unions,  <S:c.,  often 
pay  these  fees  for  gifted  young  men  whom  they  send. 

The  institution  has  a  large  number,  150  in  all,  of  free  places.  These  are — 
1 .  StipencUa.  Every  province  of  Prussia  can  give  a  stipend  of  200  thalers  to  a 
pupil  who  excels  at  the  Provincial  Trade  School.  2.  Free  places.  Besides  the 
stipendiaries,  each  province  can  send  up  a  pupil  to  whom  the  fees  are  remitted. 
The  same  privilege  is  given  to  the  directors  of  various  scholastic  establishments. 
In  exceptional  cases,  the  State  government  does  the  same.  Stipendiaries  and 
those  who  fill  the  free  places  are  obliged  to  take  all  the  courses  in  their  depart- 
ment, and  to  attend  the  repetitions.  If  they  do  not  succeed  well  in  the  repeti- 
tions, they  are  liable  to  lose  their  subsidies. 

The  professors  are  paid  at  the  rate  of  a  hundred  thalers  annually  for  every 
hour  spent  weekly.  Most  of  them  eke  out  their  incomes  by  teaching  in  other 
establishments,  as  the  resulting  salaries  are  only  from  1,200  to  1,600  thalers  a 
year.     The  whole  annual  expenses  of  the  school  are  as  follows  : 

Salaries  of  director  and  teachers, 

Collections,      -  -  -  -  -  -  - 

Three  chemical  laboratories,         -  -  .  - 

Machine  shops,  superintendent's  salary,         -  _  - 

Machine  shops,  materials,  _  -  -  - 

Library,  __.---- 

Stipendia,  aid,  excursions,  &c.,     - 

Heating,  lights,  maintaining  of  repairs,  .  .  - 

Administration,  servants,  .  .  .  . 

Total,      .  -  -  .  - 


The  Industrial  Drawing  School  [Muster  Z^ichnen  Schule),  trains  designers  of 
patterns  for  printing  silk,  woollen  and  cotton  tissues,  and  paper  hangings,  together 
with  all  the  theoretical  and  practical  branches  of  weaving.  It  has  its  own  director. 
The  candidate  must  be  foiirteen,  and  be  acquainted  with  rudimentary  drawing. 

The  course,  covering  two  years,  is  as  follows*  First  year  .—  Drsiwin^  fi-«m 
models  in  relief,  24  hours  a  week;  applied  physics  and  chemistry,  4  hours;  in- 
dustrial drawing,  4  hours.  Second  year. — Composition  and  execution  of  designs' 
for  prints  and  figured  tissues,  36  hours ;  preparing  looms  for  quiltings,  velvets, 
and  practice  in  weaving,  16  hours;  decomposition  of  tissues,  and  preparing  the 
cards  for  weaving  them. 

Instruction  is  also  given  in  drawing  patterns  for  paper  hangings,  for  oil  cloths, 
silk,  cotton,  woollen,  or  linen  prints,  figured  stuffs  and  ribbons,  upholstery,  fabrics, 
carpets,  embroidery,  and  lace.  The  course  of  industrial  drawing  commences 
with  the  copying  of  flowers  from  nature ;  then  from  select  drawings,  ftnd  no  pains 
are  spared  to  accustom  the  pupils  to  the  composition  of  new  patterns.  Drawing, 
is,  in  all  cases,  commenced  from  models  or  from  nature,  not  from  prints. 

During  the  vacation  of  each  year  there  is  an  exhibition  of  the  pupil's  draw- 
ings.    Part  of  the  drawings  executed  by  the  pupils  remain  in  the  establisliment. 

Certificates  are  given  stating  the  extent  of  the  instmction  of  each  pupil. 

The  school  fee  is  12  thalers  per  half-year. 

22,000  thalers. 





















The  Academy  of  Architecture  at  Berlin  (Bau  Akadanie),  has  for  its  aim  to 
train  public  and  private  architects,  and  civil  and  assistant  engineers.  The  teach- 
ing  statt'  of  the  institution  numbers  twenty-nine,  five  being'  titular  and  six  as- 
sistant professors. 

The  course  of  instruction  pursued  at  the  Academy  is  divided  into  two  sections, 
the  first  designed  for  assistant  supervising  architects  (Baufuhrer),  the  second  for 
architects  proper  and  engineers  in  the  Government  service. 

For  admission  to  the  first  section,  the  candidate  is  required  to  bring  a  certificate 
of  having  been  in  the  highest  class  of  a  gymnasium,  or  of  having  finished  the 
course  of  a  real  f  chool  of  the  highest  class ;  he  must  also  prove,  by  certificate, 
that  he  has  been  practically  employed  for  at  least  one  year  by  an  examined  archi- 
tect, and  must  produce  several  drawings  executed  under  his  supervision.  A 
knowledge  of  leveling  and  measuring  is  also  required.  After  passing  this  exam- 
ination, he  is  matriculated,  and  is  entitled  to  admission  to  all  the  lectures  deliv- 
ered in  connection  with  the  course,  at  the  schools,  the  University,  or  the  poly- 
technic, and  to  the  various  collections  and  the  exhibitions  at  the  Academy  of 

The  instruction  is  given  by  means  of  lectures,  and  the  following  are  attended 
by  those  desirous  of  obtaining  the  title  of  Baufuhrer.  There  are  two  semesters 
in  each  year. 

First  Semester.  Solid,  analytical,  and  descriptive  geometry,  with  the  applica- 
t4on  of  the  latter  to  constructions ;  spherical  trigonometry ;  analysis,  including 
differential  calculus  and  conic  sections.  Physics,  particularly  as  applied  to  light, 
heat,  electricity,  and  magnetism.  Chemistry,  the  elements  and  compounds,  par- 
ticularly those  having  relation  to  building  materials.  Architecture,  construction, 
beauty  and  symmetry  of  form  and  practical  usefulness,  ancient  architecture,  its 
character  and  applicability  to  modern  needs.     Outline  and  ornament  drawing. 

Second  Semester.  Integral  calculus  and  its  applications.  Scientific  and  prac- 
tical study  of  perspective  and  shadows.  Mineralogy  and  geognosy.  Systematic 
study  of  building  materials  and  their  cost.  Architecture ;  constructions ;  ancient 
architectui-e.  Drawing ;  architectural  and  ornamental,  with  landscapes  in  pencil 
or  sepia. 

Third  Semester.  Dynamics  ;  on  statics  of  solid  bodies  and  strength  of  mate- 
rials. Machinery  and  mechanical  action,  such  machines  as  are  used  in  architec- 
ture being  specially  considered.  Architecture ;  ancient,  agricultural,  Avith  various 
industrial  agricultural  establishments ;  hydraulic  architecture  and  bridge  con- 
struction. Dravdng ;  pi'ojecting  and  draughting  of  buildings ;  elaborate  draw- 
ings from  ancient  architecture. 

Fourth  Semester.  Dynamics  as  applied  to  architecture ;  mechanics,  hydrosta- 
tics, aerostatics,  and  pneumatics.  Surveying  and  leveling,  with  practical  exercises. 
Building  materials ;  their  cost,  source,  and  the  means  of  obtaining  them  ;  their 
artificial  manufiicture.  Architecture,  hydraulic,  bridges  and  roads ;  mills.  Pro- 
jecting and  draughting  of  buildings  Estimates ;  superintendence';  laws  of  the 
country  regarding  buildings  and  their  construction. 

Besides  the  above  there  are  certain  architectural  designs  to  be  drawn  up  and 
handed  in  at  stated  periods.  These  are  the  following  :  Four  architectural  draw- 
ings ;  one  illustrating  the  laws  of  projection  ;  one  of  perspective ;  four  studies  in 
ancient  architecture ;  four  elaborate  di-awings  of  ornament ;  two  of  engines  and 


theii-  parts ;  two  projects  of  siipj)le  buildings ;  two  of  agricultural  establishments. 
After  the  examination,  the  title  of  Baufuhrer  is  conferred  ;  the  candidate  chooses 
the  district  Avhere  he  will  practice  his  art,  reports  there  and  is  sworn  in.  He  is 
obliged  to  send  in  an  annual  report  of  his  occupations,  and  must  be  ready  to 
respond  to  any  call  from  government  if  he  should  desire  to  be  admitted  to  the 
examination  as  government  architect.  If  he  intends  to  enter  the  government 
service  as  architect  or  engineer,  he  returns  to  the  school  after  two  years  of  pro- 
fessional labor.  The  lectures  now  pursued  are  different  for  architects  and  engi- 

For  Architeots.  First  Semester. — Ancient  architecture.  Italian  architecture 
during  its  highest  development.  Projecting  and  drawing  of  architectural  subjects, 
especially  of  the  first  class  and  public  buildings.     Ornament. 

Second  Semester. — Technology.  Principles  of  construction  as  applied  to  ex- 
tensive buildings  and  cases  presenting  special  difficulty.  Internal  arrangement 
and  exterior  style  of  dwellings  and  edifices  of  art.  Public  buildings,  their  pro- 
jection.   Drawing  and  projecting.    Gothic  ornament,  with  drawings  and  lectures. 

For  Engineers. — First  Semester.  Computation  of  probabilities  applied  to 
the  theory  of  the  reliability  of  observations  and  experiments.  Mechanics,  and 
engine  construction.  Sketching  and  computations  regarding  construction  and 
power  of  engines.  Hydraulic  architecture.  Railroads  and  all  matters  connected 
with  them. 

Second  Semester.  Analytical  dynamics,  and  all  its  applications  in  architecture 
and  engineering.  Geodesy,  with  practical  exercises.  Draughts  of  engines.  Pr-o- 
jection,  draughting,  and  computation  of  cost  of  hydraulic  works.  Railroads ; 
construction  of  stations,  depots,  and  "  running  stock."  Architectural  technology. 

Modeling,  foreign  languages,  &c.,  are  taught,  but  form  no  part  of  the  exam- 
inations for  government  situations.  The  examinations  are  open  also  to  persons 
who  have  not  pursued  the  course  at  the  school.  Candidates  for  the  title  of  pri- 
vate architect  must  be  a  master  in  one  of  the  three  trades  of  mason,  carpenter,  or 
stone-cutter.  Assistant  engineers  are  not  examined,  their  attendance  in  the  past 
is  examined  and  they  are  then  sworn  in.  There  are  no  prizes,  but  the  one  suc- 
cessful in  an  annual  and  optional  competition,  receives  a  donation  of  about  2,000 
francs  for  traveling  abroad. 

The  fees  are  as  follows  : — One  at  matriculation,  of  10  thalers,  and  lecture  fees 
of  about  18  thalers,  annually.  The  titular  professors  receive  2  thalers  for  the 
hour's  lesson,  the  others,  1^  thalers,  and  the  assistants,  1.  The  school  fees 
amount  (1865),  to  11,500  thalers;  the  expenses  were  25,975  thalers.  Half  of 
the  excess  was  furnished  by  the  Government,  the  other  half  came  from  various 

In  the  same  year  there  were  472  pupils ;  314  being  entered  for  the  service  of 
the  State,  34  as  private  architects,  55  as  foreigners,  and  69  as  free  auditors. 


The  Building  School,  (Baugewerbe  Schule,)  at  Berlin,  gives  theoretical  instruc- 
tion to  all  classes  of  building  artisans,  as  carpenters,  masons,  roofers,  potters,  &c. 

The  course  includes  German,  arithmetic,  algebra,  geometry,  physics,  elements 
of  force  and  heat,  lessons  in  proportions,  construction  of  buildings,  fundamental 
doctrine  of  projection,  agricultural  buildings,  architectural  and  free-hand  drawing, 
and  modeling  in  clay.  Fourteen  thalers  are  paid  for  the  whole  course ;  for  th« 
winter  course  alone,  five. 



The  Superior  Weaving  Scliool  at  Elbeifeld,  a  town  owing  its  rapid  growth 
principally  to  this  branch  of  industry,  has  for  its  object  to  impart  theoretical  and 
practical  instruction  in  the  various  departments  of  the  art,  and  also  includes  a 
departriient  of  general  technical  drawing.     It  is  open  to  pupils  of  all  countries. 

The  course  is  divided  into  three  cHvisions,  and  the  pupil  can  attend  them  all  if 
he  pleases.  These  are — (1)  weaving;  (2)  pattern  drawing ;  (3)  the  chemical 
processes  of  weaving  and  dyeing. 

Division  I.  The  first  division  teaches  the  whole  art  of  weaving,  theoretical 
and  practical,  the  instruction  being  carried  so  far  that  the  pupil  can  undertake 
the  independent  management  of  a  manufactory  or  of  an  establishment  trading  in 
these  fabrics.  It  occupies  36  hours  a  week  for  a  year  and  a  half,  the  course 
commencing  twice  a  year,  and  consisting  of  two  parts,  the  analytical  lasting 
twelve  months,  and  the  composition  course  lasting  six.  By  analysis  [decomposi- 
tion) is  imderstood  the  elements  of  weaving,  a  knowledge  of  the  machines  and 
materials  used ;  analysis  of  the  modes  of  making  patterns  in  plain  fabrics,  practi- 
cal exercises  in  the  various  operations  of  weaving,  the  elements  of  Jacquard 
weaving,  analysis  of  and  mode  of  setting  patterns  for  these  fabrics,  practical  ex- 
ercises ^\^th  the  Jacquard  looms,  free-hand  drawing,  painting  and  modeling  from 
nature.  The  second  part,  for  composition,  can  be  entered  upon  only  by  those 
who  possess  the  knowledge  imparted  in  the  preceding.  It  comprises  further  in- 
struction in  materials,  their  prices,  and  in  all  processes  connected  with  the  weav- 
ing of  linen,  cotton,  woolen,  and  silk;  the  choice  and  calculation  of  the  quantity 
of  yarn  to  be  used  for  various  materials  with  reference  to  the  changes  caused  by 
dyeing,  and  the  loss  sustained  in  weaving ;  knowledge  of  the  composition  of  all 
kinds  of  textile  fabrics  from  the  simplest  to  the  taost  complicated,  and  of  all  the 
technical  and  artistic  processes  connected  with  their  production  ;  calculation  of 
the  special  items,  and  of  the  entire  cost  of  the  fabrics  ;  and  practical  exercises  in 
all  the  details  of  the  preparation  of  weaving  with  all  the  different  kinds  of  looms, 
and  in  the  composition  of  designs,  patterns,  &e. 

The  pupils  of  this  division  may  attend  the  lectures  on  chemistry  and  physics 
in  the  chemical  department  without  adding  to  their  term-fees.  The  practical 
exercises  in  the  workshops  are  hjld  from  8  to  12  A.  M.,  and  from  2  to  7  P.  M. 
The  fee  for  the  entire  division  is  120  thalers,  the  second  part  alone  costing  90. 

Division  II  The  second  division  teaches  the  art  of  drawing  and  inventing 
resigns  and  patterns  for  all  woven  and  printed  goods,  and  pattern-card  makers 
who  are  able  to  arrange  every  pattern  correctly  on  the  cards.  There  is  also  in- 
struction in  general  technical  drawing.  The  method  adopted  is  that  of  Dupuis, 
in  wliich  the  pupil  begins  with  drawing  from  nature  or  from  the  model  in  relief. 

The  course  is  divided  into  two  sections,  beginning  twice  a  year,  and  occupies 
twenty-four  hours  a  week.  Lessons  are  given  in  free-hand  drawing,  and  paint- 
ing, first  from  models,  afterwards  from  natural  objects,  such  as  plants,  flowers, 
vases,  &c. ;  knowledge  of  the  colors  used  in  manufactures,  and  the  mode  of  ap- 
plying them ;  composition  of  patterns,  and  knowledge  of  and  practical  exercise 
in  pattern-making  from  textile  fabrics,  drawing,  &e.  The  annual  fee  is  30  tha- 
lers. There  is  a  special  morning  and  evening  class  for  scholars  who  cannot  at- 
tend the  regular  course,  held  eight  hours  a  week,  at  two-thirds  of  a  thaler  the  month. 

Division  III.  The  third  division  imparts  thorough  theoretical  and  practical 
instruction  in  technical  chemistry  to  dyers,  printers,  manufacturers  of  colors  and 


chemicals,  &c.,  and  also  to  those  who  wish  to  qualify  themselves  to  become  tech- 
nical teachers  There  are  two  courses,  the  first  being  for  practical  chemists  in 
general,  the  second  for  dyers,  printers,  bleachers,  color  manufacturers,  and  man- 
ufacturers of  chemicals  specially.  .  Each  lasts  a  year,  with  a  summer  and  winter 
course,  and  no  one  can  enter  the  second  without  being  prepared  in  the  first. 

The  instruction  given  in  the  first  course  is  as  follows : 

1.  Inorganic  chemistry ,  A  full  course.  Connexion  between  chemistry  and  the 
other  branches  of  natm-al  science.  The  objects  to  be  accomplished  by  chemistry ; 
its  progressive  development.  Stoichiometry.  The  lectures  are  illustrated  by  the 
use  of  a  large  collection  of  specimens,  and  by  constant  experiments ;  4  hours 
weekly.  2.  KnovAedge  of  chemical  substances  (Droguen).  Inorganic  chemicals. 
Particular  inorganic  substances  (as  sulphurous  acid,  soda,  chlorine,  &c.,)  of  es- 
pecial importance  to  technical  chemists  are  selected  and  thoroughly  discussed. 
Visits  to  manufactories,  examination  of  the  chemicals  belonging  to  the  school 
and  practical  exercises  further  complete  the  lessons.  3.  Analysis.  Qualitative 
and  quantitative  analysis,  extended  to  all  substances  important  to  technical 
chemists,  the  course  of  qualitative  analysis  being  general,  that  of  quantitatiye 
adapted  to  the  future  calling  of  each  pupil.  Particular  attention  given  to  tiitu- 
ration  (trituren),  2  hours.     4.  Physics  applied  to  industiy,  2  hours. 

In  the  second  course  are  taught :  1.  Dyes  and  colors. — Special  lectures  on  color- 
ing stuffs,  with  practical  exercises.  The  collection  is  studied  G  hours.  2.  Analysis. 
— Greneral  anah'sis  continued ;  specialanalysisof  dye  stuffs,  2  hours.  3.  Physics 
continued,  2  hours.  4.  Theory  of  dyeing. — Chemical  and  physical  consideration 
of  raw  materials  (cotton,  linen,  wool,  and  silks);  analysis  of  simple  mixed 
stuffs;  preparation  of  the  yams  for  dyeing  (bleaching  of  cotton  and  linen  yam, 
removing  the  greasiness  of  woollen  textures,  scouring  silk) ;  influence  of  the  re- 
actionary agents  (air,  light,  he'at) ;  relation  of  vegetable  and  animal  fibres  to 
dyeing  stuffs  ;  substantive  colors  ;  abjective  colors  ;  theory  of  tanning ;  tanning 
stuffs ;  choice  of  dressing  for  printed  goods ;  its  influence  on  the  shades  of  colors, 
&c.  Glazing  (chemical  and  mechanical  arrangements).  All  the  lectures  are 
elucidated  by  experiments,  and,  indeed,  one  of  the  chief  objects  held  in  view, 
is  that  the  pupils  have  practice  in  dyeing  and  coloring  all  kinds  of  yarns  and  tex- 
tures, 6  hours.     5.  Analysis  of  colored  stuffs,  2  hours. 

Only  dyers,  printers,  &c.,  need  to  go  through  both  courses.  For  other  techni- 
cal pursuits,  the  first  is  enough.  The  fee  for  the  lectures  is  20  thalers  per  half- 
year  ;  for  participation  in  the  laboratoiy  practice,  40  thalers  additional.  There 
is  no  extra  charge  for  gas  or  other  materials. 

Each  pupil  in  the  school  keeps  a  book  in  which  are  collected  the  patterns  of  the 
different  kinds  of  tissues  which  he  has  to  analyze  and  decompose,  calculating 
their  elements,  and  reproducing  the  perforations  of  the  cards  by  sketches.  He 
prepares  a  pattern,  arranges  cards,  and  then  makes  ready  the  loom,  and  sets  to 
work.     The  school  provides  materials,  but  little  work,  however,  is  done. 

There  are  78  pupils ;  45  in  the  first  division,  25  in  the  second,  and  8  in  the  third. 
The  building  was  built  by  the  town,  the  looms  and  other  furniture  provided  by 
the  State.  It  possesses  42  looms,  and  a  large  collection  of  every  kind  of  machin- 
ery and  other  implements  connected  with  weaving ;  of  specimens  of  ancient  and 
modern  tissues,  home  and  foreign  ;  drawings,  engravings,  models,  compositions, 
&.C.,  for  the  use  of  the  scholars.  There  are  well  arranged  laboratories,  with  room 
for  twenty  or  thirty  pupils,  for  special  technical  analysis. 

The  annual  expenditure  is  about  10,000  thalers,  and  the  excess  of  the  expendi- 
tures over  the  receipts  is  paid  half  by  the  town  and  half  by  the  government. 



To  a  Prussian  citizen  is  due  the  credit  of  having  established  tlie  first  scientific 
agricultural  school  in  Prussia.  This  was  the  institution  at  Moglin,  founded  in 
1806  by  the  celebrated  Thaer.*  The  first  step  taken  in  this  matter  by  the 
Prussian  government  was  in  1819,  when  the  school  of  Moghn  was  made  a  royal 

The  agricultural  schools  of  Prussia  are  divided  into  primary,  intermediate, 
and  superior.  In  the  superior  schools  the  course  is  very  full  and  includes  many 
high  theoretical  studies ;  in  the  intermediate  class  the  pupils  are  prepared  lor 
the  higlier,  and  receive  an  exclusively  practical  instruction,  except  during  the 
winter ;  in  the  inferior  class  the  pupils  take  the  place  of  hired  servants,  pay 
little  or  nothing,  or  are  paid  for  their  services.  They  are  occupied  in  manual 
labor  or  in  tending  horses  and  cattle. 

There  are  thirty-two  of  these  schools  in  Prussia.  Five  are  superior:  Moglin, 
Eldena,  Proskail,  Regenwalde,  and  Poppelsdorf.  The  whole  number  of  pro- 
fessors in  these  is  thirty-three.  Eldena  is  the  best  attended.  Two  are  in  con- 
nection with  universities :   Eldena  with  Greifswald,  and  Poppelsdorf  with  Bonn. 

There  are  two  intermediate  schools  and  twelve  of  the  inferior  class. 

There  are  thirteen  special  schools  connected  with  agriculture,  of  which  we 
will  mention  the  following :  two  of  meadow  culture,  one  for  shepherds,  eight 
for  the  raising,  dressing,  and  working  of  flax,  and  one,  at  Potsdam,  of  garden- 
ing. At  Berlin  there  is  a  veterinary  school.  The  two  of  meadow  culture  are 
at  Kraraenz,  in  Pomerania,  and  at  Janowitz,  near  Heyerswerda.  There  is  a 
forestry  school  at  Neustadt  Eberswald. 

Instruction  in  pomology,  or  the  cultivation  of  fruit-trees,  is  given  in  the 
normal  and  primary  schools  to  an  immense  number  of  children. 

As  an  accessory  to  the  system  of  agricultural  education,  may  be  noticed  the 
large  collection  of  farming  tools  and  specimens  of  forest,  farm  and  industrial 
productions  at  Berlin  and  Breslau. 

All  of  these  establishments  are  under  the  supervision  of  the  Minister  of 

*  Mbrecht  Daniel  Thair  was  born  at  Celle,  in  Hanover,  May  14th,  1752.  He  studied  medicine 
at  the  University  of  Gbttingen,  and  took  a  degree  in  that  profession,  and  was  very  successful  in 
its  practice.  During  his  leisure,  he  occupied  himself  with  cultivating  flowers,  and  in  this  way 
gardening  and  agricultural  pursuits  became  a  passion  with  him,  and  he  withdrew  from  the  pro- 
fession.    He  died  October  26th,  1828.     He  published  the  fallowing  books  on  agriculture: 

1798.  English  Agriculture,  with  a  view  to  the  improvement  of  German. 

1799.  Annals  of  Lower  Saxon  Agriculture. 

1800.  Cattle-Breeding — Additions  to  Bergen's  work. 

1803.  Agricultural  Implements. 

1804.  Bell's  Agricultural  E.-ssays,  translated,  with  rhapsodical  additions. 

1805.  Annals  of  Agriculture. 

1810.  Principles  of  Rational  Agriculture. 

1811.  Annals  of  Agriculture  at  Moglin  from  1817  to  1823. 
1811.  On  Fine-wooled  Sheep. 

1813.  Attempt  to  ascertain  the  Net  Produce  of  Farms. 

181.5.  General  System  of  Agricultural  Knowledge. 

1815.  My  Farming,  (at  Moglin.) 

1815.  Circular  to  obtain  the  Net  Produce,  as  a  Basis  for  Correct  Taxation  of  the  Land. 

1815.  Wool  and  Sheep-breeding. 



The  Royal  Agricultural  School  at  Annaberg,  which  we  select  as  an  example 
of  the  intermediate  class,  has  for  its  object  to  train  peasant  farmers  and  bailiffs. 
It  admits  none  but  sons  of  small  farmers,  about  twenty-five  years  of  age,  pro- 
vided with  a  certificate  of  baptism,  of  having  attended  school,  of  good  mental 
capacity  and  conduct,  and  of  the  place  to  which  they  belong. 

The  course  of  instruction  lasts  one  year,  and  pupils  are  not  allowed  to  quit 
before  the  close,  or  remain  beyond  the  time.  The  plan  is  to  make  the  pupilS' 
acquainted  with  all  the  branches  of  a  well-organized  farming  business,  and 
more  particularly  to  explain  the  necessary  connection  of  its  several  branches 
and  the  reasons  why  every  thing  is  done. 

The  theoretical  instruction  is,  in  summer,  confined  to  explanations  in  connec- 
tion with  the  farm  work  performed.  In  winter,  several  hours  daily  are  devoted 
to  drawing  up  simple  reports,  agreements,  receipts,  &c.,  the  leading  principles 
of  natural  science,  of  special  sciences  applied  to  agriculture,  and  veterinary 
medicine.  Popular  hand-books  are  used  as  text-books,  and  the  rich  collections 
and  apparatus  of  the  Academy  of  Poppelsdorf. 

The  practical  instruction  is  pursued  according  to  a  fixed  plan  for  gradually 
perfecting  the  pupils  in  all  the  varied  work  of  a  farm.  They  alternate  therefore 
in  feeding  and  tending  cattle,  in  using  manures,  in  cultivating  and  gathering 
crops,  and  the  processes  following  the  harvest,  in  draining,  and  in  meadow  work. 

The  school  farm  is  the  royal  domain  of  Annaberg,  and  is  conducted  on  the 
plan  of  securing  a  high  and  permanent  profit.  It  includes  a  large  orchard,  nurs- 
ery, and  vegetable  garden,  besides  meadows,  and  waste  lands  which  are  being 
gradually  redeemed.  The  character  of  its  soil  is  very  varied,  affording  oppor- 
tunities for  many  different  kinds  of  culture. 

The  number  of  scholars  is  temporarily  fixed  at  six,  and  board  at  $69  a  year. 


The  Eoyal  Institute  of  Agriculture  at  Moglin  was  founded  by  Thaer  in  1806, 
and  kept  in  existence  through  those  troubled  times  only  by  the  great  talents  of 
the  founder.  In  1819,  the  Prussian  government,  following  the  example  of 
Wiirtemberg,  constituted  it  a  royal  institute  and  assimilated  its  professors  to 
those  of  a  gymnasium,  both  as  to  rank  and  salary,  with  the  condition  that  cer- 
tain pupils,  sent  from  Berlin,  should  receive  gratuitous  instruction. 

It  is  a  boarding-school,  and  is  governed  by  a  director.  The  course  lasts  four 
years,  beginning  October  1st  and  closing  on  the  1st  of  August.  The  instruction 
includes  lessons  in  mathematics  and  the  physical  and  natural  sciences  as  applied 
to  agriculture,  rural  economy,  veterinary  art,  and  forestry.  It  gives  more  spe- 
cial instruction  in  farm  accounts,  raising  fine  wool,  meadow  irrigation,  and 
potato  cultivation  on  a  large  scale.  The  price  of  board  and  instruction  is,  for 
the  whole  course,  $240.     Pupils  are  admitted  temporarily  at  $7,00  per  week. 

The  domain,  which  is  yet  in  the  hands  of  the  Thaer  family,  consists  of  1,050 
acres  of  poor,  sandy  land,  50  of  natural  meadows,  and  a  wide  extent  of  pine 
forest.  There  is  a  vast  stock  of  sheep,  cows  and  bulls,  horses  and  swine.  In 
all,  at  the  time  of  the  visit  of  M.  Royer  in  1844.  there  were  1,850  animals, 
among  which  were  1,600  sheep,  60  cows  and  oxen,  and  12  horses,  with  21  farm 
laborers.  The  principal  industry  was  distilling  potato  spirit  and  raising  wool. 
It  admits  20  pupils;  611  have  been  through  the  four  years'  course. 



The  object  of  this  academy  is:  1.  To  afford  an  opportunity  to  young  farmers 
who  have  a  certain  amount  of  preliminary,  scientific,  and  general  knowledge, 
and  who  are  skilled  in  handling  the  implements  of  their  calling,  to  make  them- 
selves "acquainted  with  the  sciences  specially  applicable  to  agriculture,  as  also 
the  auxiliary  sciences,  in  as  far  as  is  required  for  the  rational  farming  and  ad- 
ministration of  a  landed  estate  in  the  present  day ;  and,  2.  To  offer  to  students 
of  jurisprudence  and  of  political  science,  as  well  as  to  all  others  whose  future 
vocation  may  render  some  acquaintance  with  the  rational  mode  of  conducting 
an  agricultural  business  useful  (though  they  may  not  intend  to  become  practical 
farmers.)  the  means  of  learning  to  know  the  theoretical  as  well  as  the  practical 
principles  of  such  a  business,  and  to  acquire  a  distinct  notion  of  its  organization 
and  the  mode  of  conducting  it. 

The  aim  of  the  academy  is  thus  not  only  to  educate  men  to  be  thoroughly 
capable  of  conducting  the  business  of  larger  or  smaller  estates,  whether  as  pro- 
prietors, farmers,  or  land-stewards,  but  also  to  enable  future  officials  in  the 
administrative  departments  of  government,  who  may  require  more  than  a  super- 
ficial knowledge  of  rural  economy,  to  obtain  this. 

The  studies  in  the  academy  are  distributed  as  follows : 


A.  Agriculture. — 1.  Knowledge  of  the  soil: 
"    Upper  stratum  of  the  earth.    Atmospheric  action  of  constituents  of  the  earth. 
The  influence  of  mountain  formations   on  the  composition  and  fertility  of  the 
soil.     Physical  properties  of  the  soil.     The  classification  of  soils.     The  distri- 
bution of  soils.     Sub -soil  and  surface  soil. 

2.  Studij  of  manures: 

Principles  governing  the  nourishment  of  plants.  The  difference  between 
wild  and  cultivated  plants.  Stable  manure.  Combination  cf  the  different 
animal  manures,  with  stable  litter.  Treatment  of  manure  in  the  stable,  the 
yard,  and  the  field.  Liquid  manure,  litter,  nightsoil,  other  animal,  vegetable, 
and  mineral  manures.  Economic  importance  and  use  of  the  same.  Different 
processes  for  preparing  manures  for  sale,  and  different  methods  of  applying 

3.  Clearing,  draining,  and  working  the  land. 

The  most  important  process  of  tillage;  different  modes  of  culture  required 
for  woods,  heaths,  moors,  and  sandy  places. 

Evils  of  dampness.  Different  methods  of  draining,  more  particularly  by 
underground  drains.  Draining  combined  with  practical  demonstrations ;  cost 
and  results. 

Various  objects  and  various  methods  of  tillage,  deep  soil  culture,  fallows. 
Different  methods  of  cropping,  change  of  crops.  Rules  to  be  followed  in  sow- 
ing, reaping,  and  storing  produce. 

4.  Tlie  Iciiowledije  of  agricultural  implements  and  machines. 

The  importance  of  agricultural  implements  and  machines.  Materials  used  in 
their  construction. 

Implements  for  working  the  ground ;  hand  tools ;  horse  machines ;  the 
plough.  The  importance  and  history  of  the  plough ;  what  is  expected  from  it. 
The  work  of  the  plough.  Theory  of  the  plough.  Its  different  parts.  Classifi- 
cation of  ploughs.  Judgment  of  the  different  kinds  of  ploughs  with  reference 
to  the  uses  they  are  to  be  put  to.  The  extirpator,  the  scarifier,  horse  chopper, 
drag,  roller. 

Sowing  machine  system ;  machines  for  broadcast,  drill  and  dibble  sowing. 
Criticism  of  the  methods  most  in  use.  Machines  for  spreading  manure.  Ma- 
chines for  pulverizing  manure.     Machiues  for  liquid  manure. 


Various  reaping  machines,  machines  for  mowing  corn,  grass  mowing  ma- 
chine, horse  rakes,  haymaking  machines,  potato-digging  machines. 

System  of  threshing  by  machinery ;  hand  winch,  and  steam  threshing  ma- 

Criticism  of  the  most  important 

Machines  for  cleaning  grain  (cleansing  and  sorting  machines.) 

Groat,  flour,  and  crushing  mills,  and  oil-cake  crushers. 

Cliopping  machines  and  root-cutters. 

Other  machines  and  implements,  pumps  and  hydraulic  engines.  Machines 
for  making  drainage  pipes.  Winchwork.  Implements  of  transport,  (carts, 
wagons,  sledges.) 

5.  The  cultivation  of  grain  and  fodder  : 

The  special  culture  required  for  each  plant ;  requirements  as  to  climate  and 

Succession  of  crops;  preparation  and  manuring  of  fields;  arrangement;  care 
during  vegetation,  harvesting,  storing,  and  transport. 

6.  Tiie  cultivaMon  of  mattrials  for  manufacture: 
The  special  culture  of  each  plant  as  in  No.  5. 

The  lectures  on  the  cultivation  of  special  plants  will  be  elucidated  by  prac- 
tical demonstrations  on  the  farms  of  Poppelsdorf  and  Annaberg. 

7.  Tlie  cultivation  of  grass  lands : 

Examination  of  the  different  modes  of  culture,  distribution  of  meadow  land. 

The  forming  of  meadows  by  sowing. 

The  treatment  of  meadows  which  can  not  be  irrigated.  Clearing,  leveling, 
manuring,  breaking  up  or  draining ;  forming  of  water  meadows,  advantages  of 
irrigation,  implements  used  in  the  cultivation  of  meadows,  trenching ;  other 
operations  connected  with  the  artificial  treatment  of  meadows,  flooding,  aque- 
ducts, special  methods  of  irrigation,  overflooding,  the  Peterson  system,  making 
valuations,  the  care  and  keeping  up  of  artificial  meadows. 

8.  The  cultivation  of  vines  and  vegetables  : 

(a)  The  cultivation  of  grape-vines;  on  the  nature  of  the  grape.  The  places  in 
which  it  is  indigenous;  the  climatic  requirements;  the  propagation  and  im- 
provement of  vines;  making  and  working  vineyards;  different  methods  of  pro- 
duction ;  treatment  and  cultivation;  quantity  and  quality  produced;  the 
diseases  of  grape-vines. 

{b)  The  importance  of  the  cultivation  of  vegetables,  where  there  are  accessible 
markets.  The  laying  out  of  the  vegetable  garden.  The  cultivation  of  vege- 
tables on  sound  principles,  with  special  reference  to  the  kinds  of  vegetables 
suited  for  country  populations,  and  for  sale  in  large  quantities. 

9.  Tiie  cultivation  of  fruit  trees: 

Principal  facts  in  the  history  of  fruit  culture.  Knowledge  of  fruit  culture, 
with  demonstrations.  The  choice  of  the  best  and  most  useful  varieties.  Their 
requirements  as  to  climate,  situation,  and  soil.  The  raising  of  fruit  trees,  with 
demonstration!?.  The  laying  out  and  management  of  nurseries  for  fruit  trees. 
The  planting,  division,  and  management  of  the  improving  orchards.  Improve- 
ment of  the  qualiiy  of  fruit  trees.  The  theory  and  modes  of  proceeding  as  to 
different  metiiods  of  grafting,  with  practice.  Eearing,  cutting,  and  shaping  the 
grafted  tree.  Fruit  tree  plantations,  mode  of  planting  and  tending  them.  The 
diseases  of  fruit  trees.  The  use  and  storing  of  different  fruits.  The  profits 
derived  from  fruit  culture. 

B.  Cattle-breeding. — 1.  Tlie  general  rearing  of  animals : 
Relations  of  cattle-breeding  to  agriculture.  Importance  of  this  at  the  present 
time.  The  fundamental  principles  of  cattle-breeding,  &c.  The  art  of  breeding; 
the  origin  of  races;  artificial  and  natural  races.  Technical  expressions ;  breed- 
ing; descent;  influence  of  both  sexes  on  the  breed.  Influence  of  parentage; 
individual  influence,  cross  breeds,  thorough  breeds.  The  school  of  Buftbn. 
Breeding  in  and  in.  Different  methods  of  crossing.  Darwin  "On  the  Origin  of 
Species.'"  Instruction  as  to  feeding.  Different  kinds  of  food  and  their  con- 
stituent parts.  Effects  of  different  kinds  of  food.  The  natural  inchnations  of 
domestic  animals  with  respect  to  different  kinds  of  food.  The  volume  of  food. 
The  amount  of  water  contained  in  the  fodder.  The  relation  of  protein  to 
hydro-carbon.     The  effects  of  fat.     Preparation  of  food.     Salt  as  an  ingredient 


of  diet.  Mixed  fodders.  Rules  for  determining  the  amount  of  nourishment  in 
different  kinds  of  food.  Of  the  individual  kinds  of  fodder.  Matters  to  be  taken 
into  consideration  in  determining  the  quantity  of  food.  Mode  of  estimating 
quantities  to  be  given  for  substance,  for  fattening,  and  for  diminishing  fat. 

Tlie  further  care  of  domestic  animals.  The  allotment  of  food  for  stated  meal- 
times. Cliange  of  food.  Drinks.  Temperature  of  the  stables.  Air,  light, 
exercise,  treatment  in  other  respects. 

2.  The  breeding  of  horned  cattle: 

Importance  of  breeding  horned  cattle.  Points  in  natural  history.  Breeds  of 
oxen,  the  P]nglish  breed  in  particular. 

Breeding,  choice  of  breed,  method  of  breeding,  choice  of  individuals  for 
breeding.  The  relation  between  bodily  form  and  usefulness  in  various  respects. 
Rearing  of  calves. 

Feeding  and  tending  full-grown  cattle : 

General  principles  on  which  cattle  should  be  fed.  Amount  of  food  required 
Summer  stall-feeding.  Pasturing,  a  mixture  of  the  two.  "Winter  food.  Alter- 
nation of  fodder.     The  stable  arrangements.     Persons  tending  the  cattle. 

Employment  of  cattle  on  a  farm: 

The  dairy.  Chemical  and  other  properties  of  milk.  Testing  milk.  Matters 
tliat  intlaence  the  quantity  and  quality  of  milk.  The  making  of  butter  and 
cheese.  Fattening — Choice  of  stock  for  fattening.  The  process  of  fattening 
calves.  The  meat  market.  Classification  of  meat.  The  purchase  of  fat  beasts. 
The  use  of  oxen  for  labor.     Choice  as  to  breeding  or  purchasing. 

3.  Horse-hreeding  and  knowledge  of  the  external  parts  of  horses : 
Horse-breeding. — Its  importance.    Natural  history.    Principal  races  of  horses. 

Choice  for  the  various  purposes  of  breeding.  Pairing.  Keeping  and  tending 
stallions  and  mares.  Tending  of  and  feeding  foals.  The  most  important  dis- 
eases incident  to  foals,  A  knowledge  of  the  external  parts  of  horses.  Bodily 
structure  of  the  horse.  The  relation  of  one  part  to  the  other,  Difterences  of 
form  and  development  with  reference  to  the  various  services  for  w^hich  the 
horses  are  destined.  Paces.  Age  of  teething.  Precautions  to  be  observed  in 
purchasing  horses.     Practical  demonstrations. 

4.  Rearing  sheep  and  the  knowledge  of  wools : 

(a.)  Sheep-breeding;  importance  of  breed.  Natural  history.  Breeds  of 
sheep.  The  history  of  merinos.  Breeding,  right  method  of  breeding.  Choice 
of  direction  of  breeding.  Process  of  breeding.  Choice  of  stock  for  breeding. 
Register  of  breedings.     Pairing,     Lambing,     Keeping  of  lambs  and  ewes. 

The  nourishing  and  tending  of  the  full-grown  animals.  General  principles  as 
to  the  nourishment  of  sheep.  Amount  of  food  required.  Stall-feeding.  The 
two  methods  combined.  Winter  fodder.  The  preparation  of  food.  The  choice 
of  food.  Persons  attending  the  sheep.  Arrangement  of  the  folds.  Utensils 
for  holding  food. 

Treatment  and  sale  of  produce.  The  uses  of  wool.  "Washing.  Shearing. 
The  sale  of  wool.  Use  of  the  milk.  Separating  the  sound  animal  from  the 
unsound.     The  sale  of  fatted  beasts.     Sale  of  sheep  for  breeding. 

The  use  of  sheep  on  the  farm.  Principles  of  different  modes  of  sheep  farm- 
ing. Composition  of  flocks.  Calculation  of  the  cost  and  profit  of  diiferent 
modes  of  sheep  farming. 

5.  The  knowledge  of  wool: 

Of  wool  in  general.     Technical  preparation.     Cloth  wool  and  carding  wool. 

Special  properties  of  wool.  Fineness,  curl,  softness,  strength  of  fibre,  elas- 
ticity, length,  color,  gloss,  oiliness. 

"Wool  in  staple  and  fleece ;  quality  of  staple.  Thickness  of  the  wool ;  out- 
ward form  of  the  staple.  Inward  construction  of  the  staple.  Shortness,  even- 
ness.    Matters  to  be  observed  in  judging  of  the  yield  of  the  wool. 

6.  Bearing  of  smaller  animals : 

(a.)  Rearing  pigs.     Importance  of  rearing  pigs.     Natural  history.     Breeds. 

Breeding,  Selection  of  breeds.  Process  of  breeding.  Choice  of  individuals 
for  breeding.     Register  of  breeds.     Birth.     Care  of  the  litter. 

The  feeding  of  piga  General  principles  of  feeding.  Amount  of  food  re- 
quired. Alternation  of  food.  Gradual  process  of  fattening.  Sale  of  the  fatted 



(b.)  The  rearing  of  domestic  poultry.  Knowledge  of  races,  breeding,  feeding, 
and  tending.     Different  plans  of  management. 

Sanitary  matters  connected  with  the  treatment  of  domestic  animals. — General 
external  influences  which  affect  the  bodily  condition  and  health  of  animals,  and 
the  amount  and  quality  of  the  animal ;  product  more  particularly. 

(a.)  Atmospheric  influences  affecting  respiration,  the  developing  heat,  and  the 
functions  of  the  skin.     Heat  and  cold,  moisture,  crowding,  exercise,  light,  &c. 

(6.)  Food  and  drink.  General  character  of  these.  Their  relations  to  the 
organs  of  digestion,  and  the  different  purposes  of  feeding.  Amount  of  food  to 
be  given.     Preparation  of  food,  &c. 

(c.)  Tending  and  care,  housing. 

C.  Theory  of  Farming. — 1.  Principles  of  political  economy  involved  in  rural 
economy : 

Object  of  rural  economy :  land  and  soil,  and  their  adaptability  for  different 
modes  of  culture.  Position  of  the  different  classes  of  agricultural  laborers. 
Work  done  by  horses.  Choice  of  cattle  for  draft.  Number  of  laborers  required. 
Application  of  machinery.  Capital,-its  distribution.  Productivity  of  the  capital 
invested  in  the  various  branches.  Relative  proportion  of  these  sums  to  each 
other,  to  the  land  worked.  Sale  of  products.  Character,  size,  and  distance  of 
the  market-town.  Influence  of  trade  relations  on  the  entire  business  of  the 
farm.  The  Farmer — His  education.  Administration  of  the  estate  by  the  pro- 
prietor. Letting  to  a  farmer.  Conduct  of  large  and  small  farms.  The  relation 
of  industry  to  agriculture.  Agricultural  associations  and  means  for  taking 

2.  Farming  systems: 

The  management  of  large  estates,  and  the  preparation  for  carrying  out  plana 
for  working. 

Nature  of  objects  aimed  at  in  the  management  of  an  estate.  Different  sys- 
tems oT  farming  and  different  rules  of  rotation.  Critical  examination  of  tlie 
same.  The  conditions  on  which  they  can  be  profitably  carried  on.  Parceling 
out  of  fields.  Diffusion  of  the  established  systems  and  alterations  introduced 
by  progressive  civilization.  Change  to  a  new  system  and  new  rotations.  Choice 
of  collateral  brandies  of  business  in  connection  with  the  farm.  Conduct  of 
the  business.  Persons  engaged  in  the  management.  Their  duties  and  position. 
Choice  and  acquisition  of  estate  by  purchase  or  on  lease.  Agreements  for  pur- 
chasing and  taking  leases.  Founding  new  estates.  Instructions  for  laying  out 
a  farm. 

3.  Valuation  of.  land  and  instruction  in  making  estimates  of  productions : 
Meaning  and  object  of  valuation.     Different  reasons  for  valuation. 
Principles  of  valuation.     Improvements.     Different  methods  of  classification. 

Estimate  of  gross  revenue  derived  from  the  various  branches,  and  from  the  en- 
tire outlay  on  the  estate.  Estimate  of  net  profits.  Estimate  of  the  capital 
value.  Special  and  general  valuation.  Practical  instructions  for  making  esti- 
mates of  revenue.  - 

4.  Agricultural  hook-keeping : 

As  a  guide  to  the  lectures,  treating  of  the  importance,  the  principles,  and  the 
method  cf  the  improved  S3^stem  of  keeping  agricultural  accounts,  the  director, 
Dr.  Havstein's  work  on  the  subject  shall  be  used,  and  for  practical  exercise  the 
pupils  sliall  make  out  a  year's  accounts  of  the  Poppelsdorf  estate,  according  to 
the  S3'stem  of  double  entry. 

5.  Agricultural  calculations : 

These  lectures,  which  are  illustrated  by  examples,  treat  of  the  solution  of 
manifold  questions  connected  with  the  administration  of  landed  property  by 
means  of  arithmetical  formulas.  For  instance,  calculation  of  the  cost  of  pro- 
duction of,  and  of  profits  which  ought  to  be  realized  on,  various  agricultural 
products ;  proofs  of  the  advantages  of  various  operations,  such  as  the  use  of 
particular  machines,  of  new  methods  of  cultivation,  of  the  technical  manipula- 
tion of  products,  &c. 

D.'  History  op  Agricttlture. — 1.  History  and  statistics  of  agriculture  .* 
•  History  of  the  gradual  development  of  agriculture,  especially  in  Germany. 
Sketch  of  the  present  state  of  agriculture  as  shown  by  official  statistios.     The 


condition  of  Germany  will  hold  a  prominent  place  with  regard  to  this  branch 
of  the  subject  also. 

2.  Literature  of  agriculture^  with  special  mention  0/  the  newest  publications  : 
The  gradual  development  of  agricultural  literature,  as  shown  b}^  the  loading 

ancient  works  on  the  subject.  Critical  examination  of  the  most  important 
modern  works  on  agricultural  subjects. 

3.  Gotnparative  statement  of  the  condition  of  agriculture  in  the  principal  Euro- 
pean countries,  loith  particular  reference  to  England  and  Germany  : 

Comparative  account  as  above,  taking  into  account  the  natural  conditions  of 
the  various  countries,  their  means  of  communication,  &c.,  with  a  view  to  afford- 
ing German  agriculturists  a  clear  understanding  of  their  own  position  in  relation 
to  those  of  other  countries,  and  of  the  advantages  and  deticiencies  of  German 

II.  Forest  Economy. — 1.  Forest  culture  : 

The  importance  of  forest  culture.  Cursory  view  of  forest  botany.  The  arti- 
ficial and  natural  tirst  growths  and  after  growths  of  the  useful  forest  products, 
with  practical  demonstrations. 

2.  Forest  industry,  the  protection  of  forests,  and  valuation : 

A  knowledge  of  the  quility  and  proper  use  of  different  woods.  The  ingath- 
ering and  improvement  of  forest  products  (forest  technology.)  The  transport 
and  valuation  of  the  useful  produce  of  the  woods.  Measures  of  protection  with 
regard  to  the  damage  done  to  woods  by  men,  hurtful  beasts,  and  bad 
weather.  Accounts  of  the  produce  of  woods,  and  calculation  of  the  net  profit 
thence  accruing  from  them,  and  of  the  consequent  capital  value  of  the  woods. 
In  these  lectures,  particular  notice  will  be  taken  of  private  woodlands,  and  the 
most  important  subjects  relating  to  such  will  be  treated  in  detail. 

3.  Concerning  hunting  and  fishing : 

Division  of  subjects.  History.  Breeding  of  game.  Preservation  of  game. 
Hunting,  and  proceeds  of  hunting.  Formation,  mauitenance,  and  management 
of  fish-ponds. 

III.  Natural  Philosophy. — 1.  Inorganic  experimental  chemistry : 
Introduction.     Properties  of  simple  bodies.     Laws  of  chemical  combinations 

and  decomposition.  Description  and  conditions  of  compound  inorganic  sub- 
stances. The  whole  department  of  inorganic  chemistry  will  be  discussed  in 
these  lectures,  and  illustrated  by  experiments,  a  deeper  study  being  devoted 
more  especially  to  those  elements  and  their  combinations,  which  are  of  special 
importance  in  the  economy  of  nature,  and  which  play  a  prominent  part  in  agri- 

2.  Organic  experimental  chemistry. 

Introduction.  Special  character  of  organic  combination.  Substances  of  im- 
mediate and  mediate  organic  origin,  among  the  first,  hj^dro-cavbon,  vegetable 
acids,  fatty  substances,  substances  containing  nitrogen,  &c. ;  among  the  second, 
alcohols,  ethers,  the  products  of  dry  distillation,  &c.  The  extent  of  the  in- 
struction given  on  these  subjects  will  be  in  proportion  to  their  importance  with 
regard  to  the  vital  processes  of  plants  and  animals.  The  lectures  will  be  illus- 
trated by  experiments. 

3.  Analytical  chemistry,  with  practical  exercises  in  the  laboratory : 
Introductory  lectures  on  analytical  chemistry.     The  students  receive,  first, 

instruction  in  qualitative  examination  of  minerals,  vegetable  ashes,  soils,  ma- 
nures, &c. ;  and  afterwards  in  quantitative  analysis,  for  which  the  chemical 
laboratory  has  every  requisite.  Participation  in  practical  work  will  only  be 
allowed  to  those  who  have  gone  through  previous  study  of  inorganic  chemistry. 

4.  Ohemistry  of  soils  : 

General  survey  of  the  process  of  chemical  decomposition  of  arable  soils,  both 
with  respect  to  its  mineral  and  its  organic  constituents.  The  chemical  theory 
of  the  exhaustion  of  soils,  and  of  manures.  These  lessons  are  completed  by 
lectures  on  the  practical  knowledge  of  soils. 

5.  Animal  chemistry : 

Chemical  principles  of  the  process  of  animal  nutrition,  and  of  change  of  sub- 
stances. A  critical  examination  of  the  most  important  experiments  in  feeding 
characteristics  of  the  animal  substances  most  important  in  practical  life. 


6.  Literature  of  agricultural  chemistry : 

History  of  agricultural  chemistry.  A  survey  and  criticism  of  the  most  im- 
portant works  of  ancient  as  well  as  modern  literature  bearing  upon  tliis  science. 
A  detailed  repetition  of  selected  chapters  on  the  subject  of  theoretical  chemistry. 

7.  Ej-perimental  physics  : 

(a.)  Statics  and  dynamics.  Introductory  lecture.  General  properties  of  mat- 
ter. Laws  governing  the  equilibrium  and  motion  of  solids,  liquid,  and  aeriform 
bodies.     The  phenomena  of  diffusion  and  endosmose. 

(b.)  Science  of  heat  and  meteorology.  On  conducted  and  radiated  heat.  The 
most  important  effects  of  heat.  Expansion  of  bodies,  alterations  of  the  state 
of  aggregation.  Elasticity  of  steam.  Detailed  descriptions  and  illustrations 
of  the  steam-engine.  Influence  of  heat  on  climatic  changes.  Origin  and  meta- 
morphosis of  the  atmospheric  precipitates  [Mederschldge.) 

(c.)  Electricity,  magnetism,  sound  and  light.  General  physical  theory  of  the 
laws  governing  the  powers  of  nature.  Explanation  of  their  natural  action, 
(Northern  lights,  tempests,  their  eflfects  on  vegetation,  &c.,)  and  their  applica- 
tions in  practical  life.  Telegraphy,  photography,  &c.  The  course  of  lectures 
on  physics  will  be  illustrated  by  experimenta 

Each  of  these  three  sections  of  physics  will  form  a  connected  whole,  so  that 
the  study  can  begin  with  either  without  much  loss.  Besides  the  first  section 
on  statics  and  dynamics  will  be  taught  in  the  lectures  given  during  one  half- 
year  of  the  second  year's  course  on  agricultural  machinery  and  mechanics. 

8.  Mineralogy  and  geology : 
A  brief  sketch  of  geology. 

Composition  of  the  crust  of  the  earth.  Rock  formations,  their  structure,  po- 
sition, and  origin.  Mountain  formations,  upheavings  and  sinking,  "Volcanic 
phenomena.  The  geological  action  of  water,  (springs,  erosion,  and  deposits 
caused  by  rivers,  seas,  and  lakes.)  Characteristics  of  the  most  important  sedi- 
mentary formations.  Coal,  peat,  salt  deposits,  &c.  History  of  the  inorganic 
world.  The  characteristics  of  minerals  which  constitute  the  chief  ingredients 
of  rocks,  and  the  products  of  the  decomposition  of  which  form  the  soil.  Min- 
erals most  important  to  miners  and  for  technical  purposes. 

9.  Botany  in  general  and  the  anatomy  of  plants : 

Morjihology.  The  outward  form  and  anatomical  characteristics  of  the  organs 
of  plants. 

Principles  of  systemization.  Characteristics  of  the  classes,  orders,  and  most 
important  families  of  the  vegetable  kingdom,  their  habitual,  anatomical,  and 
morphological  distinctions.  Reference  to  the  general  principles  of  natural  sys- 

The  most  important  facts  t&uching  the  geography  of  plants ;  limits  within  which 
plants  are  distributed  over  the  earth ;  their  natural  habitation  and  their  emi- 

Paleontology  of  plants.  Characteristics  of  the  vegetation  of  various  geological 

10.  Physiology  of  plants: 

Detailed  representation  of  the  structure  and  functions  of  the  organs  of  plants 
and  of  outward  influences  on  vegetation,  (for  instance,  of  nourishment  taken  in 
through  roots  and  leaves,  assimilation  and  course  of  the  sap,  transportation, 
the  influence  of  light,  of  warmth,  of  air,  of  the  soil,  &c.,  on  the  vital  process  of 
plants,  &c.) 

1 1 .  Agricultural  botany  and  the  diseases  of  plants : 

Monographic  descriptions  of  all  the  agricultural  plants  and  meadow  grasses 
in  Germany,  their  habits,  germination,  vegetation,  and  fructification.  Reference 
to  the  relations  of  their  physiological  conditions,  to  their  cultivation,  country, 
history,  and  distribution  of  the  several  kinds  of  plants  suited  for  cultivation. 
The  lectures  will  be  illustrated  by  demonstration  on  living  plants,  in  the  lecture- 
room  and  during  excursions. 

In  the  description  of  agricultural  plants,  their  diseases,  and  what  is  noxious 
to  them,  will  be  touched  upon ;  afterwards  a  general  survey  of  the  diseases  of 
plants,  and  more  especially  of  those  caused  by  parasites,  will  be  given. 

12.  Selected  sections  of  general  botany  and  vegetable  anatomy  and  physiology : 
The  most  important  matters  comprised  in  these  departments  will  be  specially 


dwelt  upon,  and  the  newest  publications  on  these  subjects  will  be  mentioned, 
so  as  to  enable  the  student  to  continue  his  studies  in  this  direction. 

13.  Praclical  exercise  in  using  the  microscope,  and  experiments  as  to  the  physi- 
ology of  plants: 

(a.)  Use  of  the  Microscope.  Introduction  to  the  use  of  the  microscope.  Ex- 
hibition and  preservation  of  microscopic  preparations,  and  practice  in  micro- 
scopic investigations ;  (6.)  Introduction  to  experiments  on  plants.  The  student 
will  have  the  opportunity  of  personally  testing  the  most  important  questions  in 
the  physiology  of  plants.  For  example,  the  examination  of  transpiration,  nour- 
ishment, the  influence  of  light,  of  warmth,  &c.  Only  those  students  who  have 
heard  the  necessary  preparatory  lectures  can  take  part  in  these  microscopic  and 
and  physiological  experiments. 

14.  Anatomical  and  physiological  survey  of  the  animal  kingdom: 

The  most  important  points  bearing  on  the  organization  of  the  classes  and 
orders  of  the  animal  kingdom.  The  influence  of  external  and  internal  struc- 
ture on  the  habits  of  life.  General  remarks  on  the  processes  of  nutrition,  res- 
piration, and  circulation,  the  action  of  the  nerves  and  muscles,  functions  of  the 
organs  of  sense  and  propagation.  These  lectures  will  be  illustrated  by  numer- 
ous demonstrations. 

15.  Natural  history  of  invertebrate  animals: 

The  chief  part  of  these  lectures  will  treat  of  the  natural  history  of  insects 
important  to  the  agriculturist  and  to  the  manager  of  forests ;  and  that  of  bees 
and  silkworms  will  be  fully  elucidated  by  demonstration.  The  rest  of  the  lower 
classes  of  animals  will  be  briefly  treated  of,  and  theu"  relation  to  man  specially 
touched  upon. 

16.  Natural  history  of  vertebrate  animals: 

Characteristics  of  mammalia  of  birds ;  of  amphibious  animals  and  of  fish. 
Their  chief  anatomical  and  physiological  features,  with  particular  reference  to 
Jhe  species  useful  or  hurtful  to  man.     Anatomical  demonstrations. 

17.  Repetitions  in  natural  philosophy : 

During  these  repetitions,  students,  and  more  particularly  those  who  have 
been  unable  to  follow  and  complete  the  two  years'  course  of  instruction,  will 
have  an  opportunity  of  gaining  an  eucj^clopcedic  insight  into  all  the  various 
branches  of  natural  philosophy  taught  separately  in  the  academy. 

IV.  Mathematics. — 1.  Practical  geometry  and  exercises  in  measuring  land 
and  leveling : 

Theorems  in  practical  geometry ;  their  use  in  the  art  of  measuring  fields. 
Application  of  the  latter  to  agriculture  Practical  exercise  in  measuring  fields, 
(with  measuring  bars,  cross  discs,  the  surveyor's  table,  the  compass,  the  theod- 
olite,) and  in  leveling. 

2.  Agrkultwral  mechanics^  and  the  study  of  machinery : 

Laws  of  motion  ;  natural  powers;  estimation  of  their  strength  and  working 
capacity  -.  friction,  solidity  of  bodies,  mechanical  powers,  their  application  and 
combination  as  agricultural  machinery. 

Water  pressure,  motion  of  water,  (in  rivers,  canals,  and  conduits.)  Water 
power  and  water  wheels. 

Atmospheric  pressure,  and  its  practical  application.  Steam  power  and  steam- 
engines.     Mills. 

V.  Political  Economy. — 1.  The  principles  of  national  economy : 
Fundamental  idea  of  property.     Systems  of  national  political  economy.    The 

characteristics  of  national  wealth.  Laws  governing  the  production,  the  distri- 
bution, and  the  consumption  of  goods. 

2.  Political  economy : 

Relation  of  the  State  to  the  national  wealth.  Way  and  means  of  governing 
in  order  to  obtain  the  maximum  of  national  prosperity. 

Administrative  measures  and  reguiations  relative  to  the  production,  distribu- 
tion, and  consumption  of  goods. 

VI.  Jurisprudence. — 1.  Introduction  to  the  laws  respecting  agriculture: 

A  short  view  of  the  existing  works  on  land  in  Germany.  Explanations  of 
.the  idea  connected  with  the  terms,  person,  things,  action,  agreement,  &c.  Laws 
concerning  property,  law  of  inheritance,  law  of  entail,  &c. 


The  lectures  on  the  general  principles  of  law  will  hold  constantly  in  view  the 
relation  of  these  to  agricultural  law,  and  the  very  extensive  subject  will  thus  be 
limited  and  determined. 

2.  Agricultural  laiv. 

3.  Agrarian  legislation  [Agral  Geseizgebung.) 

YII.  Veterinary  Science. — 1.  Anatomy  and  physiology  of  domestic  animals : 
These  anatomical  and  physiological  lectures,  which  are  to  be  considered  as 
laying  the  foundation  of  the  knowledge  of  veterinary  science,  of  sanitary  sci- 
ence, of  the  laws  of  health  as  regards  animals,  and  of  the  breeding  of  animals, 
treat  of  these  subjects  in  detail,  and  in  connection  with  numerous  demonstra- 
tions on  living  and  dead  animals. 

2.  Acute  and  contagious  disorders  of  domestic  animals: 

This  lecture  treats  of  the  most  common  internal  diseases,  and  of  all  infectious 
and  contagious  complaints  of  animals,  their  classification  according  to  the  parts 
they  affect,  (diseases  affecting  the  organs  of  respiration  and  digestion,  &c..)  their 
causes  and  course.  As  the  object  is  not  to  give  profound  veterinary  knowledge, 
but  rather  to  enable  the  farmer  to  recognize  the  first  symptoms  of  illness,  and 
so  form  a  right  judgment  as  to  their  danger,  to  treat  slight  illnesses  himself 
and,  in  urgent  cases,  when  the  veterinary  surgeon  can  not  be  obtained  quickly, 
to  apply  the  proper  medical  and  surgical  treatment ;  that  part  of  therapeutics 
will  be  taught,  more  especially,  which  has  reference  to  the  treatment  of  shght 
and  acute  diseases. 

3.  Exter7ial  diseases  of  domestic  animals : 

Their  division  according  to  the  seat  of  tlie  disease  in  the  various  parts  of  the 
body.  .  In  respect  of  these  diseases,  also  their  appearance,  their  usual  course, 
their  local  and  general  importance,  and  their  tendency  to  become  hereditary, 
&c.,  will  be  taught  more  in  detail  than  the  therapeutical  and  surgical  treatment 
of  them.  As  far  as  possible,  practical  demonstrations  will  be  added  to  scientific 
teaching.  Besides  this,  practical  exercise  will  be  afforded  by  the  performance 
of  special  slight  operations,  such  as  bleeding,  cauterizing,  &c. 

4.  Shoeing  and  tending. 

(a.)  Shoeing. — A  short  sketch  of  the  anatomy  and  physiology  of  the  hoof. 
The  horse-shoe.  Shoeing  sound  hoofs.  Shoeing  diseased  hoofs.  Shoeing  in 
abnormal  positions  and  for  irregular  paces.     Practical  illustrations. 

(6.)  Tending, — All  matters  relating  to  the  symptoms  and  treatment  of  female 
animals  during  bearing  time. 

VIII.  Technology. — 1.   General  Technology : 

Introduction.  Study  of  materials  for  burning  and  lighting.  Preparation  of 
fuel.  The  technical  importance  and  application  of  water.  The  manufacture  of 
animal  and  vegetable  fats,  of  weaving  and  spinnmg  fibres.  Clay,  gypsum,  and 

2.   Technology  of  collateral  branches  of  rural  economy : 

Importance,  application,  regulation,  and  management  of  allied  industries, 
showing  the  most  recent  scientific  and  practical  improvements;  for  instance,  in 
the  manufacture  of  starch  and  sugar,  brewing  and  distilling,  the  making  of 
wine,  the  manufacture  of  vinegar,  the  preparation  of  bread,  butter,  and  cheese. 

Illustrations  by  experiments,  drawings,  models,  and  visits  to  manufactories. 

IX.  Architecture. — 1.  Building  materials  and  the  art  of  building  : 

The  knowledge  of  building  materials,  the  mode  of  obtaining  them,  and  rules 
for  their  selection.  Descriptions  of  the  most  important  building  works,  their 
valuation,  and  terms  which  ought  to  be  paid  for  their  construction. 

2.  Construction  and  arrangement  of  agricultural  and  industrial  buildings : 
These  lectures  will  be  illustrated  by  drawings  and  models,  as  well  as  by 

buildings  already  erected. 

3.  Construction  of  roads  and  canals : 

Constructing  and  keeping  up  roads,  as  well  as  the  needful  ditches,  thorough- 
fares, and  bridges.  Constructions  for  protection  against  inundations  and  swamp- 
mg ;  making  of  weirs  and  sluices. 

4.  Exercise  in  drawing : 

The  drawing  of  plans  and  of  agricultural  implements  and  machines,  and  de- 
signs for  agricultural  buildings. 


Mr.  Flint,  in  the  account  of  his  visits  to  European  agricultural  institutions,  in 
1863,  thus  speaks  of  his  visit  to  Poppelsdorf: — 

The  agricultural  college  at  Poppelsdorf,  connected  with  the  university  at 
Bonn,  is  some  ten  miles  above  Cologne,  beautifully  situated  on  the  left  bank  of 
the  river,  within  sight  of  the  far-famed  Siebengebirge,  or  seven  mountains,  and 
the  Dracheufels.  It  is  reached  by  a  magnificent  avenue  leading  from  Bonn  to 
Poppelsdorf,  studded  with  superb  chestnuts  in  double  rows  ou  either  side. 

I  called  at  onc3  on  Dr.  Hartstein,  the  director  of  the  agricultural  school,  who 
kindly  gave  me  the  information  I  sought  in  regard  to  its  present  position  and 
prosperity'.  Close  by  his  house  is  an  ancient  castle,  now  used  as  a  depository 
of  the  extensive  scientific  collections  belonging  to  the  university,  to  which  the 
students  in  agriculture  have  access.  The  model  farm  of  the  agricultural  insti- 
tute is  also  close  at  hand.  This  is  used  for  the  purpose  of  experiment,  and  the 
crops  on  the  experimental  plots  were  very  striking.  Extensive  mulberry  hedges 
surround  the  fields,  and  the  silk-worm  was  in  the  full  tide  of  successful  operation. 

The  scientific  lectures  extend  over  not  only  the  branches  requisite  in  the 
department  of  agriculture,  but  also  the  fundamental  and  auxiliary  sciences  con- 
nected with  it,  viz. : — 

(a )  Agriculture  in  its  whole  range  as  a  leading  science,  and  especially 

1.  The  science  of  tillage,  which  is  divided  into  a  general  and  special  branch. 
In  the  one  are  the  knowledge  of  soils,  manures,  and  the  working  of  the  land, 
the  seed,  care  of  the  crop,  and  harvesting  of  agricultural  products  in  general  is 
taught;  in  the  other,  more  exact  instruction  is  given  as  to  the  judicious  culti- 
vation of  each  one  of  these  products.  In  this  connection  the  formation  of 
permanent  meadows,  and  especially  artificial  meadows,  is  considered. 

2.  The  science  of  cattle-breeding  or  the  production  of  animals,  which  also 
include*,^.'  general  and  a  special  course.  In  the  first,  instruction  is  given  as  to 
the  different  races,  the  pairing,  breeding,  feeding,  care  and  fattening  of  cattle  in 

^general ;  in  the  second,  the  breeding  of  cattle,  sheep,  horses,  swine,  &c. 

3.  The  proper  farm  management,  taking  in  the  whole  agricultural  profession, 
and  including  general  rules  and  principles.  The  principal  divisions  are,  the 
objects  of  agriculture,  land,  capital  and  labor,  sale  and  leasing  of  estates, 
d  liferent  systems  of  agriculture,  the  arrangements  and  du-ection  of  farms,  and  of 
taxation  and  book-keeping. 

To  these  lectures  upon  agriculture  are  added  those  on  fruit  management, 
garden,  fruit  and  vineyard  culture. 
(6.)  Chief  and  auxiliary  sciences. 

1.  The  natural  sciences,  chemistry  and  physics,  zoology,  botany  and  mineral- 
ogy, with  special  reference  to  agriculture,  and  so  far  as  they  are  of  importance 
to  the  farmer  in  the  oversight  and  judicious  direction  of  his  estate. 

2.  Mathematical  sciences,  especially  applied  geometry,  stereometry,  statics, 
hydrostatics  and  machinery,  connected  with  the  practice  in  field-measuring, 
leveling,  drawing  of  plans,  &c. 

3.  Popular  agricultural  literature,  so  far  as  it  serves  as  a  safe  ground-work 
for  practical  agricultural  instruction. 

4.  Agricultural  technology. 

5.  Veterinary  science. 

6.  Agricultural  mechanics. 

7.  Laws  relating  to  agriculture  and  the  cultivation  of  lands. 

8.  History,  statistics  and  literature  of  agriculture. 

The  farm  connected  with  the  institute  serves  for  practical  illustration,  as  well 
as  the  excursions  which,  from  time  to  time,  are  taken  in  the  neighborhood,  and 
during  vacations,  also,  into  more  distant  regions.  The  institute  is  in  want  of  no 
auxiliary  means  of  making  the  theoretical  and  practical  ini^truction  most  use- 
ful. Among  these  are  the  chemical  laboratory,  erected  especially  for  agricultu- 
ral investigation,  the  physical  apparatus  and  the  instruments  for  land  measuring 
and  leveling,  the  collection  of  minerals  and  ores,  the  zoological  and  veterinary 
collection,  the  collection  of  models  and  implements,  and  of  wool,  the  library, 
the  economic  botanic  garden,  the  botanical  collection  and  the  estate,  with  the 
experimental  fields  and  the  vineyard.  Besides  these  peculiar  means  of  instruc- 
tion of  the  institute,  the  use  of  the  rich  collections  and  apparatus  of  the 


university,  the  royal  university  library,  botanic  garden  and  natural  history 
museum,  is  available. 

Students  pay  an  entrance  fee  of  six  thalers,  and  a  fee  for  tuition  of  forty 
thalers.  or  thirty  dollars,  for  the  first  term.  The  amount  for  the  second  term  is 
thirty  thalers,  the  third  twenty,  and  the  fourth  ten,  making  the  fee  for  the  whole 
course  of  two  years,  one  hundred  thalers,  or  seventy-five  dollars. 

The  lectures  embrace  a  two  years'  course,  the  terms  being  arranged  to  con- 
form with  those  of  the  university.  The  special  plan  of  instruction  is  made 
known  each  term.  The  school  is  designed  for  those  v\ho  desire  to  educate 
themselves  for  skillful  farmers,  and  those  who  devote  themselves  to  the  studies 
of  the  university,  and  at  the  same  time  wish  to  become  familiar  with  the  opera- 
tions of  agriculture.  Students  who  are  entered  at  the  University  of  Bonn,  and 
enrolled  in  any  of  the  faculties,  can  attend  the  agricultural  lectures  on  applica- 
tion to  the  director. 

Applicants  have  to  bring  certificates  of  good  conduct.  No  proof  of  specific 
attainments  in  elementary  school  studies  is  required,  but  it  is  desired  that, 
before  visiting  the  institute,  the  pupU  should  be  familiar  with  the  practical 
manipulations  of  farming,  and  be  able  to  show  proof  of  it. 

On  admission,  the  student  is  matriculated  and  enrolled  in  the  faculty  of 
philosophy  at  the  university.  By  this  he  acquires  all  the  rights  and  undertakes 
all  the  obligations'of  the  university  students. 

The  whole  establishment  is  under  the  control  of  the  royal  ministry  for  agri- 
cultural aflairs  at  Berlin. 

The  experimental  farm,  close  by  the  school,  contains,  I  believe,  about  seventy 
acres.  I  visited  the  barns  and  out-buildings,  all  of  which  appeared  to  be  in 
admirable  condition,  a  place  for  every  thing  and  every  thing  in  its  place. 

But  seven  or  eight  cows  are  kept,  and  those  are  all  Dutch,  which  are  thought 
there  to  be  among  the  best  for  milk.  No  experiments  appear  to  be  made  there 
to  test  the  comparative  merits  of  dift'erent  breeds.  A  long  series  of  experi- 
ments in  the  fields  near  the  house  seemed  to  be  conducted  in  the  most  careful 
manner.  Many  of  the  plots  of  wheat  were  of  extraordinary  growth.  A  great 
variety  of  plants  are  cultivated,  chiefly  for  the  purpose  of  instruction. 


The  superior  agricultural  school  at  Eldena  is  connected  with  the  University 
of  Grriefswald.  It  was  opened  in  1834,  and  connected  with  the  university  on 
account  of  the  vast  manor  connected  with  the  latter,  which  was,  moreover,  suf- 
fering from  lack  of  studeots. 

It  is  governed  by  a  director,  who  is  at  the  same  time  teacher  of  agriculture 
and  rural  economy.  The  professors  of  the  university  give  instruction  in  vete- 
rinary art,  the  natural  sciences,  and  mathematics.  The  students  must  matric- 
ulate there,  but  are  bound  only  for  one  semester.  They  must  be  over  seventeen, 
and  must  produce  testimonials  of  good  conduct  and  of  having  pursued  classical 
studies.     The  instruction  extends  over  two  years,  and  includes : 

1.  Political  Economy  : — Finances ;  Rural  police ;  Constitutional  law  in  Prus- 
sia; Governmental  organization;  Politico-economic  discussions.  2.  History 
and  Statistics  of  Agriculture: — Agriculture  in  general;  Agriculture  special; 
Cultivation  of  meadows ;  Zootechny  in  general ;  Raising  of  sheep  ;  Raising  of 
horned  animals;  Rural  economy ;  Systems  of  culture;  Valuation  of  rural  estates; 
Agricultural  book-keeping,  theoretic  and  practical.  3.  Sylviculture  in  general, 
{culture  of  groves.)  4  Horticulture: — Culture  of  garden  vegetables ;  Culture 
of  fruit  trees ;  Arboriculture,  (culture  of  trees  and  shrubs  for  timber,  &c.)  5. 
liaising  of  Horses  : — Anatomy  and  physiology  of  domestic  animals ;  Yeterinary 
medicine ;  Hygiene.  6.  Chemistry : — Experimental  and  agricultural,  organic 
and  inorganic  chemistry,  (exercises  in  the  laboratory,)  physics,  and  meteorology; 
Technology,  with  practical  demonstration  in  the  distillery;  Brewery;  Tile-kiln, 
and  dairj' ;  Excursion  to  the  saline  of  Griesswalde ;  to  the  beet-sugar  manufac- 
tory of  Stralsund;    Manufactory  of  instruments  and  mills.     1.  Anatomy,  Fhy- 


siology,  and  Geology  of  Plants : — Botany,  general  and  applied  to  agriculture; 
Horticulture  and  Sylviculture ;  Zoology,  general  and  applied  to  agriculture; 
Excursions.  8.  Arithmetic  and  Matheiiiatics : — Surveying;  Leveling;  General 
and  applied  mechanics.  9.  Drawing: — Rural  architecture ;  Practical  estimates 
of  constructions.     10.  Rural  Law. 

It  is.  liberally  endowed  and  possesses  a  collection  of  machines  and  tools. 

It  has  nine  professors  and  eighty  pupils,  of  which  ten  will  devote  themselves 
to  the  higher  departments  of  government,  where  a  knowledge  of  agriculture  is 
needed.     The  fees  are  about  $90,  board  not  included. 


The  Agricultural  Academy  at  Proskau,  in  Silesia,  was  opened  in  1847,  and, 
up  to  1867,  had  been  attended  by  1,067  students.  Its  curriculum  is  identical 
with  that  at  Poppelsdorf     There  are  eight  professors,  and  a  farm  of  2,312  acres. 

There  is  also  an  inferior  practical  school  for  young  farmers  here,  called  prak- 
tikanten  station.  The  instruction  is  given  them  by  the  administrator  of  Proskau 
and  the  farm-inspector  at  Schemnitz,  in  whose  house  they  are  boarded. 


The  Superior  Institute  of  Agriculture  atRegenwalde  was  established  in  1842. 
It  has  four  professors,  with  a  course  like  that  given  at  Poppelsdorf.  The  fees 
are  about  $221  per  annum.     The  farm  includes  about  1,100  acres. 


The  gardening  school  at  Potsdam  was  opened  in  1823.  It  admits  pupils  who 
have  passed  two  years  in  the  preparatory  school  of  Schonberg.  There  are  six 
professors,  and  the  course  consists  of  a  review  of  elementary  studies,  geometry, 
drawing,  and  the  cultivation  of  trees,  esculent  vegetables,  ornamental  plants, 
and  those  employed  in  industry.  The  school  possesses  land  for  experiments, 
and  a  nursery  of  about  eighty  acres,  whence  fruit  and  forest-trees  are  sold. 

There  are  about  thirty  pupils,  of  which  ten  or  twelve  are  bursars. 


The  superior  special  forestry  school  at  Neustadt  Eberswald  is  administered 
and  directed  by  the  Minister  of  Finance.  It  was  founded  at  Berlin  in  1820,  and 
united  to  the  university ;  in  1830  it  was  removed  to  its  present  site. 

The  course  lasts  two  years,  with  two  terms  in  the  year.  The  branches 
taught  are  forestry,  general  and  special  botany,  the  encyclopaedia  of  the  natui'al 
sciences,  entomology,  general  and  applied  to  forestry,  phytotomy,  vegetable 
physiology,  mineralogy  and  geognosy,  arithmetic,  geometry,  trigonometry, 
stereotomy,  statics  and  dynamics.  Conferences  are  held  upon  natural  history, 
mathematics,  political  economy,  and  forestry;  many  excursions  are  made  into 
the  forests  connected  with  the  school,  and  one  annually  into  those  of  the  Elbe 
and  Harz.  Four  botanical  and  surveying  excursions  are  made  weekly.  For 
coppice-working  there  is  a  district  appropriated  to  the  school  at  Obersdorf,  in 
Thuringia.     The  school  receives  only  forty  pupils. 

The  fees  are  fifty  thalers  the  term.  There  are  many  bursars.  Toung  soldiers 
who  have  practiced  forestry  and  have  served  five  years  in  a  batallion  of  chas- 
seurs, and  can  pass  an  examination  in  geometry,  are  received  free  into  the 
school,  continue  to  draw  their  army  pay,  and  after  two  years,  may  present 
themselves  at  the  examination  of  forest-inspectors. 



The  "Veterinary  School  at  Berlin  has  for  its  chief  object  to  teach  the  art  of 
military  veterinary  surgery,  and  almost  exclusively  of  the  horse. 

There  are  nine  or  ten  teachers  and  forty  pupils.  The  course  consists  of  anat- 
omy, physiology,  zoology,  the  veterinary  art,  and  horse-shoeing,  and  extends 
over  three  years.  There  is  an  examination  every  six  months,  and  one  at  the 
close  of  the  course,  after  which  the  pupils  enter  the  regiments  or  are  assigned 
to  posts.  A  clinique  where  sick  animals  are  treated  is  connected  with  the 
school,  and  is  free  of  charge,  but  their'  owners  pay  for  food  and  medicines. 

French  estimate  of  Prussian  Agricultural  Schools. 
M.  de  Laveleye,  in  the  Bevue  des  Deux  Mondes  for  September,  attributes 
the  great  advance  made  by  Prussia  in  agriculture,  first,  "  to  the  complete  system 
of  general  education  throughout  the  rural  districts;"  and  second,  "to  the  tech- 
nical instruction  provided  not  only  for  the  manufacturing  and  mechanic  classes, 
but  for  the  agriculturists." 

Prussia  maintains  four  Royal  Academies  of  Agriculture,  at  which  both  the 
theory  and  practice  of  farming  are  taught  during  two  years,  at  a  cost  to  each 
student  of  less  than  8?.  a  year  for  instruction  in  political  and  rural  economy, 
the  management  of  trees  and  woods ;  in  the  mode  of  manufacturing  sugar,  beer, 
bricks  and  draining  tiles ;  in  mineralogy,  geology,  botany,  and  chemistry,  with 
experiments  and  excursions;  and  lastly,  in  mathematics,  trigonometry,  land- 
surveying,  practical  mechanics,  veterinary  surgery,  rural  law,  the  history  of 
their  country,  and  constitutional  law.  Excursions  into  the  most  interesting 
districts  are  common.  The  persons  who  attend  these  academies  are  those  who 
have  to  make  their  living  by  their  own  farms,  commonly  of  small  extent.  For 
amateurs  a  less  practical  course  is  provided  at  institutes  connected  with  the 
Universities  of  Halle  and  Berlin.  There  are  nineteen  provincial  schools  of  agri- 
culturs  below  the  academies,  subsidized  by  the  State  to  the  amount  of  about 
2,000Z.,  and  generally  taught  by  some  large  farmer,  assisted  by  the  neighboring 
apothecary,  schoolmaster,  and  veterinary  surgeon.  Tliere  are  also  numerous 
special  schools,  for  particular  branches,  such  as  market-gardening,  and  the  cul- 
tivation of  meadows  and  woods.  The  care  of  fruit-trees  is  taught  in  one  hun- 
dred and  thirty-four  schools  in  the  ancient  provinces  alone. 

The  system  of  paid  instruction  is  extended  by  the  institution  of  itinerant 
teachers,  who  go  from  village  to  village,  criticising  the  cultivation  and  giving 
advice  about  rotation  of  crops  and  the  most  suitable  kinds  of  manure.  The 
State  also  maintains  seven  experimental  institutes  of  organic  and  agricultural 
chemistry,  which,  on  different  soils  and  under  different  circumstances,  are  test-> 
ing  and  completing  the  theories  of  Liebig,  and  in  proving  the  quality  of  the 
artificial  manures  of  commerce. 

Finally,  there  are  519  voluntary  agricultural  association.s,  which  by  confer- 
ences, exhibitions  and  prizes,  assist  in  spreading  information.  Apart  from  the 
academies  and  institutes  of  chemistry,  the  State  does  little.  There  is  a  central 
commission,  presided  over  by  a  Minister  of  Agriculture,  but  its  expenses  in 
1862  were  only  177^.  Three  large  stud  farms,  maintained  at  a  cost  of  20,000Z. 
a  year,  continually  improve  the  breeds  of  horses  for  war  as  well  as  peace. 
Eleven  hundred  stallions,  distributed  from  tliese  forms  through  the  provinces, 
get  annually  35,000  foals^a  number  sufficient  to  modify  the  breeds  throughout 
the  country  in  any  desired  direction  in  a  very  few  years. 

M.  de  Laveleye  assigns  much  importance  "to  the  simple  and  economic  habits 
of  the  German  farmer,  and  to  the  fact  that  Prussia  is  fortunate  in  having  no 
Algiers,  no  large  fleet,  and  especially  no  Paris  to  oppress  agriculture  by  the 
draio  of  both  money  and  men  ;  but  the  great  secret  of  the  success  of  Prussian 
agriculture  is  diffused  education  and  technical  instruction." 


In  Prussia,  the  Real  school,  and  even  the  Higher  Burgher  school,  has  heen 
regarded  as  sufficient  to  give  all  the  appropriate  and  special  instruction  required 
for  a  mercantile  career,  the  practical  part  of  v/hich  could,  it  was  thought,  be  better 
acquired  by  a  few  years  service  in  a  subordinate  position  in  the  counting-room 
than  in  any  school. 


The  Cominercial  School  at  Berlin,  founded  in  1848,  by  Dr.  Schweitzer,  and 
now  under  the  direction  of  Dr.  Frantz,  has  for  its  object  the  special  preparation 
of  pupils  for.  commercial  pursuits.  There  are  but  few  schools  of  this  special 
character  in  Prussia,  as  it  is  generally  maintained  that  the  gymnasiums  and  real 
schools  afford  the  best  general  culture  necessary  to  the  merchant  of  good  social 
standing,  while  the  counting-room  is  the  best  practical  school.  However,  the 
government  has  sanctioned  this  establishment. 

The  course  of  instruction  covers  two  years,  and  there  are  four  divisions  :  class 
III,  class  II  B,  II  A,  and  class  I.  The  branches  taught  are  arithmetic,  geom- 
etry, physics,  history,  geography,  drawing,  calligraphy  ;  the  history,  geography, 
statistics,  and  science  of  commerce ;  history  of  mercantile  staples,  technical  chem- 
istry, laws  of  exchange,  coinage,  &c. ;  book-keeping,  French,  English,  and  Ger- 
man languages,  and  correspondence. 

There  is  a  Government  Board  of  Inspection  of  the  final  examination.  Suc- 
pessful  candidates  are  excused  from  two  of  their  three  years'  military  service. 
From  1856  to  1862,  122  pupils  passed,  of  whom  21  were  characterized  as  "ex- 
cellent," 64  "  good,"  and  37  "  passable." 

The  number  of  pupils  was  in  1862,  100  in  the  first  year,  and  140  in  the  second ; 
in  1863,  173  and  176  ;  and  in  1864,  204  and  213 ;  these  statistics  showing  an  in- 
crease of  public  confidence  in  the  institution. 


The  commercial  institution  for  young  women,  at  Berlin,  was  opened  in  1866.  Its 
purpose  is  to  impart  to  young  women  already  possessing  considerable  education, 
such  theoretical  and  practical  knowledge  as  will  enable  them  to  fill  responsible 
commercial  and  industrial  positions,  especially  those  of  book-keepers,  accountants, 
and  correspondents.      It  has  seven  professors. 

The  course  is  divided  into  two  divisions ;  the  first  (A)  extends  over  two  years, 
giving  general  preparatory  culture,  with  a  view  to  future  employment  in  com- 
merce or  industry ;  the  second  (B)  of  one  year,  suited  to  those  who  wish  to  obtain, 
as  soon  as  possible,  the  knowledge  necessary  for  entering  at  once  into  some  prac- 
tical employment.  Ladies  over  15  are  admitted  to  Division  A;  over  16,  to 
Division  B.     The  subjects  and  Itpurs,  per  week,  are  specified  below. 

General  knowledge  of  commerce  and  industry;  definition  of  commerce;  differ- 
ent kinds  of  trade ;  auxiliary  means  of  trade ;  coinage ;  weights  and  measures ; 
money  ;  banking  and  exchange  business.  The  most  important  laws  relative  to 
commerce  and  industry,  1  hour  during  the  first  year ;  2  during  the  second  ;  2  in 
Division  B.  Commercial  and  industrial  book-keeping  (by  single  and  double 
entry,)  1  hour  first  year;  2  the  second;  2  in  Division  B.  Commercial  hand- 
writing and  practice  therein  by  writing  themes  on  commercial  business,  3  hours 
first  year;  3  in  Division  B.  Ar  thmetic  general  and  applied  to  commerce  and 
industry,  4  hours  first  year,  2  the  second  ;  4  in  Division  B.  German  language 
and  composition,  2  hours  first  year ;    1  the  second ;   3  in  Division  B.     German 


commercial  correspondence,  1  hour  the  second  year ;  English  language  and  cor- 
respondence, 3  hours  both  years ;  2  hours  in  Division  B.  French  language  and 
correspondence,  3  hours  in  both  years,  and  Division  B.  Drawing,  especially 
free-hand  and  pattern  drawing,  3  hours  both  years  and  in  Division  B.  Stenog- 
raphy, according  to  choice.  Elements  of  natural  history,  2  hours  in  both  years, 
and  Division  B,  and  the  elements  of  physics  and  chemistry,  2  hours  both  years, 
and  in  Division  B,  to  prepare  for  the  study  of  commercial  geography  and  history, 
2  hours  in  the  second  year,  and  1  in  Division  B,and  the  knowledge  of  goods  and 
technology,  2  hours  in  the  second  year,  and  in  Division  B.  Knowledge  of  mat- 
ters connected  with  the  vocation  of  women,  more  especially  domestic  economy,  1 
hour  in  the  second  year. 

The  last  branch  applies  science  to  domestic  life,  and  treats  the  Object  as  fol- 
lows :  Knowledge  of  susteniation — alimentary  substances,  varieties,  source,  value  for 
nourishment,  adulterations,  and  tests.  Animal  and  vegetable  food  in  all  its  varie- 
ties. Cheapest  and  best  diets.  Cooking ;  materials  for  fire,  utensils,  modes  of  cook- 
ing. Preservation  of  food.  Fermentations ;  putrefaction,  and  modes  of  prevent- 
ing it.     Various  modes  of  preserving  food ;  the  ice-house ;  storing  food. 

Dairy  products.  Alimentary  stuffs,  and  household  goods,  and  materials.  Care 
of  house  linen,  nursing,  sanitary  laws,  management  of  servants,  accounts,  and 
various  other  household  functions. 

The  above  plan  of  studies  is  only  temporarily  established,  and  is  subject  to 
change.     Visits  are  made  to  workshops,  goods  depots,  &c. 

At  the  close  of  the  course,  after  an  examination,  a  diploma  may  be  conferred. 

The  school  fees  are  a  matriculation  fee  of  three  thalers ;  an  annual  fee  of  50 
thalers ;  in  Division  B  there  are  10,  additional  for  English,  French,  and  draw- 
ing. Pupils  are  not  received  for  less  time  than  a  year,  but  may  attend  single 
courses  for  1|^  to  2  thalers  the  course  per  semester.     There  are  49  pupils. 

Connected  with  the  institution  is  a  collection  of  books,  specimens  of  goods, 
physical,  chemical,  and  technological  apparatus. 


This  school  is  intended  to  train  mariners  and  masters  of  merchant  vessels.  It 
is  under  the  superintendence  of  a  director,  residing  at  Dantzig,  who  has  the  same 
control  over  the  other  navigation  schools  in  Prussia,  and  is  provided  with  two 
professors  and  an  assistant,  who  teaches  drawing. 

To  be  admitted  to  the  lowest  class,  the  candidate  must  be  able  to  read  and 
write,  be  acquainted  with  elementary  mathematics,  and  must  be  able  to  make  a 
fair  composition  in  German.  The  lessons  are  given  during  32  hours  a  week,  and 
during  three  years,  the  first  year  being  a  course  for  pilots,  while,  during  the  last 
two  is  taught  the  art  of  navigating  the  high  seas. 

The  course  in  pilotage  comprises  the  following  branches ;  arithmetic,  plane 
geometry,  carpentry,  plane  and  spherical  trigonometry,  navigation,  terrestrial 
and  astronomical  observations,  drawing  of  sea-charts  and  astronomical  maps,  and 
English.  That  of  the  highei*  division  comprises  the  preceding  studies  carried 
farther,  rigging,  drawing  the  different  parts  of  a  vessel,  the  commercial  rules  rela- 
tive to  ships'  papers,  and  to  the  course  of  exchange  at  the  principal  commercial 
ports,  &c. 

On  leaving  the  school  an  examination  is  held,  and  a  certificate  of  proficiency 
awarded  to  those  undergoing  it  in  a  satisfactory  manner.  This  certificate  is  the 
basis  of  all  promotion  to  any  and  the  different  stations  of  command  of  a  mer- 
cantile vessel. 

The  fees,  paid  quarterly,  are  six  thalers  for  the  pilot's  course,  and  ten  for  the 
highercourse  in  navigation. 



The  Mining  Academy  (Berg  Akademie)  at  Berlin,  gives  a  superior  finishing 
education  to  persons  connected  with  mines  or  the  working  of  metals.  It  is  gov- 
erned by  a  director,  and  has  a  corps  of  nine  professors,  three  attached  to  the 
school,  and  six  connected  with  the  University,  who  attend  to  give  their  practical 
courses.  The  pupils  must  inscribe  their  names  for  the  courses  they  intend  to  fol- 
low, and  persons  not  belonging  to  the  school  may  hear  single  courses  after  the 
same  formality.  The  school  fees  are  calculated  at  the  rate  of  1^  thalers  the  term 
for  each  hour's  lesson  attended  per  week ;  thus  a  course  with  six  lessons  in  the 
week  costs  9^  thalers  per  half  year.  Laboratory  manipulations  cost  20  thalers 
additional,  and  assaying  10. 

The  course  of  instruction  includes  :  1.  Mathematics;  2.  Greometry;  3.  Me- 
chanics, elementary,  higher,  and  applied ;  4.  Physics;  5.  Construction  of  mining 
machinery;  6.  Chemistry,  theoretical,  technological,  and  analytical ;  7.  Mineral- 
ogy, crystalography ;  8.  Geology,  paleontology;  9.  Surveying,  general  and 
practical;  10.  Architecture,  and  construction  in  reference  to  mining;  11.  Met- 
allurgy, assaying  by  the  dry  and  the  wet  method,  and  the  blow  pipe;  12.  Min- 
ing law  and  business  system,  including  book-keeping;  13.  Drawing,  through 
the  whole  course,  with  reference  to  construction,  platting  of  grounds,  sections,  &c. 

At  the  end  of  the  course  there  is  an  examination,  giving  the  pupil  who  passes 
it  the  title  of  el  eve  des  mines  (pupil  of  mines).  If  he  is  to  enter  the  State  service, 
he  must  pass  two  more,  the  first,  for  the  title  of  auditor  of  mines  (referendairedes 
n}in€s),  after  two  years'  practical  mining  ;  and  the  second,  for  that  of  assessor  of 
mines,  after  two  years'  of  administrative  labor  under  a  chief  engineer. 

The  three  professors  attached  to  the  academy  and  the  director  receive  each 
1,000  thalers  a  year.  The  total  expense  of  the  establishment  is  12,000  thalers, 
and  the  part  not  covered  by  the  receipts  is  borne  by  the  State,  which  has  also 
provided  the  building,  the  cabinets,  and  the  apparatus.  There  are  xery  complete 
geological  and  mineralogical  collections,  and  very  commodious  and  well-organized 
laboratories.  Of  the  latter  there  are  two,  one  for  the  dry  and  one  for  the  humid 
method  of  assaying.  Reagents  are  placed  freely  at  the  disposal  of  the  students; 
only  the  more  costly  ones  being  given  out  under  supervision. 


The  Mining  School  at  Bochura  was  founded  in  1863,  out  of  the  surplus  funds 
gf  a  miners'  association.  The  management  is  in  the  hands  of  the  Director  of  the 
Mining  Bureau,  and  of  the  trustees  of  the  old  miners'  fund.  It  is  designed  for 
superintendents  of  mines,  and  master  workmen. 

The  pupils  must  have  worked  three  years  in  a  mine  before  entering  the  school. 
They  must  enter  early  enough  to  finish  the  course  before  heing  called  out  to 
military  duty,  or  else  have  finished  their  period  of  service. 

The  course  occupies  two  years ;  the  first  year  is  preparatory  and  optional ;  the 
studies  of  the  second  occupy  30  hours  weekly,  and  include  mathematics,  algebra, 
geometry,  trigonometry,  chemistry,  physics,  mechanics,  and  the  elements  of 
building  construction,  the  law,  administration  and  accounts  of  mining,  and  draw- 
ing.   It  is  held  only  in  winter,  the  summer  being  spent  in  work  in  the  mines. 

Instruction  is  gratuitous  to  indigent  pupils  only,  who,  if  they  give  promise  of 
excellence,  find  no  difficulty  in  getting  pecuniary  assistance. 

There  is,  connected  with  the  school,  an  excellent  library  of  works  relating  to 
mining  matters  and  to  the  studies  pursued,  and  a  collection  of  geological  and 
paleontological  specimens. 



In  connection  with  this  brief  description  of  the  School  for  Practical  Miners  at 
Bochum,  which  we  compile  from  the  letter  of  Mr.  Samuelson,  on  "  Technical 
Education  in  various  countries  abroad"  we  introduce  a  few  extracts  from  the  same 
letter,  to  show  the  commercial  importance  of  the  region  of  countr}-^,  in  which  this 
and  other  schools  intended  to  give  a  high  scientific  training  to  the  engineers  and 
foremen  of  the  great  industrial  establishments,  which  the  wise  policy  of  Prussia 
now  fosters  and  protects,  are  located  : 

The  coal  basin  of  Westphalia  will  be  the  foundation  of  an  industrial  develop- 
ment for  the  continent  of  Europe,  second  only  to  that  of  Great  Britain,  Its  area 
is  not  yet  fully  ascertained,  but  the  yield  will  last  for  centuries,  even  at  a  higher 
rate  of  production  required  to  supply  the  steel  and  ironworks  now  in  full  activity, 
and  the  numerous  factories  which  are  springing  up  through  all  this  region. 

At  Essen,  in  the  heart  of  the  great  coal  basin  and  rich  mineral  district  of  West- 
phalia, are  the  celebrated  steel  works  of  Krupp.  They  consume  800  to  1 ,000 
tons  of  coal  per  day  raised  from  pits  within  the  walls  of  the  works  or  immediately 
adjoining,  the  cost  at  the  works  being  less  than  5s.  per  ton,  probably  the  lowest 
cost  of  fuel  in  any  metallurgical  works  on  the  continent.  The  machinery  is  as 
perfect  as  the  magnificent  products  of  the  work  would  lead  one  to  expect.  The 
range  of  crucible  furnaces  is  a  sight  of  its  kind  unparalleled  in  the  w^orld,  except 
perhaps  at  the  neighboring  works  of  Bochum.  A  steel  1,000-pounder  breech- 
loading  gun  was  nearly  completed  for  Russia,  and  several  200-pounders  and  300- 
pounder  steel  guns,  hooped  and  rifled,  also  breech-loaders  for  the  German  Navy. 
Hundreds,  I  think  I  may  say  thousands,  of  steel  guns,  of  every  size,  from  those 
I  have  named  down  to  4-pounders,  and  for  evei-y  nation  under  the  sun,  all  rifle 
breech-loaders,  but  of  endless  patterns,  were  in  every  stage  of  progress,  from  the 
solid  ingot,  passing  under  the  ponderous  steam-hammer  to  the  bored  and  turned 
gun,  fitted  with  its  breech-piece,  and  sighted.  Besides  the  gims,  numberless  rail- 
way wheels  and  tyres  were  in  progress.  I  may  notice  a  number  of  forged  cast- 
steel  cranked  axles,  one  of  enormous  size,  for  a  transatlantic  steamer,  building  at 
Greenock,  by  the  Messrs.  Caird,  and  several  steel  hoops  for  the  Elswick  gun 
factory.  Nearly  8,000  men  are  employed  at  these  works,  producing  60,000  tons 
of  steel  annually,  or  more  than  tAvice  the  entire  export  of  steel  from  the  United 
Kingdom  ;  and  the  human  tide,  as  it  pours  from  the  numerous  gates  at  the  din- 
ner hour,  is  not  the  least  suggestive  of  the  sights  of  Essen.  At  the  outbreak  of 
last  year's  war,  (1866,)  a  thousand  men  were  called  under  arms,  but  250  of  them 
were  quickly  sent  back,  lest  the  manufacture  of  cannon  should  suffer  interruption. 
The  administration  is  like  that  of  a  small  State.  All  the  heads  of  the  technical 
departments  are  pupils  of  the  various  Polytechnic  schools  of  Gennany.  The 
Commercial  staff"  includes  a  jurist,  by  whom  all  contracts  are  settled,  and  legal 
questions  determined.     The  foremen  have  all  risen  from  the  ranks. 

In  the  very  centre  of  the  works  stands  the  modest  dwelling-house,  and  the  very 
workshop  in  which  Mr.  Krupp  succeeded  to  his  father's  trade  at  the  age  of  15, 
forty  years  ago,  emplopng  at  that  time  a  single  journeyman  at  the  forge,  and 
himself  traveling  on  horseback  to  sell  his  steel  wares  throughout  the  country. 

The  wages  of  the  puddlers  here  are  about  4s.  per  day,  but  it  is  probably  above 
the  average  of  the  district.  Rollers  earn  4s.,  mechanics  up  to  5s. ;  the  hammermen, 
at  the  enormous  steam  hammers,  5s.  to  6s. ;  their  assistants,  3s.  to  4s.  6rf.  Here 
again,  there  is  no  sub-contracting — the  share  of  every  man,  in  the  tonnage  rate, 
is  fixed  by  the  managers  and  paid  to  him  at  the  pay-table. 

The  facility  and  certainty  with  which  solid  ingots  of  steel,  weighing  from  4o 
to  50  tons,  are  turned  out  of  the  works,  are  not  more  astonishing  than  the  pro- 
duction of  the  largest  as  well  as  the  most  delicate  moulded  castings  in  steel  at 
Bochum.  The  steel  disc-wheels  of  Bochum,  cast  in  a  single  piece,  are  now  to  be 
found  on  nearly  every  German  railway,  and  while  the  price  scarce  exceeds  that 
of  iron  wheels,  their  durability  is  incomparably  greater ;  about  20,000  of  them  are 
already  nmning.     Bochum,  like  Essen,  is  in  the  Westphalian  coal-basin. 

Scarcely  inferior  in  interest  are  the  great  iron  and  steel  works  of  Hoerde,  cm- 
ploying  4,500  work  people.  The  heads  of  the  technical  departments  licre,  as 
elsewhere,  are  pupils  of  the  higher  schools ;  the  foremen  are  superior  workmen. 



Drawing,  since  the  establishment  of  the  Academy  of  the  Fine  Arts  in  Berlin 
in  1690,  and  of  the  Real  School  by  Hccker  in  1747,  has  formed  an  important 
branch  of  instruction,  not  only  in  professional  and  technical  schools,  but  in  insti- 
tutions of  general  culture,  of  the  highest  and  lowest  grade.  In  the  classical  and 
scientific  schools,  in  the  trade  schools  and  further  improvement  schools,  in  the 
primary  and  secondary  schools,  we  are  sure  to  find  its  place  in  the  programme  of 
studies.  In  1831,  it  was  made  a  matter  of  special  regulation  by  the  Minister  of 
Public  Instruction,  which  was  revised  by  the  same  authority  in  18G3,  with  sug- 
gestions as  to  the  aims  and  methods  of  this  branch  of  instruction. 

The  following  Regulations  for  instruction  in  Drawing  in  the  Gymnasiums  and 
Trade  Schools  of  Prussia,  was  issued  by  the  Minister  of  Public  Instruction 
(Von  Muehler),  October  2,  1863  : 

Instruction  in  drawing  is  an  important  element  in  the  education  of  youth,  and 
forms  an  essential  part  of  the  programme  of  superior  schools. 

Experience  has  demonstrated  that  the  actual  state  and  results  of  instruction  in 
this  brancl>,  as  well  as  the  development  of  scientific  teaching,  and  the  condition 
of  art  and  industry,  require  a  revision  of  the  regulations  of  March  14,  1831. 
With  the  advice  of  the  royal  academies  of  fine  arts  of  Berlin,  Dusseldorf,  and 
Kceni^sberg,  and  of  the  provincial  academic  councils,  and  of  several  teachers 
of  tried  experience,  the  following  regulations  have  been  prescribed : 


1.  Instruction  in  drawing  in  gymnasiums  is  given  in  four  classes  or  consecu- 
tive coixrses,  the  trade  school  constituting  the  fifth  class. 

Independent  of  this  division  of  courses,  pupils,  as  far  as  local  convenience 
permits,  shall  be  classed  in  special  divisions,  according  to  their  capacities  and 

Lower  Class: 

2.  Elements  of  the  theory  of  drawing ;  lines  of  different  directions,  and  dimen- 
sions in  various  combinations.  Drawing  of  straight  and  curved  lines  without 

In  the  first  course,  that  steadiness  of  hand  is  not  to  be  expected,  which  is 
necessary  for  drawing  lines  and  circles  with  the  perfection  attained  with  the  use 
of  instruments. 

Second  Class: 

3.  First  elements  of  perspective,  with  the  occasional  use  of  the  ruler  and  com- 
pass if  necessaiy.  The  pupils  may  draw  after  models  of  wood ;  the  apparent 
changes  of  aspect  to  which  bodies  are  subject  must  be  explained  ;  also  the  elfcct 
of  light  on  the  surface  of  bodies,  and  the  shading  of  solids,  beginning  with  those 
with  plane  surfaces.  The  models  are  to  be  turned  successively  to  the  right  or 
left  and  placed  at  various  distances  from  the  pupil. 

Moreover,  in  this  class  free-hand  drawing  after  engravings  is  entered  upon,  ad- 
vancing to  parts  of  the  face  and  to  entire  heads,  giving  at  first  only  contours  and 
slight  indications  of  shade. 

Third  Class  : 

4.  Advanced  exercises  in  free-hand  drawing  after  models  and  plaster  cgsts,  or- 
naments, leaves,  parts  of  the  human  body ;  copying  engravings  is  to  be  continued, 
and  landscape  drawing  to  be  begun. 

Progressive  development  of  perspective  ;  drawing  from  models  in  various  posi- 
tions and  at  various  distances.     Theory  of  the  vanishing-point. 

Introduction  to  the  use  of  the  ruler  and  compass  in  the  principles  of  architec- 
tural design. 

Fourth  Class: 

5.  Free-hand  drawing  after  engravings,  arabesques,  animals,  heads,  and  com- 
plete figures  ;  more  difficult  landscapes. 

Drawing  from  busts,  full  heads,  use  of  stump  and  drawing  with  two  crayons. 
Perspective  continued  to  drawing  apartments  and  groups  of  difficult  objects  not 
presenting  too  great  diflficulties. 



6.  The  four  preceding  classes,  comprising  the  course  of  a  gymnasium,  are  also 
the  first  four  classes  in  the  trade  schools,  with  the  difference,  however,  that  in  the 
latter,  fi-ee-hand  drawing  is  taught  to  pupils  of  the  superior  classes,  together  with 
linear  drawing  (ruler  and  compass),  beginning  in  the  third  class.  Ihe  method 
of  projections,  on  a  plane  or  in  elevation,  is  theor^icallv  and  practically  exposed, 
and  extended  much  farther  than  at  the  gymnasiums,  while  a  greater  number  of 
hours  also  are  devoted  to  instruction  in  drawing  in  the  superior  classes.  Beyond 
this,  the  trade  schools  add  a  special  fifth  class  to  the  course  pursued  at  the  gym- 

Special  or  Fifth  Class  : 

7.  Continuation  of  free-hand  exercises ;  problems  from  perspective  and  the 
theory  of  shadows,  with  scientific  explanations  ;  exercises  in  linear  drawing  ac- 
cording to  the  special  profession  of  each  pupil ;  elements  of  topography. 

8.  As  a  close  to  the  instruction  in  drawing,  polytechnic  schools  can  impose 
proofs  of  capacity  upon  pupils  leaving  the  institute  : 

1 .  Linear  Drawing. — A  geometrical  or  prospective  projection,  including  con- 
struction of  shadows,  simple  objects  in  architecture,  mechanics,  or  other  branches. 
This  proof  implies  the  supposition  that  pupils  of  the  superior  course  of  a  poly- 
technic school  are  able  to  trace  back  any  graphic  representation  to  its  elementary 
geometrical  construction  ;  that  they  are  familiar  with  descriptive  geojnetry,  with 
the  theory  of  shadows  and  of  perspective,  and  that  they  are  sufficiently  practiced 
in  designing  architecture  and  machines,  without  having  completely  exhausted  the 
theoretical  part  of  the  branches. 

2.  Free-hand  Drawing. — In  this  branch  the  individual  disposition  of  each  pupil 
should  be  considered  ;  their  inequality  in  this  respect  does  not  admit  of  a  formal 
programme  as  definite  as  that  for  linear  drawing.  The  more  advanced  pupils 
should  be  able  to  draw  with  the  free-hand,  arabesques,  landscapes,  animals,  heads 
and  entire  from  engravings,  and  various  objects,  including  shaded  heads  from 
models  in  plaster,  and  prove  their  comprehension  of  the  principles  involved. 

3.  Drawing  of  plans  and  topographical  drawing  must  also,  to  a  moderate  de- 
gree, become  familiar  to  the  pupils 

To  this  programme  are  appended  the  following  su^estions : 

1.  Instruction  in  drawing  should  proceed  gradually  from  the  most  easy  to  the 
most  difficult  studies,  avoiding  that  pedantic  monotony  which  weakens  the  atten- 
tion of  pupils,  and  passing  lightly  over  isolated  details,  accustoming  the  student 
at  an  early  period  to  consider  the  whole.  There  is  no  want  of  excellent  models 
for  the  first  courses  in  instruction  ;  but  it  is  recommended  that  the  teacher  should 
sometimes  make  his  own  models  that  the  pupils  may  see  tne  method  of  construct- 
ing them.  In  the  beginning  the  entire  class  should  be  engaged  in  the  same 
problems  in  order  to  better  sustain  their  attention  and  to  elevate  and  stimulate 
their  zeal. 

2.  The  programme  of  instruction  in  drawing  in  the  superior  schools,  particu- 
larly in  gymnasiums,  embraces  also,  besides  the  training  of  the  eye  and  the  hand, 
the  development  of  the  feeling  for  the  beautiful.  Pupils  will  learn  by  progressive 
exercises,  to  take  in  at  a  glance  the  characteristic  forms  of  objects,  and  to  properly 
appreciate  the  beauties  of  natural  scenery  and  the  mastear-pieces  of  plastic  art. 

3.  Free-hand  drawing  is  the  most  important  exercise  at  the  gymnasium,  and 
the  course  should  correspond  with  the  indications  of  the  programme,  without  be- 
coming purely  mechanical ;  but  should,  on  the  contrary,  be  pursued  with  the 
object  of  elevating  the  student  to  spontaneous  and  intelligent  reflection.  Noth- 
ing should  be  done  by  the  beginner  without  previous  theoretical  and  practical  ex- 
planations. The  education  of  the  mind  must  accompany  that  of  the  hand ;  the 
latter  can  produce  only  what  the  eye  sees,  and  the  eye  sees  incorrectly  without 
the  aid'  of  the  understanding.  The  copying  hand  is  not  only  an  instrument  in 
the  service  of  the  eye,  but  the  auxiliary  of  a  reasoning  mind. 


To  attain  this  object,  it  is  particularly  important  that  the  instructions  should 
not  be  limited,  as  is  often  done,  to  the  mere  copying  of  engravings,  a  system  from 
which  science  and  method  are  almost  always  excluded.  Drawing  from  engrav- 
ings alone  is  injurious  to  the  eye,  because  the  object  to  be  reproduced  is  always 
too  near ;  and  it  will  happen  that  pupils,  after  following  a  course  in  drawing 
through  several  years,  will  not  be  able  to  draw  correctly  even  a  chair  or  any  other 
simple  body. 

4.  Experience  shows  that  most  pupils  leave  the  gymnasium  to  choose  a  pro- 
fession after  the  third  or  fourth  class,  for  which  reason  the  coinplete  drawing 
course  for  a  gymnasium  has  been  so  organized  that  the  pupil  can  acquire,  before 
he  leaves,  besides  some  skill  in  free-hand  and  linear  drawing,  the  theory  of  making 
plans  and  elevations  as  well  as  the  elements  of  perspective  ;  in  short,  they  are  suffi- 
ciently familiarized  with  the  principles  of  design  to  pursue  the  course  by  them- 
selves, if  their  vocation  requires. 

In  gymnasiums  the  use  of  the  ruler  and  compass  in  architectural  design  is  re- 
served for  the  higher  classes. 

The  education  of  the  aesthetic  sense,  aimed  at  in  all  the  other  literary  studies 
of  the  gymnasium,  is  also  assisted  by  the  study  of  models  from  the  antique,  and 
pupils  in  the  higher  classes  should  be  made  familiar  not  only  with  the  classic 
antiquities,  but  also  with  some  of  the  master-works  in  sculpture  and  architecture. 

5  The  polytechnic  schools,  by  the  terms  of  their  organic  regulations  and  to 
respond  to  their  object,  should  initiate  their  pupils  into  a  thorough  knowledge  of 
nature,  science  and  art,  by  giving  due  importance  to  the  instruction  in  drawing. 
By  it,  pupils  should  become  accustomed  to  observation,  in  order  that,  by  pene- 
trating mathematical  forms,  they  may  be  able  to  find  and  recognize  them  in  all 
the  natural  combinations  into  which  they  enter,  and  to  determine  their  peculiar 
and  external  characteristics.  The  better  they  understand  the  laws  of  nature,  the 
more  the  sense  of  the  beautiful  will  develop  itself  within  them. 

6.  If,  for  the  object  of  polytechnic  schools,  linear  design  occupies  an  important 
f  lace  in  the  programme,  it  is  not  with  the  desire  that  free-hand  drawing  be  neg 
lected ;  on  the  contrary,  it  should  be  cultivated  in  an  earnest  and  methodical 
manner,  always  connected  with  instruction  in  perspective.  It  is  recommended  to 
add  it  to  the  plan  of  the  fifth  class,  and  if  thought  proper,  to  the  preceding 
courses,  in  connection  with  lessons  in  natural  science,  and  to  introduce  as  a  model 
the  skeleton  of  the  human  body. 

Before  commencing  linear  drawing,  properly  so  termed,  the  pupil  should  have 
acquired  skill  in  free-hand  drawing.  This  branch  may  begin  in  the  third  class, 
with  the  theory  of  projections,  since  perspective  has  been  a  subject  in  preceding 
classes,  and  may  be  continued  with  the  theory  of  shadows. 

7.  Instruction  in  drawing  should  not  generally  pass  the. limits  assigned  in  the 
programme  of  the  school ;  its  object  is  not  to  form  artists,  but  to  exercise  pupils 
in  the  elementary  principles  of  art,  in  the  understanding  of  form,  in  surcness  of 
eye,  in  the  habit  of  estimating  proportions,  and  in  steadiness  and  skill  of  hand. 
Copying  landscape  studies  is  often  dispensed  with  in  higher  classes,  as  the  time 
and  labor  spent  are  out  of  proportion  to  the  usefulness  of  the  practice,  and  be- 
cause both  teacher  and  pupil  are  easily  deceived  by  productions  of  this  sort. 

8.  In  the  selection  of  studies,  regard  should  be  had  to  the  needs  of  instruction, 
rather  than  to  method  and  aesthetics. 

9.  Besides  a  collection  of  studies  and  models,  it  is  indispensable  that  superior 
schools  should  be  provided  with  a  well-lighted  hall  specially  adapted  to  this  in- 



struction,  where  suitable  objects  for  observation,  the  copies  of  characteristic  and 
celebrated  works  of  art,  busts,  ornaments,  fragments  of  ai'chitecture,  etc.,  will  be 
the  best  decorations.  The  daily  contemplation  of  these  models  will  contribute 
essentially  to  the  development  of  the  faculties  concerned  in  drawing. 

Schmidt's  method, 

In  1836,  Mr.  Peter  Schmidt  received  a  pension  from  the  government  In 
acknowledgement  of  the  services  rendered  the  schools  and  the  country  by  a  new 
method  of  drawing  introduced  by  him  into  the  Royal  Keal  School,  and  taught 
by  him  to  the  teachers  of  the  trade  school  and  of  the  city  normal  school. 

In  this  method,  pupils  begin  by  drawing  from  geometrical  forms,  made  in  wood 
or  plaster,  of  a  square  pillar  (seven  and  a  half  inches  high  and  one  inch  and  a 
half  in  its  square  section),  a  niche,  and  a  low  cylinder.  The  square  pillar  sei> 
arates  in  joints,  affording  a  cube  and  parallelopipeds  of  different  heights.  The 
hemisphere,  which  caps  the  niche,  may  be  removed,  leaving  the  concave  surface 
of  its  cylindrical  part.  Each  of  these  models  afford  a  graduated  series  of  lessons 
on  the  drawing  of  solids,  and  of  curved  lines,  and  the  drawing  of  lines  of  different 
degrees  of  strength,  and  of  shadows.  This  is  accompanied  with  some  of  the 
more  simple  rules  of  shadow  and  shade.  More  difficult  exercises  follow  from 
natural  objects,  and  from  works  of  art,  or  mechanism,  according  to  the  attain- 
ment of  the  pupil  and  the  direction  of  his  taste.  An  account  of  this  method 
will  be  found  in  Prof.  Bache's  description  of  the  Royal  Real  School  of  Berlin. 

DIJBris'    METHOD. 

The  method  proposed  by  M.  Alexander  Dubuis,  of  giving  the  human  head, 
or  bust,  which  presents  only  very  general  masses,  or  features  ;  after  this,  another 
bust,  with  some  additional  indications  of  the  head ;  then  a  third,  in  which  the 
details  are  more  numerous  and  more  decided ;  and  lastly,  a  fourth,  in  which 
the  details  are  according  to  nature.  These  four  busts,  each  placed  in  different 
positions,  presenting  four  successive  stages  of  the  same  figure,  is  in  use  in  some 
public,  as  well  as  private  drawing  schools. 


Although  drawing  receives  some  attention  in  the  common  schools,  and  the 
teachers  are  systematically  trained  for  this  purpose,  its  scope  in  Prussia  is  far 
more  restricted  than  in  schools  of  the  same  class  in  Bavaria  and  Wurtemberg. 
By  the  " Regulativ "  of  1854,  drawing  in  the  Teachers'  Seminary  "must  not  go 
beyond  introductory  lessons  in  the  linear  representation  of  simple  objects,"  and 
in  the  ordinary  one  class  elementary  school,  it  must  not  be  taught  beyond  the 
simplest  free-hand  drawing  from  fiat  examples.  Practically,  it  is  not  carried,  as 
in  the  best  Bavarian  schools,  into  elaborate  penmanship,  tasteful  as  well  as  accu- 
rate map-drawing,  ornamental  designing,  and  the  culture  of  the  sense  of  the 
beautiful  generally.  Nor  is  it  applied  in  the  common  schools,  as  in  Wurtem- 
berg,  to  the  industrial  details  of  the  future  occupations  of  the  pupils.  Instruc- 
tion of  this  kind  is  reserved  for  the  adult,  or  supplementary  schools,  and  to  the 
trade  and  art  schools. 

In  the  absence  of  any  official  directions  as  to  the  system  of  teaching  drawing  In 
in  this  class  of  schools,  we  introduce  a  very  valuable  paper  on  the  subject,  prepared 
by  Dr.  Hcntschel  for  Diesterweg's  "  Wegweiser,"  a  manual  which  has  special  ref- 
erence to  the  organization,  instruction,  and  discipline  of  common  schools : 

'    DRAWING* 


"  The  cultivation  of  the  faculties  of  representation  and  form,  gives  us  a  feeling 
for  beauty,  grace,  form,  and  symmetry." — Hamisch. 

Drawing  is  a  mode  of  representing  solid  forms  by  lines  upon 

A  drawing,  as  a  result  of  artistic  labor,  has  either  a  purpose  out- 
side of  the  art — such  are  mechanical  drawings,  plans,  anatomical 
drawings,  &c. — or  it  is  executed  for  its  owm  sake ;  as  are  landscapes, 
fruit  pieces,  &c.  In  the  former  case,  their  purpose  is  principally  one 
of  material  usefulness  ;  in  the  second,  they  are  executed  with  an  en- 
deavor after  a  beautiful  external  form ;  and  are  thus  a  representation 
of  the  ideal.  But  those  of  the  fijst  sort  do  not  exclude  the  beautiful, 
for  every  object,  without  any  exception,  can  be  beautifully  represented. 

Material  forms  are  either  natural  or  artificial;  and  either  geomet- 
rical, or  irregular. 

Various  species  of  drawing  are  practiced  ;  as, 

1.  Linear  drawing,  which  gives  only  an  outline  of  the  object  ;f  and 
shaded  drawing,  in  which  surfaces  are  shaded. 

2.  Geometrical  and  perspective  drawing.  The  first  represents 
objects  in  their  correct  relative  proportions  as  to  magnitude;  the  sec- 
ond, as  they  appear  to  the  eye.  The  geojuetrical  delineation  of  one 
side  of  a  body  is  called  an  elevation  ;  that  of  its  plan,  a  ground-plan. 

3.  Free  drawing  and  sketching ;  either  with  or  without  the  use 
of  rule,  compasses,  <fec. 

4.  Copying,  or  drawing  from  another  drawing ;  drawing  from  na- 
ture, or  of  real  objects ;  imaginative  drawing,  or  drawing  of  things 
conceived  of  by  one's  self;  of  which  the  two  former  are  of  things  as 
they  are  directly  seen,  and  the  latter  are  indirectly  based  upon  the 
vision  of  real  things. 

In  all  drawing,  the  eye,  the  hand,  and  the  sense  of  beauty,  are  em- 
ployed ;  as  are  also,  in  drawing  from  memory,  the  faculty  of  concep- 
tion, and  in  drawing  from  imagination,  that  faculty. 

*  Translated  from  Diesterweg's  ''Wegweiser." 

t  Many  persons  include  in  linear  drawing,  drawing  by  the  aid  of  the  compasses  and  ruler. 

228  DRAWING. 


Instruction  in  drawing  should  include — 

1.  Exercises  in  understanding 
a.  Form,  in  itself, 

h.  The  beautiful  in  form. 

These  constitute  culture  of  the  eye  and  of  the  sense  of  beauty. 

2.  Exercises  in  representing 

a.  What  lies  immediately  before  the  student ;  as  in  copying  and 
drawing  from  nature ; 

h.  What  has  heretofore  been  before  him ;  as  in  drawing  from  mem- 
ory and  from  imagination. 

These  constitute  the  education  of  the  hand  in  the  service  of  the 
eye ;  and  culture  of  the  memory,  the  imagination,  and  the  sense  of 

From  another  point  of  view,  we  may  distinguish  as  follows  : — 

1.  Exercises  in  drawing  lines,  angles,  and  geometrical  figures,  as  a 
basis  for  all  studies  in  drawing ;  that  is,  elementary  drawing. 

2.  Exercises  in  representing  objects  of  all  kinds,  or  applied  drawing. 
The  chief  advantage  of  drawing  is  the  culture  of  the  various  powers 

which  it  calls  into  action. 

Training  of  the  eye  and  hand. — The  knowledge  of  what  God  has 
made,  and  of  what  man  has  made,  depends  in  great  part  upon  the 
apprehension  of  the  forms  of  things.  Form,  therefore,  is  one  of  the 
most  important  phenomena  of  the  material  world.  And  who  will 
deny  that  the  knowledge  of  the  creation  is  important?  God,  who 
has  made  such  various  works,  and  has  given  us  the  power  of  accom- 
plishing and  being  conscious  of  our  own  culture,  must  prefer  not  to 
have  us  go  blind  through  the  world.  And  to  open  a  child's  eyes, 
not  only  to  the  forms  of  nature,  but  to  those  of  the  world  of  art ;  so 
that  he  can  apprehend  and  remember  not  only  the  form  of  a  plant  or 
an  animal,  the  course  of  a  river  or  of  a  chain  of  mountains,  but  also 
the  architecture  of  an  edifice,  the  construction  of  a  machine,  or  the 
plan  of  a  city,  must  be  admitted  to  be  of  very  great  importance. 

The  training  of  eye  and  hand  which  drawing  furnishes,  is  a  means 
of  acquiring  this  power.  Not  only  do  we  become  accurately  ac- 
quainted with  the  form  of  what  we  draw,  but  the  work  of  drawing 
sharpens  our  observation  of  the  forms  of  what  we  do  not  draw. 
Thus,  drawing  aflfords  a  knowledge  of  the  material  world. 

In  addition  to  this,  we  acquire  the  pov/er  of  representing  forms  to 
others  in  a  visible  manner.  This  is  a  power  of  universal  importance. 
A  few  lines  will  often  do  more  than  a  long  description. 

Training  of  the  eye  and  hand  is  also  of  great  importance,  not 

DRAWING.  229 

merely  as  a  means  of  knowing  what  there  is  in  the  world,  and  of 
representing  that  knowledge,  but  also  as  a  preparation  for  the  duties 
of  life.  Thus  it  is  of  great  use  to  many  kinds  of  artizans  to  be  able 
to  draw  a  little,  <fec. 

Tfaining  of  the  concejJtive  faculty/. — Without  tliis  culture,  the 
knowledge  and  understanding  of  the  forms  of  the  visible  world  is  not 
possible.  Through  its  exercise,  the  pictures  are  represented  to  the 
mind,  from  which  the  imagination  develops  new  forms.  And  without 
the  exercise  of  the  imagination,  it  is  impossible  to  conceive  of  any 
progress  into  the  limits  of  the  supersensual,  the  abode  of  religion. 

Training  of  the  sense  of  heautg. — This  introduces  us  to  that  uni- 
versal pleasure,  that  enjoyment  exclusively  possessed  by  none,  which 
is  derived  from  the  beautiful  in  nature  and  art. 

Every  man,  it  is  true,  is  to  some  degree  fitted  by  nature  to  perceive 
and  enjoy  the  beautiful,  up  to  a  certain  point,  but  no  further.  He 
whose  sense  of  beauty  is  not  trained,  loses  infinitely.  Take  for  in- 
stance the  first  example  that  occurs  in  actual  life.  A  journeyman 
travels  through  a  city  full  of  beautiful  architectural  works.  He  goes 
stupidly  in  at  one  gate,  and  out  at  the  other;  there  is  no  such  thing 
as  beauty  for  him.  The  buildings  which  he  passes  by  neither  have 
any  present  interest  for  him,  nor  will  they  hereafter  be  remembered 
except  as  masses  of  stone,  rising  high  in  the  air,  hollow  within,  ac- 
commodated with  doors  and  windows,  alike  in  one  place  and  another, 
and  erected  merely  from  the  necessity  of  security  against  wind  and 
weather,  thieves  and  robbers.  But  suppose  another  and  better  edu- 
cated journeyman  passing  through  the  same  city.  How  much  delight 
will  he  receive  through  his  cultivated  artistic  faculties  ?  He  will  lin- 
ger for  hours,  with  the  hveliest  pleasure,  before  each  building;  and 
will  go  forward,  stored  with  wealth  of  new  studies,  and  remembering 
all  his  life  with  delight  those  impressions  of  his  journeying-years. 

The  connection  of  culture  in  the  beautiful  with  culture  in  morals  is 
clear.  In  the  recognition  and  the  feeling,  the  loving  and  doing  of 
the  beautiful,  coarseness  and  vulgarity,  and  tendencies  toward  debas- 
ing and  sensual  enjoyments,  find  a  countervailing  power.  The  vir- 
tues especially  developed  by  the  study  of  drawing  are,  persevering 
industry,  love  of  unobtrusive  right  action,  order,  purity  and  decency.* 

A  brief  quotation  from  Goethe  may  conclude  this  introduction. 

*  Frederic  the  Great  used  to  recognize  his  soldiers  long  after  they  had  left  the  army,  by  tlie 
good  order  cf  their  houses.  An  instructor  in  drawing  might  do  the  like.  A  boy  who  had 
attended  school  where,  among  other  things,  he  had  been  obliged  to  learn  the  greatest  neatnees 
in  writing  and  drawing,  brought  about  at  his  return  home  a  most  beneficial  reform  in  the  ex- 
ternal life  of  the  whole  family,  by  the  vigor  with  which  he  opposed  any  deficiency  in  cleanli- 
ness and  order. 


The  importance  of  instruction  in  drawing  as  a  part  of  education,  will  best  ap- 
pear when  we  consider  that  by  means  of  that  acquirement  we  gain  an  increase  of 
beautiful  and  noble  pleasures  derived  from  the  external  world.  The  whole  realm 
of  forms  and  colors  opens  to  him  ;  he  acquires  a  new  mental  organ;  he  receives 
the  most  delightful  ideas,  and  learns  to  recognize,  to  respect,  to  love  and  to  enjoy, 
the  beauties  of  nature. 

Upon  considering  all  that  has  been  said  of  the  intrinsic  importance 
of  instruction  in  drawing,  and  of  its  various  practical  advantages,  we 
shall  find  that  it  includes  no  small  number  of  qualities  directly  valua- 
ble as  educational  influences,  both  formal  and  material ;  and  that  it 
is  accordingly  an  important  aid  in  solving  the  problem  of  the  common 
schools ;  Vhich  is,  the  bringing  of  the  child  to  what  is  beautiful,  true, 
and  good.* 

*  The  hundreds  who  frequent  a  public  museum  can  not  sit  comfortably  in  a  liquor  shop  ; 
and  will  soon  come  to  feel  that  there  is  a  direct  conirast  between  men  raised  by  art  to  the 
level  of  demigods,  and  men  degraded  by  brandy  to  the  level  of  hea.sts.~^^ England  in  1835,'' 
by  Fr.  von  Raumer. 

Tlie  more  recent  reforms  in  education  make  this  department  of  culture  a  universal  benefit, 
no  longer  to  be  enjoyed  exclusively  by  the  painter,  the  sculptor,  and  the  architect.  And  to 
this  end,  the  primary  school  must  provide  that  the  eyes  of  its  pupils  are  trained,  their  hands 
practiced  in  certainty  and  accuracy  of  delineation,  and  their  feeling  for  beauty  awakened  and 
cultivated.  In  this  manner  an  important  service  will  be  done  to  the  farmer,  the  laborer,  the 
mechanic,  and  the  manufacturing  operative.  The  farmer  who  can  draw,  will  be  far  less'the 
victim  of  his  own  ignorance,  or  of  designing  enemies,  in  setting  out  lands  and  woods,  in  divi- 
ding meadow,  arable  land,  gardens,  in  adjusting  his  tools,  and  in  all  matters  relating  to  build- 
ing, hedging,  and  irrigation.  One  who  is  undertaking  to  build,  whether  from  pleasure  or 
necessity,  can,  if  his  school  instruction  has  enabled  him,  judge  correctly  by  the  preparatory 
drawings  of  the  taste,  strength,  arrangement,  and  convenience  of  the  proposed  edifice,  esti- 
mate materials  and  cost,  and  then  save  himself  and  his  architect  much  vexation  and  now  and 
then  a  lawsuit.  A  wealthy  patron  of  the  arts  will  thus  be  enabled  to  understand  better  the 
works  of  artists,  to  estimate  thus  more  correctly,  and  to  value  more  highly  and  remunerate 
more  fairly  the  artists  themselves.  Indeed,  there  is  scarcely  any  person  who  would  not  de- 
rive benefit  from  this  most  desirable  study.  It  has  also  a  moral  value  which  is  far  from  con- 
temptible. Young  persons  who  have  learned  to  draw,  will  in  that  way  occupy  many  vacant 
hours  which  would  otherwise  be  passed  in  idleness,  with  all  its  evil  consequences.  The  re- 
sult of  this  can  not  but  be  beneficial  in  families  ;  and  when  tlie  young  have  themselves  grown 
up,  and  are  themselves  fathers  and  mothers,  the  benefit  will  be  still  greater.  But  mdividuala 
as  well  as  families,  will  reap  similar  advantages  from  it,  through  its  efficiency  in  averting 
many  harmful  and  prejudicial  influences.  Any  occupation  of  a  regular  nature,  and  fitted  to 
employ  hours  of  recreation,  is  a  rich  source  of  pure  and  quiet  pleasures,  elevating  both  to  the 
mind  and  the  feelings.— Wirth,  in  the  ^'■Universal  Swiss  School  Gazette,"  vol.  ii.  p.  8,  9. 

But  setting  aside  all  questions  of  mere  practical  usefulness,  and  therefore  passing  by  the  in- 
quiry in  what  and  how  many  human  avocations  drawing  is  useful  and  necessary— aside  from 
all  this,  we  know  of  scarcely  any  practice  of  more  comprehensive  influence  than  drawing. 
Instruction  in  it,  in  connection  with  that,  in  the  intuitional  knowledge  of  geometrical  forms, 
ha.?  an  influence  in  stimulating  and  conjoining  those  two  great  elements  of  life,  receptivity 
and  productivity,  unequaled  by  any  other,  so  far  as  regards  material  existence.  It  makes 
demands  upon  eye  and  hand,  upon  mind  and  heart ;  and  afFoi-ds  a  methodical  culture  in  ac- 
curacy, neatness,  and  in  the  sense  of  symmetry  and  of  beauty.  It  offers  the  most  efficient  ol 
all  aids  to  instruction  in  natural  history,  natural  science,  geography,  writing,  and  mathemat 
ics.— Dr.  Zehlicke,  in  '■* Mecklenburg  School  Gazette,"  vol.  i.  p.  3. 

Drawing  is  not  only  a  suitable  occupation  for  the  young,  but  sharpens  the  vision,  trains 
the  hand  for  writing  and  other  delicate  employments,  gives  practice  in  ob.servation  and  quick- 
ness of  apprehension,  affords  a  store  of  instructions  and  ideas,  develops  the  faculty  of  order 
and  the  sense  of  beauty,  gives  activity  and  cheerfulness,  and  is  absolutely  indispensable  in 
many  occupations.— Zerrenner's  '■'■Principles  of  Education  and  Instruction."  Edition  ol 

DRAWING.  231 

To  aid  in  the  actual  solution  of  this  problem  is  the  purpose  of 
drawing.  If  without  it,  it  can  not  be  completely  and  in  all  respects 
solved,  the  iinportance  and  ihdeed  the  necessity  of  it  as  a  study  are 
beyond  doubt.  It  is  always  the  duty  of  the  common  schools  to  give 
instruction  in  drawing;  and  only  unavoidable  deference  to  still 
higher  necessities  can  exceptionally  justify  a  temporary  omission  of  it. 

The  actual  state  of  affairs,  it  is  true,  argues  against  this  opinion. 
In  far  the  majority  of  the  common  schools,  no  instruction  at  all  is  given 
in  it.  Calligraphy  is  practiced  with  zeal  and  a  great  expenditure 
of  time  ;  a  multitude  of  names  of  Asiatic  rivers  and  Brazilian  apes 
are  committed  to  memory ;  and  the  most  abstract  grammatical  rela- 
tions are  taught.  But  no  care  is  taken  to  make  the  children  familiar 
with  the  sphere  of  phenomena  lying  immediately  around  them,  and 
to  fit  them  better  for  real  life,  by  means  of  drawing.  The  unpractical 
nature  of  the  German  mind  is  one  reason  for  this  ;  another  is,  that  the 
Pestalozzian  principle  of  a  harmonious  development  of  the  funda- 
mental human  faculties,  has,  during  the  last  ten  years,  not  only  not 
gained  in  currency,  but  actually  lost.  Whether  this  last  fact  is  the 
result  of  our  inability,  light-mindedness  and  want  of  judgment,  or  of 
the  truth  that  every  idea  has  its  periods  of  brightness  and  obscurity, 
is  a  question  to  be  settled  by  others.  To  return  to  the  practical  view 
of  the  subject.  The  French  are  in  this  matter,  as  in  others,  more 
judicious  than  we.  There  the  law  enforces  the  teaching  of  drawing 
in  all  the  elementary  schools.* 


A.     Outline  of  the  Proper  Exercises  for  the  Common  School. 

1.  Both  elementary  drawing  (of  lines,  angles,  geometrical  figures,) 
and  applied  drawing  must  be  practiced ;  the  former  as  a  very  neces- 
sary substructure  for  the  latter,  on  the  principle  of  beginning  with  the 
elements ;  and  the  latter,  because  the  forms  of  the  world  around  us, 

*  The  Royal  Government  of  Magdeburg,  in  a  circular  order  to  tlie  common  and  burgher 
schools  on  the  subject  of  drawing,  of  April  6,  1847,  reproves  the  neglect  of  it ;  which  is  the 
more  surprising,  inasmuch  as  there  is  scarcely  to  be  found  one  school  inspector  who  is  not 
convinced  "that  drawing,  which  is  in  itself  an  occupation  appropriate  for  the  young,  and 
of  an  innocent  character,  sharpens  the  vision,  quickens  the  hand,  trains  the  attention  and  the 
apprehension,  conducts  to  intuitions  and  to  ideas,  develops  the  faculty  and  the  sense  of 
beauty,  prevents  tedium  and  idleness,  and  is  of  great  pedagogical-importance  ;  and  who  does 
not  know  how  many  occupations  require  a  knowledge  of  drawing ;  and  that,  especially  at  the 
present  day,  when  such  rapid  progress  is  made  in  all  industrial  pursuits,  drawing  is  a  study 
absolutely  indispensable"  And  the  circular  adds,  '-It  is  very  true  that  at  present,  many 
things  are  studied  in  our  burgher  and  common  schools,  and  in  many  ways.  But  it  is  also 
true  that  all  such  studies,  whenever  they  exceed  what  is  necessary,  should  not  be  permitted  ; 
and  that  therefore  the  school  department  has  long  been  endeavoring  to  fix  the  proper  limits  to 
the  field  of  study  ;  and  that  for  a  study  so  important  as  drawing,  the  necessary  time  must  be 


without  comprehending  and  representing  which  neither  the  formal 
nor  the  material  object  of  drawing  will  be  reached,  are  almost  always 
not  plane  figures,  but  solid  forms. 

The  educating  power  possessed  by  elementary  drawing,  is  not 
doubted  even  by  its  opponents.  Nor  does  it  deserve  the  common  ac- 
cusation of  dryness  and  wearisomeness,  if  properly  commenced  and 
continued.  Experience  shows  that  boys  find  an  especial  pleasure  in 
dividing  an  angle  into  three,  four,  or  more  equal  or  proportional  parts, 
in  constructing  an  equilateral  triangle,  an  octagon,  a  circle,  (fee. 
Many  maintain  that  the  fundamental  forms  should  be  practiced  only 
in  real  drawing—  in  drawing  actual  objects.  But  this  would  destroy 
a  portion  of  the  expected  advantages ;  for  besides  the  fundamental 
forms,  all  the  collateral  work  which  drawing  from  nature  requires, 
must  be  repeated  exactly  as  often  as  the  fundamental  form ;  usually 
without  any  benefit.  An  equilateral  triangle  must  be  drawn  cor- 
rectly, not  merely  once — for  chance  may  bring  that  about — but  twenty 
times  ;  which  would  show  that  chance  has  nothing  to  do  with  it,  and 
that  certainty  of  execution  has  been  obtained.  But  who  would  need 
to  design  twenty  times  over  the  whole  decoration  of  which  the  trian- 
gle may  form  a  part  ? 

2.  In  applied  drawing,  exercises  in  drawing  by  hand  and  out- 
line sketching,  perspective  and  geometrical  drawing,  copying  and 
inventive  drawing,  should,  none  of  them,  be  wholly  omitted.  But  as 
a  general  rule,  the  drawings  in  all  these  departments  should  be  linear 
only,  and  not  filled  out  by  means  of  any  shadowing. 

The  practice  of  free  oflF-hand  drawing  is  evidently  indicated  as  nec- 
essary, by  both  the  formal  and  material  purposes  of  instruction  in 
drawing.  This  formal  purpose  requires  as  great  a  variety  of  stimuli 
as  possible.  These  can  u'^X  he  conceived  of  without  free  off-hand 
drawing.  In  respect  to  the  material  objects  of  drawing,  the  pupil 
who  restricts  himself  to  outline  sketching,  must  give  up  the  idea  of 
representing  a  very  large  number  of  forms  which  could  well  be  pro- 
duced in  free  off-hand  drawing.  But  there  should  not  be  such  an 
omission.  Instruction  should  be  in  accordance  with  nature  ;  and  this 
requires  that  the  perceptions  of  the  pupil  should  be  directed  to  the 
whole  world  of  nature  and  art. 

With  reference  to  the  other  kinds  of  practice,  may  be  mentioned — 

a.  Reasons  for  practicing  outline  drawing. 

The  great  accuracy  which  this  requires,  affords  a  peculiarly  good 
practice  of  hand  and  eye,  and  has,  in  particular,  great  value  as  a  train- 
ing to  observant,  judicious,  and  provident  activity.  Any  one  who 
has  accustomed  himself  to  go  about  with  circular  and  ruler,  square 

DRAWING.  233 

and  pencil,  is  much  readier  at  apprehending  than  those  who  are  igno- 
rant of  the  use  of  them.  Many  objects  in  practical  life,  also,  can  not 
be  drawn  except  in  outline. 

b.  Reasons  for  practicing  copying. 

1.  The  requirements  of  actual  life  demand  it. 

2.  A  harmonious  culture  of  the  artistic  faculties  is  impossible  with- 
out practice  in  copying;  and  this  both  with  reference  to  the  technics 
of  art,  and  to  the  cultivation  of  the  sense  of  beauty.  Such  a  culture 
doubtlefis  requires  in  particular  that  the  pupil  should  accurately  com- 
prehend a  large  number  of  given  forms.  But  the  mathematical  part 
of  drawing  implies  much  less  apprehension  than  representation,  and 
even  this  only  according  to  fixed  and  very  simple  relations.  Drawing 
from  nature  again  affords,  more  especially,  training  in  apprehension  ; 
and  the  subjects  selected  may  be  as  difficult  as  is  desired;  but  still, 
only  a  relatively  very  small  field  of  forms  can  thus  be  introduced  into 
the  common  school  for  actual  apprehension  and  representation.  In 
drawing  most  animals,  for  instance,  there  would  be  very  much  disci- 
pline for  both  eye  and  hand;  yet  animals  could  hardly  be  made 
models  for  drawing  in  the  common  schools.  The  taste,  again,  would 
be  very  much  cultivated  by  the  study  of  classic  architectural  orna- 
ments ;  but  it  is  out  of  the  question  to  go  to  Cologne  or  Strasburg  to 
draw  those  there,  not  to  mention  crossing  the  Alps.  Thus  the  neces- 
sity of  copying  becomes  clearly  obvious. 

c.  Reasons  for  drawing  from  nature;  geometrical  [elevations)  and 

1.  The  pupil  improves  in  power  of  apprehending  the  various  forms 
around  him,*  and  in  remembering  them. 

2.  It  enables  the  pupil  to  understand  perspective  drawings  imme- 
diately upon  seeing  them. 

3.  There  are  frequent  occasions  in  actual  life  when  it  is  important 
and  even  necessary. 

4.  As  an  immediate,  free  and  independent  mode  of  reproducing 
what  the  eyes  perceive,  it  has  an  entirely  peculiar  attraction  for  the 

5.  Acquaintance  with  the  laws  ftf  perspective  introduces  the  pupil 
to  an  entirely  new  world  of  ideas  and  thoughts  ;  and  it  is  certain  that 
such  an  occurrence  can  not  be  without  influence  upon  his  general  in- 
tellectual development. 

These  reasons  in  favor  of  perspective  drawing,  founded  both  upon 
the  formal  and  the  material  purpose  of  instruction  in  drawing,  are  not 

*"It  is  astonishing  how  many  deceptions  remain  undiscovered  without  the  practice  of 
this  art,  and  how  invariably  we  see  otherwise  than  as  we  suppose." — Otto. 

234  DRAWING. 

witlioiit  weight.  There  can  be  no  complete  instruction  in  drawing 
without  that  in  perspective.  If  perspective  has  hitherto  found  little 
or  no  favor  in  our  common  schools,  the  reason  is,  partly  the  undenia- 
ble difficulty  of  the  subject  itself,  and  partly  the  lack  of  time,  room 
and  apparatus.  It  can  therefore  perhaps  never  be  a  universal  study. 
But  in  all  schools  where  space  and  time  are  not  too  limited,  at  least 
the  more  advanced  pupils  should  make  a  beginning  in  perspective. 
Some  details  on  this  point  will  be  given  below. 

d.  Reasons  for  practicing  inventive  drawing. 

1.  The  power  of  producing,  the  beautiful  already  exists  in  the 
child,  and  shows  itself  in  innumerable  ways.  We  must  develop  it  if 
we  desire  to  avoid  a  one-sided  culture. 

2.  It  is  certain  that,  as  Otto  says,  this  independent  creation  of  beau- 
tiful pictures  elevates  the  pupil  to  a  consciousness  of  the  rays  of  that 
divine  creative  power  which  appears  in  the  human  imagination. 

3.  Practical  life  often  calls  for  ability  to  arrange  or  construct  in  a 
tasteful  manner.  Many  mechanics  could  not  get  on  without  the  fac- 
ulty of  inventing  beautiful  forms.* 

e.  Reasons  for  and  against  drawing  with  shaded  surfaces, 
aa.  For. 

1.  It  affords  a  knowledge  of  light  and  shade  as  found  in  the  world 
without ;  that  is  to  say,  of  one  distinct  aspect  of  the  phenomena  ©f 

2.  It  relieves  the  pupil  from  his  dissatisfaction,  upon  comparing  hia 
unshaded  sketches  with  the  common  shaded  pictures,  and  discover  , 
ing  his  own  to  be  comparatively  incomplete. 

hb.  Against. 

1.  It  is  of  but  little  value,  in  comparison  with  a  knowledge  of  out 
line  drawing,  in  regard  to  the  apprehension  of  objects  in  nature  and 
art.  Light  and  shade  change  continually,  while  outlines  are  more 

*  Aithouj!;h  I  use  the  word  "  inventive  "  in  an  entirely  general  manner,  the  term  of  course 
naturally  applies  to  the  invention  of  symmetrical  figures  from  modifications  of  the  funda- 
mental mathematical  forms.  1  am  not  of  the  opinion  of  those  v?ho  think  that  such  exercises 
should  be  rejected  on  account  ot  the  lack  of  reality  in  such  figures. 

Tho>e  who  doubt  whether  such  figures  can  be  called  beautiful  at  all,  seem  to  doubt  also 
whether  the  habit  is  to  be  approved  which  has  prevailed  for  so  many  centuries,  of  using  such 
forms  on  walls,  doors,  windows,  fireplaces,  hangings,  cupboards,  tables,  furniture,  carpets, 
table-cloths,  book  covers,  embroidery  patterns,  and  in  a  hundred  other  such  ways.  But  the 
fact  that  these  objects  do  certainly  exist,  and  that  other  similar  ones  continue  to  be  designed 
and  used,  so  that  the  figures  in  que.stion  do  in  fact  have  a  relation  to  real  objects,  is  a  sufl5c 
ient  reason  for  not  omitting  them  from  instruction  in  drawing. 

Otto  states  the  necessity  of  the  three  principal  departments  of  drawing,  viz.,  copying,  dra-w 
ing  from' nature,  and  inventive  drawing,  as  follows:  "  Drawing  from  visible  bodies  traim 
especially  the  eye  ;  drawing  forms  kept  before  the  mind  by  the  imagination  and  produced  by 
it,  and  still  more  the  work  of  imagining  them,  trains  the  imagination;  and  the  copying  t>| 
pictures  already  executed,  the  sense  of  beauty." 

DRAWING.  235 

2.  For  such  drawing  as  is  required  in  practical  life  it  has  some- 
times no  value,  and  at  other  times  a  very  subordinate  one. 

3.  If  not  very  well  prepared  for  and  very  well  managed,  it  fre- 
quently produces  a  bad  effect,  and  thus  obstructs  the  cultivation  of 
the  taste  instead  of  promoting  it ;  and  even  renders  the  minds  of 
immature  scholars  obscure  and  stupefied. 

4.  It  wastes  time  needed  for  other  most  indispensable  exercises.* 
These  reasons  on  both  sides  indicate  that  this  department  should 

be  studied,  but  that  its  practice  should  be  confined  within  somewhat 
close  limits.  Only  remarkably  talented  and  industrious  pupils  should 
be  permitted  to  pursue  it,  and  then  not  unless  they  have  prepared 
the  way  by  a  thorough  practice  of  outline  drawing.  Those  collec- 
tions of  copies  for  drawing  are  quite  unpedagogical,  in  which  every 
thing  is  shaded,  even  from  the  very  beginning.  Unfortunately  there 
are  so  many  such,  that  more  proper  points  are  too  often  entirely 

Having  thus  discussed  the  necessity  of  studying  in  the  common 
schools  the  various  departments  of  elementary  and  applied  drawing, 
free  oflf-hand  drawing,  outline  sketching,  copying,  drawing  from  na- 
ture and  inventive  drawing,  the  next  inqury  is, 

B.     The  relations  of  these  different  departments  of  practice  to  each  other. 

1.  Elementary  drawing  is  the  basis  for  all  the  others,  and  is  there- 
fore the  first  step. 

2.  Perspective  drawing  from  nature  is  the  most  diflBcult,  and  there- 
fore should  constitute  the  last  or  fourth  stage. 

Want  of  elementary  practice  has  an  astonishing  power  of  interfer- 
ing with  the  results  in  perspective  drawing.  This  latter,  moreover, 
requires  a  certain  maturity  of  the  whole  man ;  and  it  is  also  less  im- 
portant for  ordinary  use  than  the  other  kinds.  And  in  the  small 
extent  to  which  it  can  be  learned  at  the  common  schools,  it  can  have 
but  a  small  influence,  relatively,  in  developing  the  sense  of  beauty. 
All  these  considerations  indicate  that  perspective  should  be  the  last 
department  taught. 

3.  Outline  drawing  is  not  to  be  taken  up  with  the  elementary 

*  The  shading  is  certainly  a  main  reason  why,  in  so  large  a  share  of  the  common  schools, 
notwithstanding  all  the  time  spent  in  drawing  lessons,  the  people  do  not  learn  to  draw.  A3 
soon  as  Johnny  has  practiced  lines  and  outlines  for  a  few  months,  he  is  given  a  large  fruit- 
piece,  a  group  of  animals,  a  landscape,  or  a  head,  to  shade.  The  outline  is  very  quickly  exe- 
cuted, for  the  circle  is  used  ;  and  "  the  circle  is  on  purpose  for  drawing  outlines  ;"  and  on  he 
goes,  with  his  shading.  For  twenty  or  forty  lessons,  he  sits  scratching  vacantly,  humming 
and  thoughtless,  until  the  wonderful  work  is  completed.  Then  it  is  glazed  and  framed,  is 
handed  all  round  at  tlie  examination,  stared  at  and  bepraised  by  people  who  do  not  under- 
stand it,  and  our  young  hero,  who  can  not  draw  a  right  angle,  nor  sketch  a  window,  and  who 
has  no  idea  of  beauty  of  form,  receives  a  prize.  At  home,  they  hang  up  the  picture  with 
great  ceremony,  "  ia  everlasting  remembrance,"  in  the  best  parlor..  Poor  Johnny  ! 

236  DRAWING. 

course,  but  should  come  later,  immediately  before  drawing  in  per- 
spective from  nature,  except  so  far  as  it  belongs  to  geometry,  and  is 
employed  in  the  construction  of  purely  geometrical  figures.  It  thus 
should  constitute  the  third  step,  or  last  but  one. 

On  the  subject  of  practicing  outline  drawing  in  the  elementary 
course,  opinions  differ.  Ramsauer  says  that  it  would  be  an  unjusti- 
fiable waste  of  time  to  work  with  ruler  and  circle  before  the  eye  and 
hand  gain  firmness.  Hippius  directs  a  whole  series  of  elementary 
exercises  with  the  ruler,  before  beginning  free  off-hand  drawing. 
Most  teachers  of  drawing  are  of  the  opposite  opinion  to  this.  We 
incline  toward  the  side  which  experience  seems  to  have  indicated, 
namely,  that  of  the  majority. 

4.  Between  elementary  drawing  and  outline  sketching  is  the  place 
for  free  off-hand  drawing,  applied  to  actual  objects ;  which  thus  occu- 
pies the  second  place. 

5.  Having  thus  determined  upon  four  principal  departments,  the 
question  will  come  up.  Where  does  copying  come  in  ;  and  elevations; 
and  inventive  drawing  ?     We  answer : 

a.  Inventive  drawing  has  already  been  practiced  in  the  elementary 
stage.  But  the  pupil  must  always  be  made  master  of  the  materials 
with  which  he  works ;  he  must  have  seen  specimens  of  inventions  of 
the  sort  which  he  is  expected  to  make. 

The  child  can  not  develop  the  idea  of  the  beautiful  from  himself. 
Some  of  the  Pestalozzians  have  erred  to  an  unspeakable  extent  on 
this  point.  Never  was  a  more  unpedagogical  problem  proposed  than 
that  of  J.  Schmid,  for  beginners — "  Make  a  beautiful  combination  of 
isolated  points!" 

But  where  the  imagination  has  been  set  in  action  by  examining 
models,  the  pupils  may  be  permitted  to  make  some  experiments  in 
invention,  for  which  reason  we  have  admitted  it  as  above.  For  it  is 
certainly  according  to  nature,  to  begin  to  develop  the  different  phases 
of  the  artistic  faculty  in  children,  from  even  the  very  point  where 
they  begin  to  spring  out.  We  must,  it  is  true,  have  regard  to  the 
old  motto,  ^^  Non  multa  sed  multum  ;''"'  in  order  that  we  may  not,  in 
avoiding  one-sidedness,  fall  into  the  opposite  error  of  studying  too 
many  things  at  once. 

h.  Drawing  from  nature,  so  far  as  it  consists  in  making  simple 
elevations,  may  be  practiced  during  the  second  stage.  For  those  just 
beginning  it  is  too  difficult,  principally  on  account  of  the  usually  nec- 
essary reduction  to  a  diminished  scale. 

c.  Cop3Mng  may  be  commenced  in  a  very  easy  way,  as  soon  as  a 
good  beginning  is  laid  in  elementary  drawing. 

DRAWING.  237, 

All  the  preceding  details  may  be  grouped  as  follows,  in  a 

General  Scheme  for  Instruction  in  Drawing. 

First  Grade,  or  Elementary  Drawing ;  and  in  connection  with  it, 
Inventive  Drawing  and  Copying. 

Second  Grade,  Application  of  free  off-hand  drawing;  including 
Copying,  Geometrical  Drawing  from  nature,  and  Inventive  Drawing. 

Third  Grade,  or  Outline  Sketching ;  with  a  continuation  of  Copy- 
ing and  Inventive  Drawing. 

Fourth  Grade,  Perspective  Drawing,  exclusively. 

This  plan  is  in  accordance  with  nature,  as  relates  both  to  the  pupil 
and  to  the  subject. 

C.    Directions  for  further  practice  in  the  different  departments. 


The  same  principles  which  have  been  laid  down  relative  to  the 
succession  and  connection  of  the  various  departments  of  practice,  are 
applicable  also  to  the  choice  and  selection  of  the  materials  for  each 
separate  one. 

It  is  therefore  necessary, 

First,  To  draw  various  forms.  For  if  the  instruction  given  is  to 
communicate  any  formal  culture,  the  child  must,  as  has  been  said, 
comprehend  its  entire  scope.  It  is  an  error  to  choose  artificial  forms 
only,  or  natural  forms  only.  The  teacher  utterly  misapprehends  the 
character  of  the  eoininon  school,  who  causes  architecture,  or  tools,  or 
flowers,  or  landscapes,  either  of  them  exclusively,  to  be  drawn.  The 
pupil  does  not  see  either  of  them  exclusively ;  nor  is  it  the  business 
of  the  common  school  to  educate  especially  for  any  one  occupation 
such  as  that  of  the  carpenter,  the  cabinet-maker,  potter,  <fec. 

Secondly/,  It  is  the  universal  rule  to  begin  with  what  is  easy,  and 
to  proceed  from  that  only  with  great  caution.  Now  the  easiest  part 
of  drawing  is  that  with  right  lines  ;  not  perhaps  where  the  fewest 
lines  are  used,  but  where  the  relations  of  lines  and  angles  are  easy  of 
comprehension.  Of  the  regular  forms,  for  instance,  an  easy  one  is 
the  regular  octagon;  and  a  difiBcult  one,  the  regular  pentagon.  Ir- 
regular forms  are  easy,  if  they  are  derived  from  regular  ones ;  as,  for 
instance,  the  semi-circle ;  but  difficult  otherwise,  as  in  the  case  of  the 
eye,  nose,  ear,  hand,  &c. ;  all  animals ;  most  flowers  and  fruits ;  all 
trees ;  most  tools,  &c.  Thus  many  of  the  designs  most  frequently 
given  to  children  as  elementary  exercises,  are  entirely  improper  for  the 
purpose ;  and  great  care  must  be  taken  not  to  be  led  astray  by  such 
titles  as  "  The  Little  Flower  Draftsman,''^  "  Elementary  Exercises  in 
Jjandscape  Drawing,''^  '^Studies  of  Animals  for  Industrious  Boys,^''  <fec. 

238  DRAWING. 

The  principal  disadvantages  of  selecting  too  difficult  subjects  to  be 
copied  are,  waste  of  time,  discouragement  of  the  pupils,  or  else  vanity 
and  overestimate  of  their  powers.  And  in  schools  where  there  are 
several  classes,  a  teacher  who  proceeds  in  a  thorough  manner,  will 
find  himself  cast  into  the  shade  by  this  faulty  mode  of  proceeding  by 
his  colleagues. 

"  But  the  children  will  not  work  well  at  easy  exercises."  Unfortu- 
nately this  is  too  true.  They  want  to  make  a  great  picture,  of  the 
market-place  at  Leipzig,  and  that,  if  possible,  during  the  great  Easter 
fair ;  the  shipwreck  of  the  Medusa ;  St.  Genevieve ;  the  battle  of 
Katzbach,  <fec.  But  it  will  not  do  to  permit  this.  The  more  difficult 
it  is  to  bring  the  children,  by  a  course  of  instruction  unbroken,  and 
yet  interesting,  appropriate,  attractive  and  not  wearisome,  to  the  point 
where  they  will  find  their  pleasure  in  solving  with  certainty  the  pro- 
blems laid  before  them,  instead  of  in  their  extent,  so  much  the  more 
zealously  should  we  labor  to  accomplish  it. 

But  even  the  most  careful  arrangement  of  the  order  of  problems 
will  not  avail,  unless. 

Thirdly^  The  pupils  receive  the  necessary  explanations  and  assist- 
ance. Here  failure  is  frequent.  Perhaps  the  pupil  is  set  to  copy  a 
flower.  He  begins  at  once,  at  one  of  the  extreme  points ;  and  goes 
on  to  draw  leaves,  anthers,  petals,  pistils,  &c.,  one  after  another,  as 
zealously  as  possible,  down  to  the  minutest  parts  and  details.  After 
long  and  careful  labor,  his  flower  is  finished  ;  an  excellent  flower,  but 
unfortunately  quite  different  from  the  original.  There  are  schools 
where  drawing  is  practiced  in  this  manner,  year  after  year.  But  how 
easily  would  the  pupil  have  accomplished  his  work  in  the  case  pro- 
posed, if  he  had  at  first  been  taught  how  to  see  the  blossom,  correctly. 
The  fundamental  form  would  have  been  laid  out  perhaps  by  three  or 
four  points;  and  all  the  details  would  then  have  fallen  into  their, 
places  of  themselves. 

It  must  be  plainly  said,  that  in  most  drawing  schools,  instruction 
in  intuition  and  apprehension  is  unjustifiably  neglected.  Many  teach- 
ers have  scarcely  any  idea  of  the  basis  of  all  drawing,  of  which  the 
judicious  Brauer,  in  his  "  Theory  of  Free  Apprehension^^''  has  ob- 
served, "  Before  any  figure  is  drawn,  it  is  necessary  that  it  should  be 
seen  or  understood  in  all  its  parts  and  relations."  Here  is  a  principal 
reason  why  so  little  progress  is  commonly  made  in  this  study. 

But  supposing  that  all  the  conditions  hitherto  laid  down  have  been 
complied  with  ;  then,  lastly  and 

Fourthly^  It  must  be  strictly  required  of  the  pupil,  that  he  draw 
well ;  that  is,  correctly  and  with  entire  neatness.     No  botching  or 

DRAWING.  230 

working  over,  indistinctness  or  fancifulness,  smearing  or  rubbing, 
trifling  or  talking,  will  accomplish  this.  The  whole  of  the  pupil's 
power  must  be  earnestly  and  perseveringly  exerted  upon  his  work. 
It  is  only  by  this  means  that  drawing  will  become  the  important 
educational  instrumentality  that  it  may  be  made. 

Working  in  company  is  much  to  be  recommended.  The  task  may 
be  given  out,  the  mode  of  performing  it  stated,  and  then  followed  at 
the  same  time,  from  point  to  point,  by  all.  This  trains  to  intelligent, 
orderly  and  regular  labor.  It  is  unnecessary  to  argue  that  all  possi- 
ble means  should  also  be  tried  to  enlist  the  -interest  of  the  children  in 
the  wojk  which  they  are  to  do,  and  to  conciliate  their  love  of  it. 

1.  .Elementary  Drawing. 

a.  Should  elementary  drawing  follow  geometry,  or  geometry  draw- 
ing? Neither,  and  for  this  reason  ;  that  the  order  of  study  of  the 
two  subjects  must  often  be  very  different.  Geometry  considers  the 
triangle  before  the  square ;  while  in  drawing,  many  squares  may  be 
considered  before,  many  triangles  are.  And  much  that  pertains  to 
geometry  is  of  no  importance  to  drawing.  For  it  results  from  the 
nature  of  the  case,  that  the  portion  of  geometry  which  is  of  use  in 
drawing,  is  studied  during  intuitional  instruction,  and  therefore  long 
before  drawing  is  commenced.  Such  points  are,  ability  to  recognize 
a  right  angle,  a  square,  a  circle,  <kc.  I  find  no  use  in  connecting 
geometry  with  drawing.  But  it  is  a  different  thing  to  repeat  while 
drawing  the  fundamental  forms,  that  part  of  geometry  which  relates 
to  them.  This  will  aid  in  thorough  comprehension  of  the  case,  and 
is  to  be  recommended. 

h.  There  are  elementary  exercises  which  consist  in  drawing  right 
and  curved  lines  by  the  children  together  by  beat,  large  free  lines,  if 
possible  with  a  movement  of  the  whole  arm.  These  exercises  are 
of  great  importance ;  they  should  be  practiced  at  the  same  time  with 
such  others  as  require  the  closest  care,  and  where  therefore  the  pupil 
is  working  more  by  himself  and  in  detail.* 

c.  Exercises  in  estimating  the  lengths  of  such  straight  lines  as  may 
be  found  at  hand,  by  natural  or  artificial  means,  may,  from  time  to 

*  The  opposition  of  many  of  Peter  Schmid's  pupils  to  this  class  of  exercises,  hns  for  a  long 
time  been  much  less  violent.  Ramsauer  says.  "  Brief  and  definite  orders,  and  prompt  and 
uninterrupted  work  according  to  them,  regulated  by  keeping  time,  will  accomplish  an  infin- 
ite amount  of^ood  in  acquiring  any  kind  of  manual  skill  where  practice  is  the  thing  required. 
While  on  this  point,  a  word  should  be  said  of  the  applied  art  of  writing.  Markwordt.  of  Ber- 
lin, practices  much  in  large  free  strokes.  A  great  part  of  the  so-called  '  American  method  in 
writing.'  al.«o  consists  of  large  free  movements  in  unison  ;  and  the  results  are  so  evidently 
good,  that  the  system  is  daily  coming  more  into  use." 

240  DRAWING. 

time,  be  introduced  between  the  drawing  exercises  proper,  but  should 
not  be  carried  too  far. 

d.  In  arranging  the  subjects  for  practice,  the  objective  and  subjec- 
tive order  should  be,  as  far  as  possible,  united.  According  to  the 
purely  scientific  or  objective  arrangement  of  the  fundamental  forms, 
the  equilateral  triangle  should  come  before  the  rectangle ;  but  in 
drawing  the  order  should  be  different,  because  the  latter  is  much  the 
easiest  to  draw.  The  same  is  true  of  the  pentagon  and  octagon.  A 
coui-se  of  instruction  arranged  with  reference  to  subjective  principles 
may,  it  is  true,  at  first  seem  disorderly  rather  than  orderly ;  but  a 
more  acute  vision  will  discern  the  "  red  thread  "  which  leads  through 
the  whole. 

2.   Copying. 

a.  Subjects  beautiful  in  themselves  should  be  selected  for  copying. 
For  example,  a  finely  formed  vase  should  be  selected  rather  than  a 
common  kettle.  The  faculties  used  in  drawing  will  be  as  well  trained 
by  one  as  by  the  other,  while  the  former  is  of  greater  value  in  devel- 
oping the  sense  of  beauty. 

h.  For  beauty  of  execution,  only  the  very  best  designs  are  suflSc- 
iently  good;  those  only  moderately  well  done  can  not  go. 

c.  For  the  purpose  of  working  in  classes  together,  the  use  of  de- 
signs large  enough  to  be  seen  by  the  whole  class — those  made  to  be 
hung  up — is  much  to  be  recommended.  An  industrious  teacher  will 
even,  if  necessary,  prepare  such  himself. 

It  is  still  more  important  that  the  teacher  be  able  to  design  on  the 
blackboard.  Hippius  says,  "  The  children  can  see  the  drawing  con- 
structed ;  can  watch  the  beginning  and  the  end  of  it ;  and  can  obtain 
more  thorough  ideas  as  to  apprehension  of  objects.  They  should 
themselves  proceed  to  imitate  these  drawings,  which  should  be  suited 
to  their  capacities,  on  a  smaller  scale.  The  manipulation  of  the  work 
should  be  such  as  to  serve  as  a  model  to  the  children  ;  the  teacher 
locating  in  the  proper  places  the  necessary  initial  points,  in  a  careful, 
I  had  almost  said  a  learner-like  manner.  When  the  figure  on  the 
blackboard  is  complete,  it  should  be  analyzed,  and  understood  both 
as  a  whole,  and  in  the  relations  of  itself  to  its  parts  and  of  the  parts 
among  themselves.  After  this  mode  of  intuitional  study  has  been 
sufficiently  practiced,  the  teacher  should  again  go  through  with  the 
process  of  drawing  the  figure,  as  it  were  in  his  thoughts,  by  dictating 
the  work  point  by  point.  At  the  same  time  he  should  pass  round 
among  the  benches,  directing  and  assisting  wherever  necessary,  re- 
proving or  praising,  and  endeavoring  to  keep  all  the  pupils  in  cheer 
ful  activity. 

DRAWING.  241 

d.  Even  when  the  children  draw  each  by  himself,  after  small  sep- 
arate originals,  they  should  often  be  made  to  draw  their  copies  on 
a  larger  or  smaller  scale,  for  the  sake  of  gaining  in  freedom  of 

e.  With  an  eye  to  the  ultimate  and  principal  purpose  of  instruction 
in  drawing,  it  will  be  better  for  the  pupils  to  sketch  many  objects 
with  few  strokes,  than  to  occupy  the  same  time  over  a  few  drawings, 
more  elaborated.  But  these  latter  should  not  be  entirely  excluded. 
The  best  mode  is  to  produce,  from  time  to  time,  some  larger  work, 
and  to  draw  between  or  along  with  these  many  sketches  not  so  much 
finished  in  detail  as  full  of  meaning. 

/.  For  copying,  more  reference  should  be  had  to  the  sex  of  the  chil- 
dren than  was  the  case  in  elementary  drawing.  Thus,  architectural 
subjects  should  be  chosen  for  the  boys,  and  beautiful  vases  for  the 
girls ;  weapons  for  the  former,  flowers  for  the  latter,  &c.  One-sided- 
ness  in  selection  should,  however,  be  avoided.  The  girls  should  be 
made  to  comprehend  the  beautiful  forms  of  the  higher  departments 
of  architecture,  and  the  boys  the  characteristics  of  leaves  and  fruit. 
In  short,  to  repeat  the  principle  once  more,  it  is  the  whole  world  of 
4brms  which  the  school  should  prepare  its  pupils  to  comprehend. 

3.  Inventive  Drawing. 

a.  This  may  be  practiced  both  upon  spontaneous  conceptions  and 
upon  real  things.  In  either  case,  the  pupil  may  be  required  either  to 
complete  a  design,  to  decorate  it,  to  vary  it,  or  wholly  to  invent  it. 
For  instance, 

1.  Ideal  representations.  Completion — to  draw  the  whole  of  some 
figure  from  half  or  a  third  of  it.  Decoration — to  ornament  a  rectan- 
gle with  lines  all  converging  to  its  center.  Variation — to  change  a 
regular  octagon  into  an  irregular  one.  Entire  invention — to  draw  a 
group  of  equilateral  triangles  and  decorate  them  at  pleasure. 

2.  Real  objects.  Completion — to  draw  a  window,  having  one 
quarter  of  it  given.  Decoration — to  ornament  a  design  for  a  table 
top.  Variation — to  change  a  quadrangular  window  into  one  with 
curved  lines  at  the  top.  Invention — to  design  a  beautiful  trellised 

The  usual  order  of  these  exercises  should  be,  first,  free  representa- 
tions of  real  objects,  together  with  drawing  mathematical  figures. 
Completing  a  design  is  usually  easier  than  decorating  it,  and  that 
again  than  varying  it;  while  absolute  invention  is  the  most  diflBcult 
of  all.  The  lessons  should  be  arranged  in  accordance  with  these 

h.  Occasionally  an  entire  class,  or  at  least  a  section  of  it,  should 


242  DRAWING. 

"work  together  at  invention.  If,  for  instance,  the  problem  is  to  decorate 
a  square,  the  children  may  step  up  to  the  board,  one  at  a  time,  and  work 
upon  a  square  drawn  upon  it.  This  will  furnish  many  opportunities 
for  remarks,  and  the  inventive  faculties  of  each  pupil  will  benefit  all. 

c.  Sometimes  the  pupils  should  merely  sketch  their  conceptions 
without  completing  them ;  and  the  teacher  may  then  criticise  the 
sketches.  In  this  way,  several  designs  may  be  sketched  at  one  lesson. 
The  slates  may  be  sometimes  exchanged  about  in  such  a  manner, 
that  each  pupil  can  see  the  designs  of  all  the  others. 

d.  Invented  designs  which  are  to  be  finished  in  detail,  should  be 
approved  in  outline,  to  prevent  expending  hours  of  the  pupil's  labor 
on  a  design  which  may,  perhaps,  at  last  be  rejected. 

4.  Drawing  from  Nature. 

First^  as  to  geometrical  drawing  from  nature. 

a.  Either  actual  objects,  such  as  are  about  the  children,  should  be 
drawn,  such  as  doors,  gates,  trellises,  floors,  windows,  cupboards, 
stoves,  monuments,  &c.,  or  there  should  be  used,  as  Otto  very  judic- 
iously recommends,  an  apparatus  on  purpose,  by  means  of  which  all 
sorts  of  figures  can  be  set  up  together,  on  a  ledge  on  the  blackboard. 
The  drawing  may  either  be  of  the  natural  size  or  on  a  reduced  scale. 
In  the  latter  case,  great  care  must  be  taken  that  the  children  shall 
justly  estimate  the  relative  sizes  of  the  reduced  objects. 

h.  Just  at  this  point  it  is  of  especial  importance  that,  in  the  begin- 
ning especially,  much  work  should  be  done  in  common.  Before  the 
children  put  pencil  to  paper,  they  must  fix  upon  all  the  relative  di- 
mensions, not  by  means  of  a  mere  cursory  view  of  the  object,  but  of 
a  careful  survey  of  it.  It  should  be  a  point  of  honor  to  come  as  near 
as  possible  to  correctness.  When  all  the  estimates  have  been  made, 
the  teacher  may  name  the  dimensions  before  the  class ;  and  then  they 
may  proceed  to  draw. 

c.  This  is  a  very  appropriate  place  for  tasks  to  be  performed  at 
home.  "  Draw  the  front  of  your  father's  house ;  the  windows  of  the 
sitting  room,  &c.  I  will  take  occasion  to  compare  the  drawings  with 
the  originals."     And  so  on. 

About  this  time  a  beginning  may  be  made  with  perspective  draw- 
ing, perhaps  somewhat  as  follows  : — 

a.  Practice  the  children  in  seeing  real  objects  in  a  perspective 
manner.  This  is  not  very  difficult,  and  has  the  advantage  of  showing 
the  pupil  what  perspective  is,  even  if  he  does  not  become  able  to  draw 
on  its  principles. 

h.  Perspective  may  be  taught  by  copying.  Perspective  designs 
may  be  given  to  be  copied,  arranged  in  a  progressive  manner,  and 

DRAWING.  243 

instruction  on  the  laws  of  perspective  may  be  given  at  the  same  time. 
This  is  the  method  of  Solclan,  Wannholz,  and  others;  and  is  not 
liable  to  any  weighty  objections. 

c.  Exercises  both  on  copying  and  seeing  sliould  be  practiced. 

G?.  Drawing  from  real  objects  should  be  practiced,  either  by  section 
of  the  class  at  once,  or  singly. 

Drawing  is  of  course  a  more  useful  exercise  than  mere  seeing;  and 
drawing  fi-om  real  bodies  is  better  than  from  another  drawing.  And 
it  is  better  to  display  the  article  to  be  drawn  conveniently  upon  a 
table  for  one,  two,  three,  or  at  most  four  scholars,  than  to  elevate  it 
somewhere  for  the  whole  class  to  draw  from. 

The  circumstances  must  govern  in  each  particular  case.  I  would 
however  have  some  exercises  in  seeing,  in  every  school  where  draw- 
ing is  practiced  at  all.  I  add  a  few  hints  for  such  as  have  proceeded 
far  enough  to  draw  real  bodies. 

a.  To  complete  the  shading  of  what  is  drawn  should  be  uncondi- 
tionally forbidden.  The  common  school  has  no  time  for  this,  if  the 
children  are  to  be  made  at  all  acquainted  with  perspective. 

h.  The  subjects  should  not  be  too  difficult;  such,  for  instance,  as 
plaster  heads,  landscapes,  groups  of  animals.  The  principal  thing  is 
to  teach  the  children  to  comprehend  and  represent  with  ease  the  sim 
plest  perspective  appearances. 

c.  The  children  should  not  be  troubled  with  difficult  theories  of 
perspective,  nor,  on  the  other  hand,  should  they  be  restricted  to  the 
brief  rule,  "Draw  what  you  see."  Some  knowledge  of  the  laws 
of  perspective  is  indispensable  for  the  moderately  and  less  capable 
pupils,  as  well  as  an  acquaintance  with  some  simple  means  of  aiding 
in  seeing  in  a  perspective  manner. 

d.  These  laws  of  perspective,  however,  should  not  be  given,  but 
discovered.  It  is  wrong,  for  instance,  to  tell  a  pupil  that  a  circular 
surface  or  thin  body  can  be  seen  as  a  straight  line,  and  then  to  hold 
it  up  to  him  that  he  may  be  convinced  of  it. 

e.  The  most  practical  possible  application  should  be  made  of  the 
principles  which  lie  within  the  scope  of  the  common  school.  These 
should  be  joined  to  the  exercises  on  cubes  and  prisms,  for  instance,  a 
drawing  of  a  chimney,  a  chest  of  drawers,  an  open  door,  (fee. ;  and  the 
best  scholars  may  afterwards  draw  a  house,  a  bridge,  a  gateway,  &c. 

5.    Outline  Sketching. 

a.  The  common  school  is  not  the  place  for  designing  pillars,  capi- 
tols,  and  similar  architectural  construttions.  They  belong  to  the 
industrial  school.  The  business  of  the  common  school  is  limited  to 
this  :  1.  Geometrical  construction  of  lines,  angles,  and  figures ;  2. 

244  DRAWING. 

The  application  of  these  to  the  drawing  of  simple  sketches  and  ground- 

h.  Great  skill  may  be  attained  in  this  kind  of  drawing,  so  far  as  it 
can  be  carried  with  the  aid  of  the  simple  instruments  which  the  chil- 
dren can  be  trusted  to  use.  Without  using  these,  the  practice  would 
do  more  harm  than  good. 

c.  The.  use  of  the  circle  and  ruler  must  be  industriously  practiced, 
in  order  to  the  acquisition  of  skill  in  it.  Many  simple  problems 
should  be  given  out  for  using  them ;  as,  for  instance,  to  draw  four 
angles  one  after  another,  each  half  as  large  as  the  preceding ;  to  mag- 
nify to  many  times  its  own  size,  <fec. 

d.  As  to  selecting  subjects  for  ground-plans  and  elevations,  the  fol- 
lowing suggestions  may,  perhaps,  be  of  service : — 

1.  Select  for  drawing,  a  plan  of  the  school  garden  ;  the  church- 
yard ;  of  some  building,  as  the  church ;  an  elevation  of  the  school 
house,  &c. 

2.  Let  the  children  copy  some  plans,  ground-plans,  elevations,  <fec., 
in  order  to  become  acquainted  with  the  usual  mode  of  doing  such 

3.  Let  each  pupil  himself  make  out  some  such  plans,  ground-plans 
or  elevations  of  his  father's  house  or  garden,  &c. 

D.     Course  of  Study. 

This  is  rather  to  indicate  one  mode  of  arranging  the  work,  than  to 
be  followed  to  the  letter. 

1.  Common  schools  of  three  classes. — Drawing  should  be  practiced 
only  in  the  middle  and  higher  classes ;  not  in  the  lower.  It  is  safe 
to  calculate  that  children  of  at  least  three  different  grades  are  always 
to  be  found  in  each  class ;  so  that  divisions  must  be  made.  More 
than  two  such  divisions  are  usually  too  many,  as  experience  indi-. 
Gates.  Thus  each  class  will  have  a  two  year's  course,  and  each  pupil 
will,  at  least  in  that  part  of  the  study  where  the  whole  section  works 
together,  go  twice  through  one  of  the  halves  of  the  course. 

a.  Middle  class. — Here  it  will  be  well  to  permit  the  capacity  and 
industry  and  progress  oP  each  pupil  to  determine  which  half  of  the 
course  he  shall  go  twice  through  with.  The  course  should  be  as 
follows : — 

First  half— 

1.  Elementary  drawing.  Lines,  angles,  the  easiest  divisions  of 
lines  and  angles,  the  rectan^e,  isosceles  triangle,  square,  rhombus, 
rhomboid,  equilateral  triangle.  Straight  and  curved  lines  together, 
by  beat. 

DRAWING.  245 

2.  Copying.  The  simplest  forms  with  straight  lines,  partly  repre- 
sentations of  real  things,  partly  variations  of  fundamental  forms. 

3.  Invention.  The  easiest  exercises  in  completing  and  varyin. 
forms ;  usually  to  be  executed  in  common. 

4.  Beginning  of  estimating  dimensions ;  usually  of  those  where  one 
of  the  dimensions  to  be  estimated  may  serve  as  a  measure  of  the 

5.  Examination  of  the  model  drawings. 
Second  half — 

1.  Elementary  drawing.  Continuation  of  the  division  of  lines  and 
angles.  The  regular  hexagon.  The  regular  octagon.  Different 
curves  on  straight  lines,  and  half  and  quarter  circles.  Irregular  poly- 
gons; waving,  serpentine  and  spiral  lines;  the  circle,  ellipse  and 
oval.     Curved  strokes  together,  by  beat. 

2.  Copying.  In  the  first  half  year  of  designs  with  straight  lines 
only ;  in  the  second,  of  those  with  curved  and  crooked  lines.  The 
straight  lines  should  always  be  in  simple  combinations ;  the  curved 
ones  in  connection  with  straight  ones ;  and  easy  flowers  and  fruit 
given  only  to  the  most  capable  of  the  children. 

3.  Invention.  Tasks  somewhat  more  diflScult,  but  no  designs  of 
real  objects  yet  to  be  permitted. 

4.  Drawing  from  nature.  Very  easy  elevations ;  and  only  to  be 
practiced  as  a  secondary  exercise. 

5.  Study  of  model  drawings. 

6.  Estimating  dimensions;  partly  with  and  partly  without  the  use 
of  the  legal  measures  of  size  and  distance. 

^.  Upper  class. — Here  the  scheme  must  be  a  little  more  carefully 
arranged.  I  suppose  the  children  to  draw  in  perspective  only  during 
the  last  year  of  school,  and  then  during  both  lessons ;  so  that  their 
copying  and  inventive  drawing  must  be  done  at  home.  The  children 
of  thirteen  years  of  age,  again,  should  form  one  section,  (Section  1,) 
and  those  of  eleven  and  twelve  another,  (Section  2.)  Then  the  in- 
struction for  the  year  may  be  arranged  as  follows : — 

1.  From  Easter  to  St.  John's  day.  For  Section  2,  oflf-hand  draw- 
ing; exercises  in  copying  and  invention.  Section  1,  perspective;  first 

2.  From  St.  John's  day  to  Michaelmas.  Section  2,  off-hand  draw- 
ing ;  copying,  invention,  elevations.     Section  1,  perspective,  continued. 

3.  From  Michaelmas  to  Christmas.  Section  2,  outline  sketching; 
geometrical  constructions  ;  but  for  the  girls  instead,  off-hand  drawing. 
Section  1,  perspective,  further  continued. 

4.  From  Christmas  to  Easter.     Section  2,  outline  sketching;  ground- 

246  DRAWING. 

plans,  and  in  ofF-hand  drawing ;  copying,  invention,  elevations.     Sec- 
tion 1,  perspective,  concluded. 

Observations  on  the  foregoing  plan. 

1.  In  the  first  quarter,  Section  2  is  so  employed  that  the  teacher 
may  busy  himself  mostly  with  Section  1,  where  his  aid  will  be  quite 
indispensable.  And  in  Section  2,  also,  the  exercises,  in  copying  es- 
pecially, can  be  adjusted  to  the  capacities  of  each  individual  scholar. 

2.  In  the  second  quarter.  Section  2  will  have  advanced  far  enough 
to  work  by  themselves  for  say  half  an  hour  together.  That  time  may 
thus  be  spent  in  introducing  Section  2  to  the  department  of  drawing 
elevations.  The  pleasant  summer  da3^s  will  be  found  quite  suitable 
for  drawing  in  the  open  air ;  and  the  pupils,  while  unoccupied  during 
vacation,  may  execute  many  drawings.  Toward  the  end  of  this  quar- 
ter. Section  1  may  be  set  at  drawing  easy  buildings  in  perspective,  in 
the  open  air. 

3.  The  third  quarter  will  find  Section  "2  busily  employed  with  circle 
and  ruler.  The  pupils  of  twelve  years  old,  who  are  going  over  the 
ground  a  second  time,  will  be  able  to  assist  those  of  eleven,  so  that 
the  teacher  will  get  time  to  do  some  open  air  work  in  pleasant 
autumn  days  with  Section  1.  But  if  he  does  not  think  it  safe  to 
leave  Section  2  alone,  he  may  take  them  out  also  and  let  ^hem  sketch 

4.  When  winter  comes  round  again,  Section  1  will  be  employed 
again  in  the  house,  in  learning  something  of  drawing  bodies  bounded 
by  lines  not  straight.  Section  2  will  take  up  off-hand  drawing  again, 
in  the  departments  of  copying  and  invention  ;  and  some  ground-plans 
may  also  be  drawn. 

5.  The  exercises  in  copying  and  invention  should  continue  what 
was  begun  in  the  middle  class,  but  not  too  rapidly. 

For  copying,  pictures  of  flowers,  fruit,  ornaments  and  characteristic 
animal  forms  may  be  gradually  introduced.  The  inventive  drawing 
may  be  in  part  of  imagined  forms,  in  part  from  real  objects.  .No 
teacher  who  pursues  his  subject  with  a  really  vivid  interest,  can  fail 
to  find  abundance  of  materials  for  lessons  and  models. 

2.    Common  schools  of  two  classes. 

a.  Lower  class.  If  the  pupil  remains  five  years  in  this  class,  he 
should  draw  during  the  last  two.  Thus  we  shall  have  pupils  of  eight 
and  nine  years  of  age,  in  one  section  ;  so  that  each  will  go  twice  over 
the'  year's  course.  The  course  should  include  all  the  first  half  of 
what  was  prescribed  for  the  middle  class  of  a  school  of  three  classes. 

b.  Upper  class.     Here  there  are  many  difficulties.     I  shall  sup- 

DRAWING.  247 

pose  two  sections  to  be  formed  ;  one  of  the  pupils  of  ten  and  eleven, 
and  the  other  of  those  of  twelve  and  thirteen,  so  that  each  section 
shall  go  twice  through  the  course.  The  lower  section  should  draw 
what  was  directed  for  the  upper  division  of  the  middle  class  in  a 
school  of  three  classes.  The  first  division  may  alternately  draw  in 
perspective  one  hour,  and  in  the  next  partly  make  outline  sketches 
and  partly  work  at  copying  and  inventing.  There  are  many  disad- 
vantages in  this  arrangement,  but  I  have  not  been  able  to  make  a 
better  one  which  was  not  too  intricate ;  and  our  pedagogical  literature 
affords  very  little  aid  on  this  subject. 

3.   Common  schools  of  one  class. 

Nothing  can  here  be  done  in  perspective.  The  pupils  should  draw, 
from  their  tenth  year  upwards,  in  two  sections.  The  course  of  study 
should  be  that  for  the  middle  class  of  the  school  of  three  classes  ; 
except  that  the  children  should  learn  something  of  outline  sketching 
during  the  last  half  year  of  their  schoohng.  Some  of  the  better 
scholars  may  perhaps  be  permitted  to  copy  some  of  the  exercises  laid 
out  for  the  middle  class. 

E.     Miscellaneous  Observations. 

1.  Beware  lest  the  instruction  in  drawing  educate  the  children  in 
falsehood.  Where  every  drawing  which  is  shown  at  an  examination 
is  more  than  half  done  by  the  teacher,  or  by  his  assistants,  such  a 
result  is  certain  to  follow.* 

2.  The  purely  technical  exercises  of  off-hand  drawing  should  chiefly 
be  done  on  the  slate;  but  copying,  elevations,  finished  inventive 
drawings,  <fec.,  on  paper.  It  is  necessary  to  be  economical,  but  then 
pains  should  also  be  taken  to  enable  the  children  to  enjoy  repeated 
examinations  of  what  they  have  drawn  by  care  and  industry.  It  is 
always  unpleasant  to  children  to  see  a  piece  of  work  which  is  care- 
fully finished,  thrown  away  at  last. 

3.  Avoid  all  luxury,  especially  in  poor  neighborhoods,  in  pencils, 
paper,  <fec.  The  children  should  understand  the  necessary  truth  that 
man  must  always  learn  to  accomplish  the  greatest  possible  results 
with  the  simplest  means. 

4.  It  is  not  judicious  unsparingly  to  cross  out  every  ill  done  work 
from  the  pupils  drawing  book,  for  this  may  frequently  destroy  in  a  mo- 
ment the  work  of  many  laborious  hours,  besides  disgracing  the  book, 
as  the  children  say.  Only  evident  idleness  should  undergo  so  severe 
a  punishment. 

•'  Act  honestly  '.  Let  your  examination  be  a  proof,  not  of  what  your  powers  as  an  artist 
are,  but  of  what  you  can  do,  as  a  teacher,  through  the  efforts  of  your  pupils.  Honor  truth  ; 
and  she  will  honor  thee  in  turn." — Uippius 

248  DRAWING. 

5.  The  strictest  care  should  be  taken  to  make  the  children  sit  cpr- 
rectly  while  drawing;  for  carelessness  in  this  particular  will  very 
easily  lead  to  crookedness  in  weakly  children.  It  is  a  great  evil  for 
the  pupil  even  to  turn  constantly  towards  the  right  hand  to  look  at 
the  design  to  be  copied.  A  conscientious  teacher  will  use  every 
means  of  avoiding  such  habits. 

6.  The  pupils  must  be  protected  from  too  bright  sunshine,  by  cur- 
tains or  some  equivalent  means. 

7.  All  conversation  should  be  strictly  forbidden  during  the  drawing 
lesson.  It  is  astonishing  to  what  an  extent  the  looking  off  from  the 
work  which  is  inseparable  from  whispering,  interferes  with  and  de- 
feats the  comprehension  of  the  design  and  success  in  reproducing  it. 

8.  The  frequent  use  of  India  rubber  is  decidedly  to  be  prevented. 
This  is,  in  many  schools,  practiced  to  a  miserable  extent;  no  drawing 
being  finished  without  having  been  rubbed  out  in  every  part,  nobody 
knows  how  many  times.  Instruct  the  pupil  in  a  truly  elementary 
manner,  teach  him  to  apprehend,  make  him  work  with  attention  and 
care,  and  away  with  the  India  rubber ! 

9.  Whatever  work  is  given  to  the  children  to  be  done  at  home, 
must  invariably  be  shown  and  examined  when  completed. 

10.  If  possible,  let  the  most  skillful  pupils  be  employed  as  assist- 
ants in  instruction. 


BY    DR.    E.    HENTSCHEL. 


By  singing  we  understand  the  production  of  the  beautiful,  as  ac- 
complished by  the  human  voice,  by  means  of  the  union  of  musical 
tones  with  poetical  words  ;  the  union  of  music  and  poetry. 

The  elements  of  speech  are  sounds ;  of  music,  tones.  From  sounds 
are  formed  syllables,  words,  sentences,  periods ;  from  tones,  1,  in  suc- 
cession, melodies,  which  consist  of  phrases  and  periods ;  and  2,  in 
combination,  harmonies  or  chords.  Every  succession  of  tones,  and  of 
combinations  of  tones,  whether  of  single  tones  or  those  consisting 
of  several  tones  together,  (chords,)  may  be  considered  in  three 

1.  Height  or  lowness,  or  melodically.  This  department  is  called 

2.  Length  or  shortness,  or  rhythmically.  This  department  is  called 

3.  Loudness  or  softness,  or  dynamically.  This  department  is  called 

The  relation  of  tones  to  each  other  with  respect  to  their  simulta- 
neous sound,  is  the  harmonic  relation ;  and  the  study  of  them  is 
called  Harmony. 

The  distinctions  between  the  various  kinds  of  singing,  such  as  the 
church,  solo,  choral,  &c.,  are  understood  by  every  one.  Either  solo 
or  choir  singing  may  be  in  unison  or  in  harmony.  A  mixed  choir  is 
one  in  which  there  are  women's  or  boys'  voices  as  well  as  men's. 

Singing,  as  a  development  of  the  beautiful,  is  an  expression  or  rep- 
resentation of  the  feelings.  The  beautiful  is  within  the  singer  or  sub- 
ject, as  the  occasion  of  his  feelings ;  and  it  appears  also  as  the  object 
of  feelings,  through  the  medium  of  poetry  and  music. 

Several  of  the  faculties  are  exerted  in  singing.  The  singer  is  con- 
cerned, first,  with  words.  These  he  must  learn  (unless  in  the  case 
where  he  composes  them  himself,  which  is  not  considered  here),  re- 
member and  reproduce.  In  learning  and  understanding  the  words, 
their  logical  and  poetical  natures  are  to  be  considered  ;  and  use  is 
made  of  the  understanding,  the  memory,  the  imagination,  the  fancy, 

250  SINGING. 

and  the  sense  of  beauty.  And  in  reproducing  these  words,  besides 
the  above  faculties,  the  voice  is  employed. 

Secondly,  the  singer  is  concerned  with  musical  tones.  And  these 
also  he  must  learn,  (except  in  the  case,  not  here  considered,  where  he 
himself  composes  them),  remember  and  reproduce.  In  learning  these 
tones,  he  must,  firstly,  consider  them  with  exclusive  reference  to  their 
melodic,  rhythmical,  dynamic,  and  harmonic  character,  and  secondly 
with  reference  to  their  inner  or  aesthetic  character,  through  which  they 
exemplify  the  beautiful.  The  former  of  these  two  is  accomplished  by 
the  musical  faculties;  the  latter,  by  the  fancy  and  the  sense  of 

The  musical  faculties  include  the  musical  memory,  and  the  powers 
of  apprehending  and  of  reproducing  sounds — usually  termed  the  ear ; 
and  also  the  rhythmical  faculty,  or  faculty  of  time  ;  as  well  as  that 
which  appreciates  the  degree  of  loudness  of  sounds.  The  power  of 
apprehending  sounds,  if  developed  to  the  point  of  intuition  of  sounds, 
presupposes  a  systematic  knowledge  of  sounds,  which  requires  the  ex- 
ercise of  the  numbering  and  reckoning  faculties,  as  well  as  of  the 
memory.  In  order  to  the  comprehension  of  tones  from  the  written 
marks,  or  notes,  which  indicate  them,  is  required,  besides  the  musical 
faculties,  a  system  of  notation ;  which  is  an  affair  of  the  understand- 
ing and  the  memory.  And  to  produce  the  tones  thus  indicated,  the 
voice  is  necessary. 

Singing  represents  feeling;  sometimes  a  feeling  which  indicates  a 
condition  which  is  not  in  any  proper  sense  that  of  the  singer,  and  can 
perhaps  never  be  so.  This  is  the  case  for  instance,  almost  always  in 
oratorio,  in  opera,  in  ballads  and  romances,  and  in  singing  war-songs, 
hunting-songs,  sea-songs,  and  many  others.  But  the  singing  is  in- 
tended to  give  pleasure ;  artistic  pleasure ;  and  of  this  there  are  differ- 
ent kinds  and  degrees  ;  the  highest  being  that  where  the  reflective 
faculties  are  quiescent,  and  we  are  transferred  so  wholly  into  a  foreign 
condition  of  feeling,  that  we  are  wholly  carried  out  of  ourselves ;  and 
every  feeling  that  speaks  in  the  music,  whether  of  grief  or  joy,  becomes 
entirely  our  own.  This  is  most  easily  the  case  with  children,  who 
are  always  more  poetical  than  adults.  Jean  Paul  says,  "  Singing  im- 
parts to  children  something  of  the  enjoyment  of  heaven;  for  they 
have  not  yet  lost  any  of  their  rights  to  it." 

Men  also  find  in  singing  an  inexhaustible  fountain  of  the  noblest 
pleasure,*  which  no  one  is  forbidden  to  enjoy.  The  delights  of  this 
art  are  in  nowise  confined  to  the  saloons  of  the  rich  and  great ;  its 
pleasures  and  beauties  will  abide  in  the  most  lowly  room,  under  the 

*  "  The  most  J070US  of  joys,  mnsic."—Klop8tock. 

SINGING.  261 

humblest  roof,  if  the  occirpauts  only  know  how  to  introduce  them 

Singing  also  produces  an  artistic  transfer  of  the  consciousness,  not 
as  it  were  into  a  foreign  condition  of  life,  but  into  an  excitement  of  a 
sort  at  first  strange,  but  which  becomes  natural  through  the  influence 
of  the  singing.  Thus  a  cheerful  song  enlivens  the  sad  ;  a  spirited  one 
refreshes  the  weary;  and  a  devotional  one  gathers  together  the 
thoughts,  all  distracted  by  the  incessant  impulses  of  outward 
occupations,  and  elevates  them  to  God.  In  such  cases  as  these, 
there  obviously  takes  place  not  only  a  mere  transitory  pleasure, 
but  often  a  profound  and  permanent  influence  upon  the  whole  inner 

In  other  circumstances,  again,  no  stimulus,  no  excitement  of  the 
sensibilities  is  necessary  ;  the  heart  itself  is  "  full  of  a  thousand  feel- 
ings," and  they  overflow  in  song.  A  victorious  army  sings  a  Te 
Deum  ;  the  mournful  choir  laments  the  fallen  ;  a  rich  harvest  blessing 
opens  the  lips  in  joyful  hymns;  friends  departing  to  distant  lands 
mournfully  sing  a  departing  song;  a  Christian  congregation  joyously 
shouts  its  inspiriting  hosanna  to  the  Lord ;  an  anguished  and  stricken 

*  A  remarkable  instance  of  this  nature  is  related  in  Schubert's  "  History  of  the  Soul,"  of 
the  preacher  Kiihze  of  Berlin,  who  was  freed,  by  listening  to  a  devotional  song,  from  an  ag- 
onizing fear  of  an  apparently  necessary  operation  upon  his  eye  ;  a  result  which  also  had  such 
a  favorable  influence  upon  the  eye,  that  the  operation  was  found  unnecessary. 

"  And  I  can  testify,"  says  Luther,  "  which  also  experience  demonstrates,  that  after  the  holy 
word  of  God,  nothing  is  so  good,  and  so  highly  to  be  praised  and  famed,  as  music  ;  and  that 
for  the  reason  that  it  is  a  controller  of  all  the  movements  of  the  human  heart,  and  has  such  a 
power  over  it,  that  men  are  often  governed  and  overcome  by  it,  as  by  a  master." 

Acoustics,  so  far  as  I  know,  does  not  yet  account  for  the  fact  that  we  feel  pleasure  in  hear- 
ing chords,  and  displeasure  at  discords.  We  know  that  musical  tones  are  produced  by  regu- 
lar atmospheric  vibrations,  and  that  all  vibrations  of  aliquot  parts  chord.  If  two  or  more 
tones  sound  together,  either  the  atmospheric  waves  coincide  and  strengthen  each  other,  or 
they  obstruct  and  destroy  each  other.  These  promotions  or  obstructions  evidently  commu- 
nicate themselves  through  the  ear  to  the  nervous  system  and  the  mind,  in  one  case  in  a  man- 
ner promoting  their  natural  action,  and  therefore  pleasant;  in  the  other,  in  a  manner  ob- 
structing it,  and  therefore  unpleasant.  The  first  of  these  two  kinds  of  impressions  we  call  a 
consonance  or  chord,  the  latter  a  dissonance  or  discord.  By  the  use  of  both,  the  artist  com- 
municates to  us  the  joy  or  sorrow  of  his  soul,  in  an  immediate  manner  ;  and  by  the  solving 
of  dissonances,  which  concludes  a  contest  of  tones,  he  communicates  that  excitement  which, 
always  follows  the  conversion  of  grief  into  joy. 

But  more  than  this,  acoustics  can  not  at  present  tell  us.  Music  has  not  only  scientific  but 
psycnological  abysses  :  and  no  psychologist,  even  though  likewise  learned  in  art,  has  yet  been 
able  to  penetrate  them.  Bui  they  exist,  because  the  composer's  elevation  into  pure  feeling, 
into  the  feeling  of  the  harmony  of  his  own  inner  nature  with  the  world  of  sound,  exists.  "It 
is,"  says  Prof  Grassmann  of  Stettin,  in  his  excellent  treatise  on  ^'Acoustics,"  (Stettin,  1837,  p. 
25.)  "  the  joyful  or  sorrowful  emotion,  which  we  feel  within  ourselves  in  a  truly  physical  and 
real  manner  ;  and  agaui.  it  is  the  pulse  of  our  own  heart,  the  deepest  longing  of  our  breast,  which 
takes  full  possession  of  nature,  and  is  given  back  again  to  us  through  musical  tones ;  so  that 
we  may  feel  ourselves  to  be  no  longer  individualized,  but  sunk  again  within  the  depths  of  the 
universal  life.  This  most  secret  and  profound  emotion  within  us,  by  a  wonderful  sympathy, 
arouses  even  the  least  stimulable  portions  of  our  nature,  and  leads  us  into  joy  or  grief,  inso- 
much that  we  can  hear,  sounding  back  to  us,  the  most  secret  tremors  of  the  soul ;  as  if  nature 
were  calling  to  us,  '  I  understand  thy  profoundest  desires ;  1  partake  of  thy  pleasure  and  thy 
sorrow.'  " 

252  SINGING. 

heart  cries  out  of  the  depths,  in  lowly  penitence.  Song  is  the  lan- 
guage of  the  feelings ;  and  human  nature  is  under  a  profound  neces- 
sity to  speak  in  this  language.  This  is  proved,  not  only  by  the  story 
of  "John  the  Soap-boiler,"*  but  by  the  history  of  all  times  and  peo- 
ple, and  especially  by  that  of  Christianity.f 

Singing  has  a  great  influence  upon  the  Hfe  of  the  feelings.  There 
is  truly  such  a  power  as  the  Power  of  Song  J  From  the  battle-songs 
of  the  ancient  Germans,  therefore,  down  to  the  patriotic  songs  of  the 
present  day  ;  from  the  hymns  of  the  early  Christian  Church  to  the  chorals 
of  Luther,  we  find  it  employed  for  the  highest  and  holiest  purposes 
of  our  race ;  not  to  refer  to  the  analogous  place  which  it  filled  among 
the  nations  of  antiquity.  It  should  especially  be  remembered  that  it 
operates,  by  awakening  and  stimulating  the  religious  feelings,  upon 
the  will,  and  thus  becomes  a  means  of  elevating  the  moral  nature. 
Song  is  not  only  a  promoter  of  the  Beautiful,  but  through  it  of  the 


The  character  of  instruction  in  singing,  is  derived  from  the  charac- 
acter  of  the  art  itself.  As  this  has  for  its  object  to  produce  the  beau- 
tiful by  means  of  a  union  of  words  and  tones,  the  former  has  for  its 
object,  words,  tones,  and  the  union  of  them.  It  therefore  includes 
exercises  in 

1 .  Understanding  and  pronouncing  words,  which  comprehends  hear- 
ing, reading,  understanding ;  or  expression. 

2.  Understanding  and  producing  tones,  comprehending  melody, 
rhythm,  dynamics,  harmony  ;  or,  vocal  exercises. 

3.  Conjoining  tones  and  words,  which  is  the  union  of  the  two 
former,  in  singing,  proper;  or,  execution. 

The  exercises  in  words  are  the  same  for  singing  and  language. 

•  I  will  quote  one  similar  case  from  my  own  experience.  In  each  of  the  rooms  of  a  school, 
the  class  was  in  the  habit  of  beginning  their  daily  work  with  a  short  morning  song.  The 
mingling  of  different  tunes  and  modes  sounded  ill  without;  and  as  circumstances  did  not 
permit  all  the  classes  to  be  assembled  together  for  a  common  morning  devotional  exercise,  it 
was  decided  that  only  one  class  should  sing  at  a  time,  each  in  its  turn,  a  prayer  being  offered 
in  each  of  the  other  rooms.  But  after  a  short  time  all  the  pupils  petitioned  for  the  restora- 
tion of  the  old  custom,  alleging  that  it  was  impossible  for  them  to  begin  their  work  without 

t  "  When  Christianity  had  awakened  the  life  of  the  feelings,  and  had  supplied  it  with  the 
loftiest  ideals  of  existence,  humanity  could  find  only  in  music  a  sufficing  mode  of  expression, 
and  thus  was  gained  a  new  Christian  zxX."— ''Esthetics  nf  Music,''  by  Dr.  Hand,  1837. 

X  "  By  the  influence  which  music  exerts  upon  the  hearts  of  all,  it  operates  most  powerfully 
upon  the  character."— .K'ocAftr's  '■'Music  in  the  Church." 

§  Klonstock  said  to  Rouget  de  Lisle,  author  of  the  '■'■Marseilles  Hymn"  that  he  was  a  dan- 
gerous man  ;  for  that  he  had  killed  more  than  fifty  thousand  Germans.  What  then  might  be 
laid  of  Korner,  Arndt,  Scheukendorf,  and  others?    Henry  the  Lion's  motto  was 

"Fight  without  song 
Can  not  be  strong." 

SINGING.  253 

They  secure  for  the  pupil  a  store  of  imaginations  and  thoughts ;  and, 
as  has  been  observed,  they  traiu  the  understanding,  the  memory,  the 
fancy,  and  the  aesthetic  faculties. 

Exercises  in  tones  belong  properly  to  instruction  in  singing.  They 
give  a  knowledge  of  the  system  of  tones,  as  a  separate  department  of 
creation,  distinguished  by  an  abundance  of  phenomena  ;  they  develop 
the  acoustic  faculties,  without  whose  cultivation  no  education  in  har- 
mony is  possible;  and  as  has  been  already  observed,  they  train  the 
understanding,  the  memory,  the  aesthetic  faculties,  and  the  voice. 

The  exercises  in  singing,  to  repeat  the  observation,  have  a  pecu- 
Jiar  influence  in  enriching  and  elevating  the  emotional  life,  and  indi- 
rectly upon  the  determination  of  the  will  toward  what  is  good.  For 
it  may  here  be  observed,  that  the  sense  of  beauty,  as  it  becomes 
developed  in  any  one  direction,  becomes  also,  according  to  the  laws 
of  psychology,  easier  and  freer  of  development  in  other  directions ; 
in  this  case,  namely,  in  the  direction  of  what  is  morally  beautiful. 

Such  are  the  formal  and  the  substantial  educational  influences  of 
singing.  It  is  likewise  in  a  high  degree  adapted  to  assist  in  lead- 
ing the  child  toward  what  is  beautiful,  good  and  true ;  and  to  really 
accomplish  this,  is  its  purpose. 

It  is  for  this  purpose,  also,  that  it  is  so  important  for  the  common 
schools,  which  are  themselves  intended  to  serve  the  cause  of  the 
beautiful,  the  good  and  the  true.  It  may  even  be  said  to  be  abso- 
lutely indispensable  as  a  department  of  common  school  duty,  be- 
cause it  promotes  the  objects  of  all  the  rest,  in  a  manner  not  other- 
wise to  be  supplied.* 

The  consideration  of  some  of  the  special  influences  of  singing  as 
a  duty,  will  only  confirm  their  views  of  its  value.  It  is  an  excellent 
means  of  sharpening  the  powers  of  observation,  and  of  accustoming 
the  pupil  to  acting  promptly  as  directed  by  a  word,  a  nod,  a  look. 
It  thus  counteracts  both  the  indolent  carelessness  and  indifference  of 
some,  and  the  precipitate  hasty  ways  of  others.  In  short,  it  is  of  great 
value  in  a  gymnastic  and  disciplinary  point  of  view. 

In  most  other  studies,  each  single  pupil  stands  by  himself  and  acts 
for  himself;  or  at  least  a  community  of  action  is  not  indispensable. 
But  the  study  of  singing  puts  a  close  and  strict  constraint  upon  all 
the  class  together,  both  in  an  external  and  internal  sense.f 

*"  Music,  by  its  rhythm  and  time,  imbues  the  feelings  with  a  regulated  harmony.  So 
highly  did  the  Greeks  value  music,  and  in  so  many  ways  did  they  practice  it,  that  the  ex- 
pression a  •'  musical  man"  was  equivalent  to  ours  of  a  "  cultivated  man."  They  therefore  be- 
stowed the  extremest  care  upon  this  study,  which  was  designed  to  unite  in  a  beautiful  habi- 
tude, readiness,  openness,  circumspection,  and  a  most  powerful  mental  discipline.  '■'■  Peda- 
gogy as  a  system,"  (Die  P'ddagogik  cUs  System,)  by  Dr.  Karl  Rosenkranz.  184S. 

t  "  A  choir  is  like  an  association  of  brothers.  It  opens  the  heart ;  and  in  the  streams  of 
BOQg  they  feel  themselves  to  have  but  one  soul  and  one  heart."— ZTerrfer. 

254  SINOING. 

And  lastly  ;  it  may  be  observed,  that  good  instruction  in  singing, 
by  developing  the  pupil's  faculties  for  rhythm,  accent,  and  melody  in 
speaking,  renders  very  valuable  assistance  to  the  increasing  efforts  at 
present  being  made  to  elevate  the  style  of  reading  above  the  repul- 
sive sing-song  practiced  in  so  many  of  the  ancient  schools. 

In  concluding  this  statement  of  the  importance  and  necessity  of 
teaching  singing  in  the  common  schools,  I  may  not  inappropriately 
quote  the  following  authoritative  opinions : 

Music  is  a  means  of  culture  so  healthful  for  sense  and  soul,  so  powerfully  pro- 
motive of  virtue  and  godliness,  that  we  are  bound  to  train  our  youth  in  it  with  con- 
scientiousness aiid  dignity,  zeal  and  perseverance.  Nageli. 

Music  may  be  considered  a  department  of  man's  intellectual  life,  which  he  can 
not  omit  without  restricting  and  weakening  himself.  It  is  one  of  those  intellectual 
endowments  by  means  of  which  he  is  to  become  consefous  of,  and  joyful  in  the 
world,  himself,  and  his  mental  life.  Marr. 

.  Even  if  the  young  are  unable  to  attain  to  any  important  grade  of  artistic  power, 
music  deserves,  on  account  of  its  educational  value,  as  possessed  of  a  peculiar 
power  of  influencing  the  mind  and  the  heart,  one  of  the  highest  places  as  a 
department  of  study.  Natorp. 

III.      application   of   the    general   principles   of   instruction    in   SINGINO. 

A.     Two  Courses;  their  relation. 
The  instruction  in  singing  should  be  both  formal  (disciplinary)  and 
material  (eflBcient  in  the  study  itself.)     These  two  purposes  require : 

1.  A  series  of  elementary  exercises;  an  elementary  course. 

2.  Practice  in  singing  songs,  &c. ;  a  singing  course. 

The  former  is  to  give  the  pupil  a  knowledge  of  the  necessary  prin- 
ciples, and  a  mastery  of  them  ;  and  the  latter,  to  train  him  in  expres- 
sion and  feeling.  We  may  lay  down,  therefore,  with  a  view  to  secure 
these  objects,  the  following  principles  :        . 

The  elementary  course  should 

1.  Continue  during  the  whole  period  of  school  attendance. 

2.  Include  all  the  elementary  tones. 

3.  Proceed  by  an  unbroken  progression. 
And  the  singing  course  should 

1.  Also  last  during  the  whole  school  period. 

2.  Be  related  to  the  whole  life  of  the  child,  both  within  and  with- 
out the  school. 

3.  Include  nothing  which  is  not  significant  and  attractive. 

We  shall  hereafter  recur  to  these  principles  and  add  to  them.  The 
present  purpose  is,  to  inquire  what  should  be  the  relation  of  these 
two  courses  to  each  other  within  the  school  ? 

Should  the  elementary  course  precede  the  other  ?  In  this  case,  the 
children  would  during  a  certain  time  have  only  preparatory  exercises, 
without  singing ;  and  for  a  long  period  together ;  for  the  elementary 
course,  to  comply  with  the  second  and  third  principles  just  laid  down 



respectinir  it,  could  not  be  concluded  for  weeks  and  months ;  which 
would  violate  the  fii'Bt  principle  relating  to  the  singing  course,  and 
also  the  first  relative  to  the  elementary  course. 

We  are  thus  naturally  led  to  the  idea  of  connecting  both  courses. 
The  most  suitable  way  of  accomplishing  this,- seems  to  be,  to  apply 
in  the  singing  course,  the  principles  learned  in  the  elementary  course. 
This  however,  sometimes  leads  to  a  violation  of  the  principles  relating 
to  both  courses.  It  is  evidently  impossible,  for  instance,  to  find  songs 
which  shall  correspond  with  all  the  steps  of  the  long  unbroken  series 
of  exercises,  which  shall  be  satisfactory  in  point  of  beauty,  and  shall 
bear  upon  all  the  various  aspects  of  the  child's  life.* 

There  is  therefore  no  mode  left,  except  to  divide  what  can  not  be 
connected;  to  conduct  the  singing  course  independently,  parallel 
with  the  elementary  course.  We  must  be  able  to  sing,  at  Christmas, 
"  Glory  to  God  in  the  Highest !"  and  on  the  king's  birthday,  "  God 
save  the  King,"  without  having  to  inquire  whether  in  either  of  them 
there  has  not  been  used  some  progression  or  measure  which  had  not 
been  practiced.  If  some  such  freedom  is  not  taken,  we  shall  never 
see  the  fruits  ripen  which  have  been  for  thirty  years  looked  for  from 
the  instruction  in  singing. 

But,  it  may  be  asked.  How  then  shall  the  children  be  taught  to 
sing  ?  I  answer,  in  that  manner  which  is  adapted  to  the  grade  of 
development  of  their  musical  powers.  Those  who  can  only  sing  by 
ear,  should  sing  so ;  and  he  who  can  do  more,  should  do  more ; 
whether  he  can  only  follow  in  a  general  manner  the  outline  of  what 
the  notes  set  before  him,  or  whether  he  can  sing  strictly  and 
surely  the  notes  as  they  stand.  The  singing  course  requires  the  ap- 
plication of  all  that  was  learned  in  the  elementary  course,  but  in  se- 
lecting songs  we  should  not  depend  entirely  upon  the  former.  The 
pupils  should  in  good  season  receive  the  notes,  with  a  brief  general 
explanation.  Then  each  of  them  should  make  the  best  he  can  of 
them.  Such  is  both  the  ancient  and  modern  practice  of  almost  all 
instructors  in  singing  in  chorus,  both  for  small  and  large  classes. 

But,  it  may  be  further  inquired,  is  not  this  too  mechanical  a  prac- 
tice ?  Does  not  such  a  course  almost  altogether  prevent  singing  with 
a  due  feeling  of  the  expression  ? 

*  At  the  Martin's  Foundation  in  Erfurt,  as  appears  by  the  Rhenish  "Gaze/Ze,"  (Rheinische 
Blatter,)  Vol.  VI.,  No.  3,  p.  273,  all  the  songs  are  learned  by  rote,  without  notes;  that  is  to 
say,  without  any  artistic  and  methodical  gradation  in  their  order.  It  is  stated  a  little  further 
on  (p.  286.)  that  the  director  of  that  institution  often  spends  as  much  as  a  fortnight  in  search- 
ing and  referring,  and  years  in  corresponding,  to  find  a  suitable  song  or  melody,  "  because  he 
subordinates  the  religious  instruction  entirely  to  that  in  singing;"  and  "rejects  all  songs 
which  are  not  good  in  text  and  melody,  in  every  particular."  I  would  inquire  how  long  his 
researches  and  his  correspondence  would  be,  if  he  should  have  reference,  in  addition,  to  any- 
thing like  systematic  progress 7 

256  SINGING. 

To  this  I  may  reply : 

The  problem  which  the  child  must  solve  in  order  to  sing  with 
proper  expression,  is  usually  stated  thus :  To  be  able  to  sing  a  choral 
or  simple  air  from  the  notes  without  the  aid  of  the  teacher.  But  do 
you  know  what  is  required  for  this  ?  This  problem,  in  the  first  place, 
is  one  in  which  many  persons  never  learn  to  solve ;  because  it  has 
not  pleased  God  to  endow  them  with  the  requisite  power  of  appre- 
hending the  tones  as  written.*  Neither,  again,  do  even  remarkably 
endowed  pupils  often  solve  it  before  their  eleventh  or  twelfth  year, 
howQver  early  their  instruction  is  begun,  however  carefully  and  skill- 
fully con<lucted.  And  only  those  children  solve  it  at  once,  who 
possess  very  distinguished  musical  powers ;  such  who  open  the  whole 
world  of  musical  sounds  to  themselves  as  it  were  with  one  magical 

And  do  not  be  misled  if  you  hear  of,  or  even  think  you  have  found, 
one  or  another  school  where  the  pupils  have  learned  in  a  very  short 
time  to  sing  from  notes  or  figures.  Upon  a  close  examination  you 
will  always  find  one  or  the  other  of  the  following  cases  true. 

Either  the  airs  sung  consist  of  short  phrases  scarcely  including  any 
notes  except  the  first,  third,  fifth  and  eighth,  and  unsatisfactory  and 
crippled,  such  as  the  following: 

-A-^l \ 1 

1 \ 1 , 

1       1 

J^       4*7                1 

1                         .9 

;             1 

MM    -4        ifll 

^     w 

J             1 

^■— ' 


*          ^ 


How  bright  -  \j    glows    the  mom  -  ing      re^ 

or,  the  pupils  do  nothing  except  to  keep  time ;  that  is,  the)  follow 
after  a  certain  feeling  of  the  succession  of  the  tones,  whiie  the  teach- 
er, in  the  pride  of  his  heart,  thinks  they  are  reading  the  notes ;  or, 
some  more  capable  children  are  acting  as  choristers  to  the  rest,  who 
sing  after  them  unintelligently,  by  ear. 

But  again,  what  does  "  mechanical"  mean  ?     Where  does  it  begin, 

*The  result  of  my  observations  upon  more  than  a  thousand  pupils  of  the  most  various 

ages  and  grades  of  development,  is  as  follows : 

Memory  of  tones,  is  universal. 

A  certain  sense  of  tones,  without  any  clear  intuition  of  tones,  is  quite  frequent. 

Comprehension  of  tone,  and  certainty  in  it,  quite  rare. 

And  these  conclusions  are  coptirmed  by  the  following  extract  from  the  •'  Rhenish  Gazette,^* 
(Vol.  X  ,  No.  3,)  of  an  article  on  instruction  in  singing,  by  Karow  :  "For  singing,  as  well  as 
for  music  generally,  certain  natural  endowments  are  necessary,  and  one  destitute  of  these, 
whatever  his  efforts,  will  not  learn  to  sing.  We  may  compute  that,  of  the  singing  classes  in  the 
schools,  the  following  proportions  will  be  found;  of  eighty  children,  ten  will  become  very 
skillful  and  competent  singers;  twenty  others,  not  distinguished,  but  still  competent;  five 
and  twenty  others,  will  sing  well  enough  with  the  rest,  but  not  in  solo,  as  they  will  depend 
upon  the  rest ;  twenty  others  will  not  trouble  themselves  with  the  notes,  but  will  sing  only  by 
ear  ;  and  the  remaining  five  will  be  unable  to  sing,  being  defective  in  ear  or  voice,  or  both." 

SINGING.  257 

and  where  does  it  end  ?  A,  sings  an  air  wholly  by  ear,  while  B  sings 
it  by  the  notes,  by  his  comprehension  of  the  intervals  of  the  octave. 
A,  it  may  be  said,  learns  mechanically.  B,  however,  although  in  a 
higher,  grade,  also  learns  mechanically.  C,  again,  who  feels  the 
meaning  of  all  the  intervals,  sings  by  note  accurately  without  de- 
pending merely  upon  a  knowledge  of  the  scale,  but  does  not  under- 
stand w^hat  are  the  harmonies  at  the  base  of  the  melody  : — he  also  sings 
mechanically.  D,  who  sings  also  without  depending  upon  mere 
knowledge  of  the  scale,  knows  these  harmonies,  but  not  the  laws  of 
their  connection  : — he  sings  mechanically  too.  Lastly  comes  E ; 
whose  attainments  are  equal  to  theirs  and  who  knows  the  last  item 
also,  but  has  no  idea  of  the  mathematical  basis  of  the  system  of 
musical  tones  ; — he  is  a  mechanical  singer  too  !  The  truth  is  simply 
this  ; — children  will,  and  ought  to,  and  must  learn  songs  all  the  time  ; 
joyous,  powerful,  living  songs.  And  what  can  be  the  harm,  if  they 
only  sing  them  by  rote,  if  they  can  not  sing  by  a  knowledge  of  the 
scale ;  or  by  that  knowledge  if  they  have  it,  if  they  have  not  attained 
to  the  intuition  of  the  melodic  interval  ?  Each  one  of  our  faculties  is 
from  God,  the  inferior  as  well  as  the  higher.  Therefore  watch  over 
each  and  make  it  useful  in  its  own  time,  and  accomplish  some  good 
thing  with  it ! 

B.     Contents  and  Management  of  the  two  Courses  considered^  further. 

I.     Generally  :  and 

a.  Notation.  To  about  the  end  of  the  eighth  year  the  children 
should  study  without  making  use  of  written  notes.  After  that  time, 
however,  they  should  always  be  used.  This  delay  in  using  them 
follows  from  the  principles  of  proceeding  from  the  simple  to  the 
complex,  and  from  the  known  to  the  unknown. 

It  is  however  necessary  both  for  formal  and  substantial  reasons, 
that  written  music  be.  invariably  taught.  For  however  little  the 
pupil  may  know  of  singing  by  note,  his  execution  will  always  be 
freer  in  character  then  if  he  has  learned  exclusively  by  rote.  But 
the  ver^  great  majority  of  teachers  of  singing  unite  in  testifying 
that  under  all  circumstances,  the  use  of  the  notes  is  an  important 
aid  in  all  practice  and  repetition.  And  if  others  maintain  from 
their  experience  the  opposite,  and  perhaps  even  say  that  the  notes 
are  a  hindrance,  they  only  prove  that  however  interested  they  may 
be  in  singing,  they  do  not  know  how  to  use  the  written  notes. 

In  teaching  singing,  we  should  distinguish  two  principal  stages ; 
singing  by  ear,  and  singing  by  note. 

The  instruction  should  be  by  means  of  actual  vision.  The  repre- 
sentation of  sounds  by  notes  is  the  method  most  obvious  to  the  eye, 

17    • 



and  therefore  nncondltionally  to  be  preferred.     Compare  the  following 
two  modes  of  writing  an  air : 



7    1 


1      7 



Those  exceptionally  able  pupils  who  are  now  and  then  found  in 
every  school,  can,  according  to  all  experience,  sing  with  equal  ease 
from  notes  and  figures.  But  it  is  quite  otherwise  with  all  the  rest. 
Whatever  may  be  &aid  to  the  contrary,  they  find  the  notes  much 
the  easiest;  that  is,  unless  they  are  drilled  in  a  quantity  of  unmeaning 
rhythmic  and  melodic  phrases,  instead  of  real  airs,  that  present  a  variety 
of  rhythms  and  intervals.  With  most  children,  eitlier  the  musical 
faculty  gradually  develops  to  the  point  where  they  can  sing  an  air 
with  an  entire  understanding  of  it,  or  that  degree  of  attainment  is 
altogether  wanting.  They  are  thus,  until  their  fourteenth  year,  if 
not  permanently,  left  to  practice  singing  by  note,  in  such  a  way  that 
they  guide  themselves,  in  general,  by  the  form  and  location  of  the 
notes,  but  where  they  bring  out  each  single  note  rather  by  a  sort  of 
feeling  of  what  ought  to  follow  the  preceding  one,  and  by  means  of  a 
knowledge  of  the  scale,  than  by  any  real  and  clear  knowledge  of 
melody  or  the  air  itself.  As  long,  therefore,  as  a  pupil  is  not  able  of 
himself  to  execute  each  note  of  a  written  melody,  exactly  as  it  ought 
to  sound,  so  long  he  has  nothing  to  do  with  figures,  and  would  get 
none  except  utterly  indeterminate  information  from  them.  But  the 
method  by  notes  always  gives  him  some  assistance;  it  represents  to 
him  the  relations  of  the  tones,  and  he  has  only  to  look  at  the  notes, 
to  find  at  least  a  leading  sketch  of  the  melody.  And  this  material 
representation  is  of  great  use  in  retaining  the  melody.  As  the  eye 
seizes  upon  the  groups  of  notes,  the  memory  connects  "the  tones  with 
them ;  and  it  often  needs  but  one  glance  at  the  notes  to  recall  whole 
melodies  which  have  been  foro^otten.  But  the  fio-ures  afford  no  such 
assistance.  One  row  of  figures  looks  just  like  another ;  and  the  pupil 
must  go  one  by  one  through  the  whole  series,  and  pick  out  each  note, 
before  he  can  tell,  what  the  melody  is.     Therefore,  no  figures. 

•The  notes  should  be  learned  in  the  key  of  G,  not  in  that  of  C, 
which  is  in  scarcely  any  collection  that  most  used. 

6.  With  respect  to  singing. 

Whatever  is  learned  by  children  should  be  learned  as  thoroughly 

SINGING.  259 

as  possible;  or  if  that  has  not  been  the  case,  should  at  once  be  made 
80.  What  is  defective  neither  educates  in  form  nor  in  substance; 
and  indeed  in  the  former  sense  it  is  positively  injurious.  One  third 
sung  too  flat  brings  after  it  twenty  other  flat  thirds ;  and  passing 
over  one  pause  endangers  the  time  at  every  other  pause ;  <fec. 

In  every  stage  must  be  unconditionally  required  purity  of  intona- 
tion, correctness  of  rhythmic  representation,  observance  of  the  dy- 
namic marks,  clearness  of  enunciation.  Other  things  must  receive  a 
proper  relative  shave  of  attention. 

This  perfection  in  what  the  children  learn  must  especially  be  re- 
quired in  three  respects;  Firstly,  the  problems,  to  be  solved  must 
always  be  suitable  to  the  pupil's  grade  of  attainment ;  the  course  of 
instruction  must  be  one  of  unbroken  progression.  This  principle  is 
universally  known  and  yet  often  quite  disregarded.  In  many  schools, 
music  too  difficult  is  selected  for  practice;  and  the  unavoidable  result 
is  a  lamentable  disfigurement  of  musical  works  perhaps  the  noblest 
of  their  kind.  What  is  the  occasion  of  such  errors  ?  Often  vanity  ; 
often  ignorance  of  music,  not  always  of  an  excusable  kind. 

Secondly;  the  teacher  must  be  competent  to  give  in